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Prepossession of the Turks in favour of their own Military Character. Hassan Ali

appointed Grand Vizier. His Character. Situation of the Ottoman Empire. Conduct of Selim. Treaty between the Porte and the King of Prussia. Continued Preparations for War between the Porte on the one Part, and the Russians and Austrians on the other. Death and Character of the Emperor Joseph. Succeeded by his Brother Leopold. Character and Conduct of Leopold on the Commencement of his Reign. His arduous Situation internal and external. Discontents and Disturbances in Hungary, the Milanese, and Tuscany, and Insurrection and Revolt of the Netherlands. Political State of Europe. Sextuple Alliance in opposition to the Confederation between Austria and Russia. Hostility and Animosity between the Courts of Berlin and Vienna ;-yet both these Powers inclined to Peace. A Congress for that Purpose proposed by Leopold. State and position of the Austrian and Prussian Armies. Eugerness of the Divan for a Continuation of the War. Progress of the Austrian Arms, m the Side of Turkey. Cessation of Hostilities and Armistice between the Turks and Austrians. Death and Character of Field Marshal Laudhon. Conferences and Convention at Reichenbach for the Purpose of a Pacification between Austria and Turkey, and for a Restoration of the Netherlands to the Dominion of Austriu. Prudent Conduct of Leopold, with regard to the Hungarians. Dissentions, Contests, and State of Parties in Hungary. Leopold elected King of the Romans, and crowned Emperor. Grants, as by free-will, to the Hungarians, what he had refused to their importunate Solicitations. Settlement of his Family, and Intermarriages. Various Acts of his Imperial Majesty's prudent Condescension and Favour. Peace concluded between the Court of Vienna und the Ottoman Porte at Sistovia.

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Progress of the Spirit of Freedom. Modified by the different Characters of Nations.

Singular Combination of a Spirit of Liberty with Aristocratical Pride and Religious Bigotry. Political Constitution of the Austrian Netherlands. Analogous to that of England. Arbitrary Government of the Emperor. Discontents of the People.


The reader is requested to observe, that two distinct series of pages have been followed in the present Volume, which commence respectively at the portions allotted to the “History of Europe,” and the “Chronicle."


Suppression of Monasteries. Subversion of the Constitution. Imprisonments and

Emigrations. Emigrants from Brabant assemble at Breda. Sequestration of all

the Abbeys of Brabant. Efforts for the Prevention of Insurrection. Conspiracy

against the Austrian Government discovered. Attempt to check Emigration in

vuin. Declaration of the States of Brabant from Breda. Letter from the Cardinal

Archbishop of Malines to the Pope respecting the Conduct of the Emperor, and

State of the Country. Insurrections. Valour and Success of the Insurgents.

Engagement at Turnhout und at_Tirlemont. Action between the Austrians and

Patriots in the open Field. The Patriots become Masters of the Town and Citadel

of Ghent. Relaxation of Discipline in the Austriun Armies. Advantages arising

to the Patriots from the Reduction of Ghent. The Emperor endeavours to

reconcile the Provinces to his Government by fair Promises. Daring Attempt of a

Band of Patriots in the Capital of Brabant. Succeeds. The Austrians driven out

of Brussels. Rejoicings at Brussels. The States assume the Reins of Government.

Confederation between the States of Brabunt and those of Flanders. Acceded

to by all the other Provinces, except Limbourg. The United Belgic States

provide for their Security, by raising an Army. The Austrian Netherlands at

this Time the principal Object of Political Attention. Reflections on the usual

State of weaker, when united to stronger States. Splendid Hopes from the

Emancipation of the Provinces from the Yoke of Austria.


Miserable Effects of Newfungled and Democratical Principles. Patriotic Assembly

instituted at Brussels. Their Reasonings and Claims. Political Constitution of

the Provinces of the Netherlands. The Principles and Pretensions of the Patriotic

Assembly offensive to the Nobility and Clergy. Means employed by these Orders

for quashing the Doctrines of the Democrats. Effects of these. State of Parties.

Preponderating. Influence of the Clergy. Measures taken by the Nobility for the

Recovery of their Popularity. Without any considerable Effect. Popular Discon-

tents rise to a Pitch of Restlessness and Commotion. Troops employed for the Preserva-

tion of the Peace. Jealousies between the ruling Powers and the Leaders of the Army.

General Vandermersch arrests Deputies sent with Orders to the Army from the Con-

gress. Declared Generalissimo by the Officers of the Army. Other Encrouchments

in the Power of Congress. Vandermersch suddenly and shamefully abandoned by the

Army. Imprisoned in the Citadel of Antwerp. Charges brought against him. Duke

of Ursel persecuted by Congress. The Congress becomes unpopular and odious to the

Bulk of the People. Imprisonment of Vandermersch resented by his Countrymen the

People of Flanders. Declining State of the new Government. Expectations from

the Accession of Leopold II. to the Austrian Dominions. Almost, though not entirely

disappointed. Memorial of Leopold to the Inhabitants of the Netherlands. Criticisms

on that Piece. Conduct of Leopold vindicated. Charucter of Sovereign Princes in

general. The Firmness of Leopold revives a Party in his Favour. Quick Increase

of the Loyalists, in both Numbers and Courage. Arguments in Favour of a Reunion

with the House of Austria, and of Hereditary Monarchy in general. Letter to Con-

gress from the King of Prussia. Blind Ambition, Obstinacy, and Rashness of Con.

gress. Notification to Congress of the Terms of Reconciliation between his Imperial

Majesty and the Belgic Nation. Consented to by the three allied and mediating

Powers. Strange Obstinacy of Congress. A Degree of Reunion among the discor-

dant Parties in the Netherlands brought about by a common Hatred of the Austrian

Government. Hustilities renewed with great Animosity. Two of the Provinces that

remained in Obedience to the Austrians. A great Resource to the Austrians. Rapid

Growth of Ambition. Character of the Brabanters. Wild Schemes of Conquest.

Repulse of the Brabanters from Limbourg. Various Encounters

. A large Austrian

Army marches against the Low Countries. Attempts of Congress to rouze the Nation


Peace on the Ground of the Status quo, rejected by the Empress of Russia. Ambitious

Designs of the Empress, opposed by Prussia and Great Britain. Heroic Courage of

the King of Sweden, Means for gaining over the Nution at large to his Views, and

raising the necessary Supplies for the War. The King puts himself at the Head of

his Forces, and enters Russian Savolax. His Successes. Ten Thousand Russians

defeated by Three Thousand Swedes at Carnakoski. Reduction of the Russian Fort

Valkiala. Other Advantages. The King of Sweden at the Head of his Galleys,

takes or destroys the Russian Galley-Fleet, in the Harbour of Frederickshum. En-

gagements between the Swedish Fleet, under the Duke of Sudermania, and the Russian

Fleet. The Swedes prepare to make an Attack on the Town and Harbour of Wybourg.

Perilous Situation of the Swedes. Escape with immense Loss to Sweaborg. Defeat

of the Russian Fleet, under the Prince of Nassau, by the Swedish Fleet, under the

Command of the King. Inclination to Peace on the Part of Russia and Sweden.

Peace between these Powers concluded. The King of Sweden prepares to attack the

ruli, g Powers, and to restore the Monarchy of France. Meeting at Pilnitz. This

the Centre of the Affairs of Europe, 1791. Real Object of the Meeting at Pilnila.

Substance of a Circular Letter from the Emperor Leopold to the Sovereign Powers.

Russia and Sweden the first Powers that openly declared an Intention to succour the

Royal Family of France. Speech of Gustavus to the Swedish Diet. Reflections on the

Importance of Hereditary Wealth and Honours in a State. These a Barrier against

Monarchical Encroachments, on the one Hand, and the Levity of the People on the other.

Plan of the King of Sweden for a Descent on France. Discouraged by the Emperor,

but persevered in by the King. Assassination, Illness, Death, and Character of the

King of Sweden.



Erultation of the French at the Confederation. Satisfaction of the Assembly at the Ap-

plause it meets with from the Popular Clubs and Societies in England. Suspicions

occasioned in France by the English Armaments against Spain. Jealousy entertained

against the Emperor. Deliberations in the Assembly concerning an Alliance with

Spain. Domestic Confusions. Continuation of Disturbances in the Colonies. Seve-

ral Regulations for the Internal Government of the Kingdom. Disorders in the Navy.

Discontents in the Army. Motion in the Assembly by M. Duval. Its Con

sequences. Critical Situation of the King. Designs imputed to the Heads of the Po-

pular Party. Charges against the Duke of Orleans and M. Mirabeau. Both acquite

ted. Coalition of the Parliaments with the Noblesse against the Assembly. Resist-

ance of the Parliament of Toulouse. Compelled to submit. Zeal of the Parisians

for the New Constitution. Confirmation of the Decrees relating to the Civic

Oath. Refractory dispositions of the Noblesse. Pecuniary Embarrassments.

Fabrication of Assignats. Researches into the Civil and Religious Establishments

in France. Number of Seminaries and Convents belonging to the English Roman

Catholics in that Kingdom. Discovery of the Profusions under the late Government.

Efforts of the Court Party to procure a Junction with Spain against England. De-

bility of that Party. Decrees in favour of the Descendants of French Protestant Refu-

gees in Foreign Parts. Resolute Behaviour of the Adherents to the Noblesse and

Clergy. Conspiracy at Lyons. Anxiety of the Court of Rome at the Transactions in

France. Decree of the Assembly concerning Episcopal Elections. Opposition of the

Court Clergy to this and other Decrees. Address of the University of Paris to the

Assembly, Attachment of the French in Foreign Countries to the New Constitution.

Zealous Perseverance of its Enemies in opposing it. Duel between M. Lameth and

M. Castries. Other Quarrels and violent Proceedings. Reforms in the Adminis-

tration of Justice. Public Revenues before and since the Revolution. Satisfaction

of the Popular Party at the present Situation of Affairs.



Dissatisfaction of the European Princes at the Proceedings of the Assembly. Com.

plaints of the German Princes. Letter from the Emperor to the King of France, An

Augmentation of the French Army voted by the Assembly. Affairs of the King's Aunts.


Tumult at Vincennes. Insurrection in Britanny. The King limited to the Nominae

tion of Six Ministers. Apprehensions of Hostile Intentions to France from the Em-

peror and the other Absolute Sovereigns in Europe. The Assembly demands an Er-

planation of his Conduct, and orders Preparations to face its Enemies. Zeal of the

Revolutionists for the Public Service. Consequences of the Decree for the Civic Dath.

Ecclesiastical Affairs. M. Mirabeau President of the Assembly. His Address to

the Deputation from the Quakers. Right of Primogeniture abolished. Sequestration.

Dissatisfaction of the Pope at the New Arrangement of Church Affairs in France.

Death of Mirabeau. Progress of the Assignats. Confidence of the Assembly in their

Strength and Resources. Suspicions of the King's Designs. His Complaint of ill

Treatment, and Declaration to the Public. Conduct of M. la Fayette to the Na.

tional Guards. Menaces of the German Princes. Altercations with the Pope. En-

mity of the Spanish Court to the Revolutionists. Suppression of the Duties on Pro-

visions brought into Paris. Progress of the Assignats. Scarcity of Cash. Appre-

hensions from the Emigrants and Foreign Powers. Message of the Assembly to the

Prince of Condé. Claims of the German Princes taken into Consideration. Decrees

against the Authority of the Pope. Various Decrees for the Security of the Assembly

and the Constitutional Governinent of the Nation. Increasing Popularity of the As-

sembly. Discontents of the People in Spain at the Government. Progress of the

Spirit of Liberty in various Countries of Europe. Forwarded by the Erertions of the

French. They become odious to Foreign Princes on that Account. Political Opin-

ions current at this Period. Hopes and Projects of the Enemies of the Revolution.

The King's Flight from Paris, and Recapture. Circumstances attending that Event.

Conduct of the Assembly on this Occasion. Declarations of the King and Queen.

Royal Manifesto. Assembly's Reply.



M. Bouille's Letter to the Assembly. Commissioners sent to inspect the Frontier.

Violent Feuds in Paris. State of the Public Mind at this Juncture in France, and

in other countries. Foreign Princes deeply interested in the King of France's Situ.

ation. Apprehensions entertained by the Emperor and other Sovereigns. Interference

of the King of Spain in Behalf of the King of France. Slighted by the Assembly

State of Parties at Paris. Progress of Republican Principles in France. Charges

against the Royal Party. Conduct of the Assembly. Ill Consequences of the King's

Flight to the Royal Cause, and to his Adherents. Deliberations in the Assembly

on the Constitutional Code. Decrees against the Emigrants. Insurrection of the

Republican Party quelled. Inviolability of the King's Person confirmed. Threats

of the German Princes. Rumours of a formidable Combination against France.

French Preparations for Defence. Various Orders of Knighthood abolished. Sig-

nature of former Titles prohibited. Decree for appointing a Governor to the King's

Son. Expectations of the Popular Party from the Publication of the Constitutional

Code. Effects produced by the French Revolution in various parts of Europe. Con-

stitutional Code completed. Endeavours to divide the Assembly into different Houses,

after the Model of the English Parliament. Unsuccessful. Respective Arguments

adduced by the Supporters of the Royal Prerogatives, and by their Opponents. Ideas

entertained by the violent Republicans, and by the Partizans of the old Government,

Character and Conduct of the Abbé Maury. Ecclesiastical Matters. Honours paid

to the Memory and the Remains of Voltaire and Rousseau. Scarcity of Specie' and

Depreciation of Paper Money. French Princes and Emigrants. Plan for the

Deliverance of the King-Fails. Divisions in the Assembly. Various Decrees


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