« AnteriorContinuar »
Federal institutions. Altogether, we have the data from something like five or six thousand cows.
Mr. HART. My only idea in calling your attention to that was for the elimination of these stations that the Government is directly maintaining, from an economy standpoint, if we could get the information through other sources, along the lines you were just carrying out. There is no more reason for one of these places being maintained than one over here somewhere else that someone wants.
Mr. JUMP. Six is not a very large number of regional stations for the entire dairy industry of the United States. I do not count Beltsville, because that is really a laboratory in a broad sense. They have work going on out there that otherwise would have to be done here in a laboratory. I do not consider that a farm any more than Arlington under the Bureau of Plant Industry.
Mr. BUCHANAN. I want you to state for the record the respective locations of these stations in regard to about how far apart they are over the country.
Mr. Woods. The information you request will be inserted in the record.
LOCATION OF VARIOUS EXPERIMENTAL DAIRY STATIONS
Mandan, N. Dak.- Approximately 275 miles from Huntley, Mont., nearest adjacent station. Serves territory comprising the Northern Great Plains area, consisting of western half of the States of North Dakota and South Dakota and portions of Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and Nebraska.
Huntley, Mont.--Approximately 275 miles from Mandan. Serves all the intermountain States of the West as regards dairy practices in irrigated regions.
Woodward, Okla.--Approximately 575 miles from Huntley, Mont. Serves territory of the Southern Great Plains area, comprising portions of Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, and Kansas.
Jeanerette, La.-Located approximately 450 miles from Woodward, Okla. Serves the entire Gulf Coast region where heavy rainfall and high humidity prevail. All or portions of Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, Georgia, and Florida.
Lewisburg, Tenn.-Located approximately 350 miles north of the Jeanerette station. Serves the large south central area of the States of Kentucky, Tennessee, and parts of Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia.
Hatch Farm (Hannibal, Mo.).—Located approximately 300 miles from Lewis. burg, Tenn., and 475 miles from Woodward, Okla. Serves central Mississippi Valley territory relating to States of Missouri, Illinois, and Iowa.
Pontiac (Sandhill station), s. C.-Located approximately 600 miles from Jeanerette and 300 miles from Lewisburg, Tenn. Serves territory known as the Sandhill area of the Southeast, comprising portions of North and South Carolina, Georgia, and Virginia.
WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 23, 1932.
BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY
STATEMENTS OF DR. W. A. TAYLOR, CHIEF, AND DR. KARL
KELLERMAN, ASSISTANT CHIEF
SALARIES AND GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES
Mr. BUCHANAN. The next item is:
For all necessary expenses in the investigation of fruits, fruit trees, grain, cotton, tobacco, vegetables, grasses, forage, drug, medicinal, poisonous, fiber, and other plants and plant industries in cooperation with other branches of the department, the State experiment stations, and practical farmers, and for the erection of necessary farm buildings: Provided, That the cost of any building
ereeted shall not exceed $1,500; for field and station expenses, including fences, drains, and other farm improvements; for repairs in the District of Columbia and elsewhere; for rent outside of the District of Columbia; and for the employment of all investigators, local and special agents, agricultural explorers, experts, clerks, illustrators, assistants, and all labor and other necessary expenses in the city of Washington and elsewhere required for the investigations, experiments, and demonstrations herein authorized as follows:
General administrative expenses: For necessary expenses for general administrative purposes, including the salary of chief of bureau and other personal services in the District of Columbia, $193,639.
Doctor TAYLOR. The following is submitted:
WORK UNDER THIS APPROPRIATION
The direction of the research, service and regulatory work of the Bureau of Plant Industry, the administration of its fiscal affairs, the general supervision of personnel, the administrative review and preparation of its research and other publications and bibliographical and related library work, as well as the partial financing of such service activities as the photographic laboratory, are carried on under this appropriation.
Mr. BUCHANAN. I notice here they have appropriated this year $209,966 for General Administrative Expenses, and for next year you have $193,639 estimated, a decrease of $16,327. How much of that decrease is due to the legislative furlough?
Doctor TAYLOR. That I believe is all due to the furlough except that there is an apparent increase of $44 by a transfer from the appropriations for salaries, office of the Secretary. That is a transfer of positions which worked out $44 there so that the $16,371 reduction is on account of the legislative furlough and the actual decrease as it shows between the current appropriation and the estimate is $16,327.
Mr. BUCHANAN. It is not quite as much as the furlough decrease? Doctor TAYLOR. It is $44 less than the furlough decrease.
Mr. BUCHANAN. Well, can you make any reductions in that appropriation that will permit you to function properly?
Doctor TAYLOR. It would be very difficult to make reductions nere in the general administration with the work of the bureau continuing as it is upon its present basis. The administrative unit covers not only what would be ordinarily covered in the administration of fiscal affairs and personnel, but also the editing, and review and authorization of publications which result from the research work of the bureau, together with such bibliographic work as is involved in the handling of that feature, and a considerable proportion of the photographic work that is incidental to the research and the publication of the material.
Mr. BUCHANAN. Well, considering the list of your employees and salaries under this appropriation, published on page 108 of the estimate book, have you lost any of these employees by reason of the impounding feature of the lasť bill?
Doctor TAYLOR. I think not under administrative.
Mr. BUCHANAN. The next item is:
Arlington Farm: For continuing the necessary improvements to establish and maintain a general experiment farm and agricultural station on the Arlington estate, in the State of Virginia, in accordance with the provisions of the act of
Congress approved April 18, 1900 (31 Stat., pp. 135, 136), $51,545: Provided, That the limitations in this act as to the cost of farm buildings shall not apply to this paragraph.
Doctor TAYLOR. The following explanation of this item is presented for the record:
WORK UNDER THIS APPROPRIATION
A highly improved 400-acre tract is maintained in Virginia, near Washington, D. C., provided with laboratories, greenhouses, barns, shops, and other buildings, furnishing facilities for conducting experiments and practical farm tests covering a wide range of research work, national in scope, principally for the Bureau of Plant Industry, but also for Bureaus of Chemistry and Soils, Public Roads, Entomology, Agricultural Engineering and other branches. By furnishing similar facilities common to the many activities from a central station duplication of effort and equipment is avoided and the cost of operation appreciably reduced.
Mr. BUCHANAN. Well, we will take up the next appropriation, Arlington Farm, 1932, $60,500, and this year $51,545, estimated for next year.
Doctor Taylor. The decrease of $8,955 in this appropriation consists of two items, one being a $1,620 reduction due to compulsory retirement, and the other $2,880 to be effected through general reduction in miscellaneous expenditures, and behind those two items, a legislative furlough reduction of $4,455.
NATURE OF FARM AND TYPE OF EXPERIMENTS CARRIED ON Mr. Jump. While we are speaking of the Arlington Farm, Mr. Buchanan, I think it might be well, in view of the current interest in experiment stations, to make sure that we all have clearly in mind the way in which this farm differs from other experimental farms. I know that you know this difference as well as I do, but it is surprising how often the question of Arlington Farm is brought up in conjunction with other farms. The point is that Arlington Farm is not an experimental farm in the ordinary sense but is really an integral part, a most vital part, of the entire research work, not only of the Bureau of Plant Industry but of a number of the other bureaus of the department that do at the Arlington Farm certain things that must be done in conjunction with the laboratory staff here in Washington, but which could not be done in buildings such as the office and laboratory buildings that we occupy here. There comes a time in all of this work when there has to be either outdoor work with experimental plots or in greenhouses in this region or shops or mechanical work or laboratory tests of such a type that it is not feasible to do it in the general departmental buildings. In that case they all turn to Arlington Farm, and you will find a diversity of experiments and tests being conducted at Arlington Farm that can not be found anywhere else.
Mr. BUCHANAN. I wonder if you have in mind a list of the bureaus, such as Animal Industry, and so forth, that have the fundamental research on primary problems done at Arlington Farm.
Mr. Jump. The Bureau of Plant Industry, Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, and the Bureau of Public Roads are doing extensive research work at the farm.
You will see at the farm, for example, block after block of different types and mixes of concrete and you will see big machines running to produce the pounding effect of five, and ten ton trucks with skid
chains running for stated periods of time to determine the effect of this type of wear on roads of certain types and to form the basis for proper specifications in road building where traffic conditions are similar, and so on.
Doctor TAYLOR. The Bureau of Entomology also has important work there.
Mr. JUMP. From time to time nearly every scientific bureau of the department uses the Arlington farm.
Mr. BUCHANAN. Does Dairy Industry use it? Mr. JUMP. No, I do not think so. Beltsville serves the Bureaus of Animal Industry and Dairy Industry in the same way that Arlington serves the other bureaus of the Department. I believe that is the way I would put it.
There are no animals except the draft animals they have for the farm wagons and so forth.
Doctor Woods. The Bureau of Standards has some work over there,
Doctor Taylor. The Bureau of Standards, as a matter of convenience to them, has an airplane motor test conducted there where they determine under conditions that eliminate hazard, in so far as their personnel is concerned, the endurance of types of airplane motors which they are required to pass upon in connection with the aviation industry.
Mr. BUCHANAN. Of course, each one of these bureaus that conducts this fundamental research there pays out of its own funds.
Mr. JUMP. So does the Bureau of Plant Industry.
Mr. JUMP. The Bureau of Plant Industry does a good deal of work in Arlington Farm that is not in this appropriation.
There is work done there on the breeding of resistant sugarcane. That will be paid for by the sugar-plant appropriation. There are certain other charges that are paid from the Arlington Farm appropriation.
Mr. BUCHANAN. General charges for upkeep of the farm so as to be in condition for all these bureaus to conduct their respective experiments there.
Mr. JUMP. Yes; general farm operating changes, but the point is that this appropriation does not represent in any way the research conducted at Arlington Farm. I recall that they asked Doctor Taylor once in the Senate hearings what his bureau had ever accomplished at the Arlington Farm. There had been so many accomplishments there, and the farm had been so inseparably attached to almost every major accomplishment of the department in the field of crop production that he could not answer the question at all for the moment. In short, this farm is different from all of the others. It is really not a farm. It is an outdoor laboratory for many things of vital consequence to agriculture everywhere.
Doctor TAYLOR. Arlington Farm is essentially an outdoor laboratory where work not involving animals can be done near Washington under the scientific technical personnel of which every bureau needs to do it, so that there are plant experiments, concrete curing, as well as concrete paving experiments there right alongside of plot experiments involving test of diseases on alfalfas, or breeding work on wheat
or other crops.
It is a general facility which is of special value because it is accessible. It is within 15 minutes of our laboratories and this organization operates. They supply the heat, the water, the laboratory, the labor available, the tractor power, such general implements as are used in the farming operations, and so on, so that the individual bureaus do not have to each set up a field station somewhere near Washington to do its particular job.
Mr. BUCHANAN. You do not think this appropriation could be decreased any and still provide sufficient funds for its proper maintenance?
Doctor Taylor. I do not know of any way in which it could, Mr. Buchanan. We are maintaining a continual scrutiny of operations and we have got a most efficient superintendent, practical and experienced and economical, and I think we are getting full value for every dollar that we are spending.
Mr. BUCHANAN. The next item is:
Barberry eradication: For the eradication of the common barberry and for applying such other methods of eradication and control of cereal rusts as in the judgment of the Secreatry of Agriculture may be necessary, including the payment of such expenses and the employment of such persons and means, in the city of Washington and elsewhere, and cooperation with such authorities of the States concerned, organizations of growers, or individuals, as he may deem necessary to accomplish such purposes, $180,722: Provided, That $75,000 of this amount shall be available for expenditure only when an equal amount shall have been appropriated, subscribed, or contributed by States, counties, or local authorities, or by individuals or organizations for the accomplishment of such purposes: Provided further, That no part of the money herein appropriated shall be used to pay the cost or value of property injured or destroyed.
Doctor TAYLOR. The following justification is presented for inclusion in the hearings:
WORK UNDER THIS APPROPRIATION
The north-central wheat producing States, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin, and Wyoming, are cooperating with the Bureau to eradicate the common barberry, an intermediate host of the black stem rust, as a means of controlling epidemics of black stem rust of wheat, oats, barley and rye. For the fiscal year 1933, a total of $78,365 aid from States and other cooperating organizations has been certified to the Secretary of Agriculture for application in this cooperative project. With the continued interest shown by all parties to the work, it is evident that substantial outside aid will also be received for the fiscal year 1934.
Since 1918 approximately 18,500,000 rust-susceptible barberry bushes have been destoryed in these States; of this number 176,582 were destoryed in 1931. During the 5-year period 1916' to 1920, the average annual loss to wheat from stem rust aside from its effect on quality, was estimated at more than 57,000,000 bushels, while for the 5-year period 1926–1930, after millions of barberry bushes had been destroyed, the average annual loss attributed to this disease was estimated at less than 10,000,000 bushels. In spite of the very definite progress which has been made in eradication and in rust control, many bushes remain scattered throughout the 13 cooperating States. Seed from these bushes is spread by birds and other agencies. It is essential that these remaining bar. berry bushes be reduced in number, not only because of their ability to spread rust, but to prevent reinfestation of land already made free from bushes.
Mr. BUCHANAN. Well, barberry eradication, $196,400 for this year and $180,722 estimated for 1934, a decrease of $15,678; $9,278 of that, I believe, is on account of the legislative furlough.