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cooperation with the Louisiana Experiment Station and other bureaus of this department. The expenditures for this year will not exceed $41,000 in addition to that expended by the State. The estimated value of the land and buildings is $80,500.

The development and adaptation of crossbred cattle is of utmost importance to the Gulf coast region. The region needs a hardier animal than is found in the European breeds. Our breeding herds are greatly needed for the production of experimental cattle.

Station work has contributed markedly to our knowledge of the influence of rice by-products on the quality and palatability of pork. Also, valuable data have been obtained on the quality and palatability of meat from Brahman as compared with non-Brahman cattle and of beef produced on certain feeds and rations of importance in that region of the country.

The location and equipment of this station for livestock investigational work make it well suited for solving the problems related to this particular region which can not be determined satisfactorily at any other station. More information is needed on the use of rice by-products in meat production and the influence of cattle breeding under the rather extreme conditions which exist in that region. The completion of present projects is important and the solution of other problems is necessary for the extension of livestock production to meet the requirements of the South.

The work at Jeanerette, La., is to determine the best methods of producing livestock and of making it a substantial part of the agriculture of the region, with the end in view that more profitable diversified systems of farming may be developed, and by-products of the cotton, rice, and sugar industries utilized with profit, at the source of their production. Investigations conducted in the establishment, improvement and utilization of pastures and to determine the best methods of providing harvested forage for the production of livestock in the Gulf coast region have yielded results to these ends. Experiments with beef cattle have included a determination of the best method of producing and handling the beef breeding herd; a comparison of the relative values of different silages; a comparison of the rate and economy of gains of Hereford cattle produced on the farm and fed the same ration; a study of the effect of breeding and sex upon the quality of beef; a determination of the relative feeding values of rice products in fattening rations fed range-bred steers and the effect of these feeds upon the quality of meat. An experimental dairy herd of Jersey cattle is maintained to demonstrate the best practices for feeding, breeding, and managing dairy cattle. Experiments with swine are determining the cost of producing pigs and growing them to maturity when fed on various rice by-products and a comparison of the quality of the pork with that produced with corn and tankage. Experiments with horses and mules consist in breeding the work mares of the station to a pure bred jack with the object of determining the comparative usefulness of good quality mules and horses for the farm work of the region.

Experiments have shown that cotton, sugar cane, and rice products can be used satisfactorily in fattening rations for beef cattle. The results of this work have been demonstrated throughout the region and have been instrumental in bringing about diversification in farming.

There has recently been added nearly 700 acres of land to the station through the action of the State legislature, and the people in that State which shows their appreciation of the work that is being done in that area, the object of which is to develop methods of diversifying their cotton, sugarcane, and rice production with livestock.

Mr. BUCHANAN. And to demonstrate it is practical to furnish feed in that peculiar section for the livestock. That section is known as

he coastal plains. There is a great area there of lowland almost at sea level, where it has been pretty difficult for them to make ends meet. This is to demonstrate they can finish livestock there.

Mr. SHEETS. There is no other State or Federal experimental work with livestock being done in that area except at this station, and that is in cooperation with the State experiment station. I mention that to show we are operating 600 acres more land on less money than we have done heretofore, an additional necessity for economy in order to do the work required.

Mr. BUCHANAN. Which demonstrates you had too much money heretofore.

Mr. SHEETS. That would be the natural assumption were it not for the fact that funds have been reduced annually while the work to be performed has been increasing each year. We are unable to ! make the necessary repairs and improvements at the station to protect the property.

Mr. SUMMERS. Every farm in the country is operating for less. The actual cost is less.

REDUCTION IN APPROPRIATIONS FOR ORDINARY ACTIVITIES OF DEPART

MENT OF AGRICULTURE FOR FISCAL YEAR 1933

Mr. Hart. You decrease your experimental station operations the way we have decreased our farm operations costs, and there would be an awful big cut in this budget.

Mr. Jump. There was a big cut last year. Ten million dollars was cut off of the general activities of the department. In the explanatory notes for 1934 I have given the 1932 and 1933 figure. I included the 1932 figures to impress upon every body that $10,000,000 was cut off of the ordinary activities of the department in the 1933 act.

Mr. Hart. A lot of that consisted of nonrecurring items.

Mr. Jump. The nonrecurring items came to a total of $1,358,848, included in the reduction of $10,122,694 on ordinary activities.

Mr. Hart. You mean the total of the bill was reduced $10,000,000?

Mr. JUMP. The $10,000,000 came off of ordinary activities alone. A great deal more-$115,668,994 to be exact-came off of the grand total for all purposes. On page labeled A, of the explanatory notes you will see the actual figures, the general activities for 1932, $70,527,000; general activities in 1933, $60,404,000. The increase shown in the final totals for 1933, despite the cuts I have mentioned, was due to the fact that after we got through with the bill Congress passed the emergency relief and construction act, and $132,000,000 carried in that act was charged to the Agriculture Department for advances to the States and for various other classes of road construction for relief purposes. Mr.

Hart. I voted against it. We killed about 8 or 10 bills to give the Federal Farm Board more money, and then they turn around and give them $50,000,000 more.

TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 22, 1932 .

BUREAU OF DAIRY INDUSTRY

STATEMENTS OF 0. E. REED, CHIEF OF THE BUREAU; J. M. KEMPER,

ASSISTANT TO THE CHIEF, FOR ADMINISTRATION; AND ROY R. GRAVES, CHIEF OF THE DAIRY CATTLE, BREEDING, FEEDING, AND MANAGEMENT SECTION

GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES

Mr. BUCHANAN. The first item here is: For carrying out the provisions of the act approved May 29, 1924 (U. S. C., title 7, secs. 401-404), establishing a Bureau of Dairying, for salaries in the city of Washington and elsewhere, and for all other necessary expenses, as follows:

General administrative expenses: For necessary expenses for general administrative purposes, including the salary of the chief of bureau and other personal services in the District of Columbia, $64,265.

WORK UNDER THIS APPROPRIATION Mr. REED. For purposes of administration the work of the Bureau of Dairy Industry is divided into six major coordinate divisions, five of which are engaged in scientific research while the sixth, or administrative division, is engaged in administrative activities common to the entire bureau. These activities include the editorial and information work, engineering, accounts, personnel, property, library, mails, and files, messenger and char services, and tabulating machine unit.

Mr. BUCHANAN. I notice there is a decrease of $5,115. I assume that was caused by the economy act?

Mr. REED. The legislative furloughs. Mr. BUCHANAN. What other reductions can be made? Mr. REED. That is as little as we can get along with at any time. Mr. BUCHANAN. In other words, you will spend all the appropriation you have for this year and you will need this estimate for the next year?

Mr. REED. Yes, sir. Mr. Buchanan. Under the impounding provisions of the act of last Congress are there any positions vacant?

Mr. REED. There is one position vacant. I think it is $600 messenger position.

Mr. BUCHANAN. Is there any general statement you desire to make on this? Of course, you do not have to confine it strictly to administration?

Mr. REED. No, I believe not on this appropriation. As I said before

, we are very cramped in the administration work, and have been since the bureau was established.

Mr. Buchanan. I suppose your bureau and the department as well, considers your organization of administrative force needs the assistants and assistant chiefs, and so forth, you have down here in your breakdown in this administrative item?

Mr. Reed. We have not any assistant chief at all. We have two assistants to the chief. One is in charge of administration and the other in charge of the publication and information activities of the bureau, I think the administrative work of our bureau is con

ducted just about as economically as it could be. We are all doing a lion's share of the work. We have not high-salaried personnel officers; we have no high-salaried 'accounting officer. The administrative work is all conducted under the supervision of the assistant to the chief by employees drawing average salaries. We certainly have an economical organization. Always have had.

Mr. BUCHANAN. We will go to the next item?

Mr. REED. I might say that there has been very little change since the bureau was organized back in 1924. I believe no change.

Mr. KEMPER. I believe taking into consideration the increases in salaries under the Welch and Brookhart bills and the original classification act that our expenditures for administration are lower to-day than in 1924 when the bureau was organized.

CONDUCTING INVESTIGATIONS, EXPERIMENTS, AND DEMONSTRATION

IN DAIRY INDUSTRY

Mr. BUCHANAN. The next item is:

Dairy investigations: For conducting investigations, experiments, and demonstrations in dairy industry, cooperative investigations of the dairy industry in the various States, and inspection of renovated-butter factories, including repairs to buildings, not to exceed $5,000 for the construction of buildings, $590,865.

Mr. REED. I submit the following statement in connection with that item: Appropriation, 1932

$727, 410 Appropriation, 1933 Budget estimate, 1934.

590, 865 Decrease..

648, 068

57, 203

Project statement

Projects

Expended, Estimated, Estimated,

Increase(+) 1932 1933

1934

or decrease

(-)

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Dairy manufacturing investigations and introduction..
Dairy herd improvement,
Dairy cattle breeding, feeding and management.
Ice-cream investigations.
Butter and by-products investigations.
Condensed milk and milk powder investigations.
Investigations in bacteriology and chemistry of milk.
Nutrition of dairy cows..
Cheese manufacturing investigations.
Market-milk investigations..
Operation and maintenance, Beltsville, Md., Experi-

ment Station.
Missouri Experiment Station
Ardmore, South Dakota, field station
Huntley, Mont., field station.
Mandan, N. Dak., field station.
Woodward, Okla., field station.
Lewisburg, Tenn, field station.
South Carolina Experiment Station.
Legislative furlough deductions.

Total.

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The decrease of $57,203 is explained as follows:

1 Apparent increase of $197 by transfer from “Salaries, office of the Secretary," which has been correspond ingly reduced, as pro rata of supply handling charges for 1934.

* $20,000 reduction due to dropping the nonrecurring item of this amount in 1933 for completing the con struction of a nutrition laboratory at the Beltsville, Md., Experiment Station.

3 $37,400 reduction on account of continuation of legislative furlough,

CHANGE IN LANGUAGE

The language of the item has been amended by reducing the limitation on expenditures for construction work from $30,000 to $5,000.

WORK UNDER THIS APPROPRIATION

The work under this appropriation involves scientific research and experimentation in practically every phase of the dairy industry. It contemplates the development of fundamental principles of dairy cattle breeding, feeding, and management which, when applied, will make the business of dairy farming a more profitable enterprise by reducing the cost of production through more intelligent breeding, better selection, and more efficient and economical feeding. It contemplates also the development of new methods of manufacturing dairy products and the improvement of existing methods of manufacture; the effective utilization of dairy by-products through the development of new uses for such by-products, and the introduction of such new and/or improved processes of manufacture into commercial creameries and cheese factories. Research in sanitary and economical methods of producing, transporting, processing, and distributing market milk and cream for utilization in fluid form is another important phase of the work being conducted. These investigations are conducted under the following general projects:

(@) Studies of feed and milk production records of cows on test in dairy herdimprovement associations to obtain accurate data for the intelligent selection and feeding of dairy cows according to their known producing ability with the view of reducing the cost of production.

(6) A comparison of the lactation records of the daughters of dairy bulls in herds on test in dairy herd improvement associations with the lactation records of the dams of such daughters to discover dairy bulls which are transmitting to their offspring high milk and butterfat producing ability. This work has shown that only one-third of the bulls being used in herds in dairy herd improvement associations are actually capable of increasing the production ability of the daughters of the dams to which they are bred. The object of this work therefore is to raise the level of production per cow through the use of sires that will actually raise production per cow and thus reduce production costs.

(c) Research to determine the need for new and improved processes of manfacture to provide suitable and profitable outlets for creamery and cheese factory by-products; to determine the factors affecting the quality of butter, cheese, and other products of creameries and cheese factories, and to introduce into such creameries and factories new and/or improved methods of manufacture of dairy products and by-products.

(d) General breeding investigations: These investigations involve different methods of mating, such as outbreeding, line breeding, and inbreeding, to determine which method will insure the greatest uniformity in the transmission of high milk and butterfat producing capacity. This work has developed the theory of using for generation after generation dairy sires that are pure in their inheritance for high levels of production as shown by the producing ability of their daughters when compared with the production of the dams of such daughters. The use of sires of this quality in successive generations will ultimately result in the breeding of strains of dairy cows that will be pure in their inheritance for a high level of milk and butterfat production. Studies of production records of cows on test in dairy herd-improvement associations disclose that one-third are producing just about enough to pay for their keep, while the remaining third may be considered profitable. Assuming that this ratio prevails for all dairy cows in the United States there are at least 8,000,000 cows being kept at a loss to their owners. The elimination of these 8,000,000 cows and the maintenance of production with a smaller number of better cows will result in tremendous savings to the dairy farmers of the country. The object of these investigations is to determine methods whereby animals of higher producing levels can be bred with some certainty thus relieving the industry of the burden of carrying a half or more of its cows which are unprofitable producers.

(e) Studies of the growth of dairy cattle, their resistance to sterility and abortion, and of the production records of the various breed associations for information pertaining to correction factors for age, influence of development on subsequent lactation periods, and other information having a bearing on the laws governing the inheritance of milk and butterfat producing capacity.

Investigations to determine the relation if any between conformation and anatomy of dairy cows to their producing ability, to obtain if possible an accurate

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