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(2) Fifty-six thousand four hundred and fifty dollars decrease by reason of the retirement of employees whose places will not be filled, including differences in salaries of retired employees and present incumbents.
(3) Four hundred and fifty-five thousand dollars reduction on account of continuation of legislative furlough.
WORK UNDER THIS APPROPRIATION
The purpose of the meat inspection service is to eliminate and dispose of carcasses and meat food products found to be diseased, unwholesome, or otherwise unfit for human food; to see that meat and meat food products for human consumption are prepared in a cleanly manner; to guard against the use of harmful dyes, chemicals, and other deleterious substances; to prevent the use of false or misleading names or statements on labels; and to supervise the interstate transportation, exportation, and importation of meat and meat food products. Inspection was maintained at the packing centers on June 30, 1932, at 745 establishments in 257 cities and towns.
Mr. BUCHANAN. Suppose you give us a report now on this.
Doctor MOHLER. The results obtained in the meat inspection service during the fiscal year 1932 included a proficient examination as to the health of about seventy-seven and one-quarter million animals and expert inspection extending throughout all phases of converting these animals into meat and meat food products at a cost of 7.2 cents for each animal slaughtered. The personnel consisted of 2,556 inspectors and experts in sanitation and in the handling and inspection of meats and the ingredients and equipment used in the preparation of meat and meat food products. This service was conducted in 799 establishments engaged in interstate and foreign commerce in 269 cities and towns throughout the country, where more than 77,200,000 food animals were inspected alive and also at the time of slaughter. Through these inspections over 256,000 animals and carcasses, together with 964,276 parts of carcasses were condemned on account of 54 diseases or other conditions and were removed from the food supply.
Following the initial inspections of the animals and their carcasses, reinspections were conducted throughout all of the various processes of preparing, curing, canning, and packing to insure sanitary conditions, equipment, and methods, and for the detection of products which had become unfit subsequent to previous inspection. Unfit meat and products were condemned and destroyed for food purposes, and those passed for food were designated by officially approved marks and labels. The total reinspections were represented by more than 8,289,880,000 pounds of product, and upon these reinspections more than 6,086,000 pounds were condemned and destroyed on account of being tainted, sour, rancid, or otherwise unwholesome.
The laboratory work constituted a very important factor in the protection of health and prevention of false labeling. This work at 7 separate laboratories covered the examination and analyses of more than 44,000 samples of meat and products, water supplies, salts, spices, and other ingredients, for the detection and exclusion of unwholesome substances. Other important activities of the service include the supervision of the destruction of condemned animals and meat; the limitation of water and cereal in sausage to prevent adulteration; the cooking, refrigerating, or curing of pork to destroy trichinæ which can not be discerned by any practical method of inspection; the pasteurization of dairy products used in the preparation of oleomargarine to eliminate dangerous organisms; the approval of many thousands of master labels to insure that no false name or statement appears on any meat or container; and the supervision of meat transportation throughout the devious channels of commerce as contemplated by law.
Special reinspections were made of 67,147,840 pounds of meat for the Navy and other government organizations, 1,531,875 pounds of which were rejected.
A total of over 793,347,000 pounds of meat and meat food products was certified for export. Some 30,938,000 pounds of foreign meat were inspected and passed for entry into the United States and 156,740 pounds were condemned and destroyed or refused entry because there was insufficient evidence of wholesomeness. The service covered about 70 per cent of the meat and meat food products produced in this country at a cost of 1 cent for each 22 pounds of dressed meat and lard produced.
Mr. BUCHANAN. How much local meat was condemned?
Mr. BUCHANAN. Yes; I mean domestic meat condemned by the inspectors. You condemned some meat?
Doctor MOHLER. We condemned 256,000 carcasses and almost a million parts of carcasses out of 77,000,000 animals inspected.
ERADICATION OF FOOT-AND-MOUTH AND OTHER CONTAGIOUS DISEASES
Mr. BUCHANAN. Now we come to the item for eradication of footand-mouth disease:
In case of an emergency arising out of the existence of foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, contagious pleuropneumonia, or other contagious or infectious disease of animals, which, in the opinion of the Secretary of Agriculture, threatens the livestock industry of the country, he may expend, in the city of Washington or elsewhere, any unexpended balances of appropriations heretofore made for this purpose in the arrest and eradication of any such disease, including the payment of claims growing out of past and future purchases and destruction, in cooperation with the States, of animals affected by or exposed to, or of materials contaminated by or exposed to, any such disease, wherever found and irrespective of ownership, under like or substantially similar circumstances, when such owner has complied with all lawful quarantine regulations: Provided, That the payment for animals hereafter purchased may be made on appraisement based on the meat, dairy, or breeding value, but in case of appraisement based on breeding value no appraisement of any animal shall exceed three times its meat or dairy value, and, except in case of an extraordinary emergency, to be determined by the Secretary of Agriculture, the payment by the United States Government for any animals shall not exceed one-half of any such appraisements: Provided further, That the sum $5,000 of the unexpended balance of the appropriation of $3,500,000, contained in the second appropriation act, fiscal year 1924, approved December 5, 1924, for the eradication of the foot-and-mouth disease and other contagious or infectious diseases of animals, is hereby made available during the fiscal year 1934 to enable the Secretary of Agriculture to control and eradicate the European fowl pest and similar diseases in poultry.
Doctor MOHLER. The following statement is presented in connection with this item. Appropriated, 1932:
Agricultural act reappropriating the unexpended balance from 1931, of which there was used..
Agricultural act reappropriating the unexpended balance from
$165, 000 Budget estimate, 1934: It is estimated that there will be used of the unexpended balance.-
55, 000 Decrease..
110,000 (1) One hundred and five thousand dollars decrease due to payment of indemnities in 1933 which are not anticipated in 1934. The indemnities referred to were necessary in connection with the suppression of an outbreak of foot-andmouth disease which occurred in California during the summer of 1932.
(2) Five thousand dollars due to reduction in work.
WORK UNDER THIS APPROPRIATION
The work under this project is carried on by investigating immediately all reports of outbreaks among livestock in any way suspicious of foot-and-mouth disease. Trained veterinarians are assigned to public stockyards to keep a sharp lookout for symptoms of the disease. In eradication work, inspections are made of all susceptible animals in infected localities. Diseased and exposed ruminants and swine are slaughtered, the owners being reimbursed the appraised value of the animals and property destroyed. Infected premises are thoroughly cleaned and disinfected under official supervision. The work is cooperative, the departe ment and the States concerned sharing the expenses for animals slaughtered and property destroyed on a 50-50 basis.
Reports of trouble among poultry in any way suspicious of European fowl pest are promptly investigated. As a precautionary measure to prevent the dissemination of the disease in the event an outbreak should occur, cars used in the interstate transportation of live poultry are cleaned and disinfected under bureau supervision. The procedure followed in combating this infection is somewhat similar to that used in foot-and-mouth disease eradication work, with the exception that the department does not participate in the reimbursement of owners for losses incurred in the slaughter of diseased and exposed birds.
LIMITATION ON PURCHASE OF PASSENGER-CARRYING VEHICLES
The language authorizing and limiting the expenditure for purchase of passenger-carrying vehicles is submitted in connection with the total for the bureau in order to provide for consideration of this item at the same time the general estimates of the bureau are under consideration. The purchase authorization of the bureau from the general departmental authorization for 1933 is $49,225. The authorization for 1934, $48,195, therefore constitutes a reduction of $1,030.
The tenth outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in the United States appeared on a ranch near Buena Park, Orange County, Calif., in April, 1932. The death of four hogs and lameness in many others on a ranch where 4,000 hogs were being fed on garbage attracted the attention of the owner, who reported the suspicious conditions to county officials on April 22. Following a veterinary examination of animals, a rigid quarantine was immediately imposed and a guard system established. Meanwhile the Bureau of Animal Industry assigned trained men to cooperate with State and county officials and their forces.
Through a series of diagnostic tests, a positive diagnosis of footand-mouth disease was reached on April 28, and the digging of a trench for the disposition of the herd proceeded immediately. Slaughter and burial of the infected herd began May 2.
The spread of this highly infectious disease was restricted to four premises in Orange County, three just across the county line in Los Angeles County, and one in San Bernardino County. The last infected herd was slaughtered May 8. All indications point to garbage as the probable source of infection.
Mr. BUCHANAN. And you stamped it out?
Mr. BUCHANAN. That is good work; that is the way we ought to do with these things.
Doctor MOHLER. That is the way we would do with hog cholera if it were not for the fact it is so widely distributed in 48 States. In Canada, they handle hog cholera like we do the foot-and-mouth disease.
Mr. BUCHANAN. How do you figure the foot-and-mouth germs got in that garbage?
Doctor Mohler. It is impossible to say, but in the previous outbreak out there, several years ago, it was conclusively proven that it came in with infected meat from South America. This was just as definitely established as if it were controlled under laboratory conditions. That outbreak also occurred near this same place and involved hogs first and then spread to six dairy farms. In this last outbreak, nothing but hogs were involved, but it caused us to kill over 18,000 hogs.
Mr. Hart. Did you kill them all?
Doctor MOHLER. Yes; then buried the carcasses and disinfected the premises. The virus was too weak to attack cattle and goats and just strong enough to attack pigs. I intended to send some of this virus to specialists in England and Germany, in order to ascertain the exact type of this virus. You see there are two or three types of viruses and I hoped to get a line on what type this was However, by the time I got special directions to California, the outbreak was over, so we could not have the virus tested for type.
Mr. BUCHANAN. What did it cost for payment for the animals? Doctor MOHLER. $102,000.
Mr. BUCHANAN. It cost the Federal Government $102,000 and what did it cost the State?
Doctor Mohler. It cost the State the same thing; it was on a 50-50 basis.
PURCHASE OF MOTOR-PROPELLED VEHICLES
Mr. BUCHANAN. Under the total for the Bureau of Animal Industry there is some new language
and not to exceed $48,195 shall be available for the purchase of motorpropelled and horse-drawn passenger-carrying vehicles necessary in the conduct of field work outside of the District of Columbia.
You had better give us something on that.
Doctor Mohler. That is moved up from the rear of the estimates of last year and is applicable to the motor transportation for the Bureau of Animal Industry. This is not increasing the amount in any way, but is permitting a certain portion of these estimates to be used for the purchase of motor cars.
Mr. Buchanan. You see, the House is right cautious in authorizing appropriations for the purchase of automobiles, and perhaps you should have something in the record justifying the allocation of that amount.
Doctor Mohler. I will be very glad to put something in to that effect.
Mr. Jump. It is $1,030 less than the authorization we have given the bureau this year; the amount proposed for next year is a reduction of $1,030 below the amount of the departmental allotment that has been allocated to the Bureau of Animal Industry for this year.
Mr. BUCHANAN. Under new vehicles for purchase, you show 65 to be exchanged.
Mr. CARROLL. To allow the purchase of about 100.
Mr. JUMP. Ninety-five will be purchased, of which 65 will replace worn-out equipment. The 95 includes the 65 to be replaced,
Mr. BUCHANAN. The 95 includes the 65?
Doctor MOHLER. We certainly do. It is the cheapest way of doing our work that we have. We buy nothing but the lowest-priced cars and it is all done in competition. They are not used in the District of Columbia, but in the field work. It puts the man on the job quicker and keeps him there longer than any other method we have.
Mr. BUCHANAN. Suppose you prepare a statement and put it in the record on that.
Doctor MOHLER. All right. About 99 per cent of our cars are Fords and we have only a few Chevrolets and one or two Whippets.
Mr. BUCHANAN. There is not much difference in price between the Chevrolet and Ford, is there?
Doctor MOHLER. Not much. Every once in a while a Chevrolet. will outbid a Ford dealer.
Mr. JUMP. I think we should make it clear there are no increased funds asked for this purpose.
Mr. BUCHANAN. Yes, I understand.
Mr. JUMP. It is merely paying for transportation in one form rather than in another.
Doctor MOHLER. This item asks authority to purchase from the bureau appropriations named above approximately 95 passengercarrying automobiles. However, 71 vehicles (65 passenger-carrying and 6 trucks) will be turned in, thus making a net increase in automotive equipment of 24 small cars. Of these, 19 will be used in tuber
. culosis eradication and 5 in hog-cholera control. These activities necessitate visits to farms and ranches that can not be reached by public transportation. No other way of getting about to these places is so cheap and effective as the small automobile. Under the law employees may be paid 7 cents a mile for the use of their own cars. Figures kept for years show the cost of Government-owned cars to be as low as 4 and 5 cents a mile. Hire of cars is, of course, much more expensive, running up to 15 to 20 cents a mile. A. recent purchase of cars was made at $412 each. Cars last several years and make mileages running up to above 70,000.