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Doctor Taylor. Oh, yes. Our tests are now placed strategically, we feel, practically the whole way from the southern range of our native chestnut, in northern Georgia, up along the Alleghanys as far as western Massachusetts, and southern New Hampshire. In the southern Appalachians the chestnut is one of the most important trees to the tanning industry, and is a source of poles for telephone companies, and for rough lumber and even for use in some cases for finishing lumber.
Mr. BUCHANAN. How much of this appropriation is based upon authorizations of the McNary-McSweeney Act? A good deal of it, is it not?
Doctor KELLERMAN. I think $120,000 as the language stands would be the portion related to the McNary-McSweeney Act. When the Budget Bureau made their change in figure on the reduction on the legislative furlough that was not prorated. That $120,000 really should read $112,560 to conform to the prorated salaries on those two sections.
PINE BLISTER RESEARCH WORK
Mr. BUCHANAN. Have you made any progress on the old pine blister in your research?
Doctor TAYLOR. Yes; in so far as the western pines are concerned. We discussed certain phases of that in connection with the blister rust control subappropriation the other day. It has become clearly evident that the western white pine, Pinus monticola, which constitutes the main pine stumpage of Idaho and eastern Washington, is much more susceptible to the disease than the old white pine of the eastern States, the Lake region, New York, and New England.
Also that the sugar pine which ranges from south Oregon southward through the California mountains, which is their best soft wood in that region, is more susceptible than the eastern pine. There has been considerable doubt with reference to the sugar pine as to whether that would need to be protected, as to whether it would be sufficiently susceptible to the disease to require protection, but it is clear that it will in the light of tests that have been made.
PREVENTION OF DISEASE SPREAD BY DISTRIBUTION OF HOST PLANTS
Mr. BUCHANAN. Doctor, I want to ask you this question. Of course, you know to a novice, a man who is not a scientist, who is just an ordinary common layman, these theories about host plants and so forth do not set so well, and I am wondering if you have established beyond any question that in these diseases where you have these host plants, whether or not it has been established if you destroy these host plants that you will destroy the disease.
Doctor Taylor. That you are going to prevent the spread of the disease?
Mr. BUCHANAN. Is it absolutely essential for the spread of the disease to have those bushes, those host plants?
Doctor TAYLOR. Absolutely.
Doctor TAYLOR. Absolutely; that has been established by thousands of tests which have been made both in this country and in
Europe and have been made by men keen to discover any exception or any possibility of a communication of the disease in any other way than through the instrumentality of these intermediate hosts.
Mr. Harr. Why does not the tree act as a host?
Doctor Taylor. The spores which are derived from the fungus on the pine tree will not germinate on the pine tree.
Mr. Hart. On the pine tree?
Mr. BUCHANAN. That seems like a contravention of nature. It would seem like the tree, that the thing fed on and upon which it is nourished, would reproduce itself.
Doctor KELLERMAN. There is an example. That is a picture of badly diseased branches. You can have those right in with a young, growing tree, and it will not spread. If you have the intermediate host plant there so that it can spread, then it will spread just during that one season.
Doctor TAYLOR. Of course, we have an almost complete duplication of this principle in the case of some human and animal diseases.
Mr. Hart. If we should wipe out the barberry bush, make it extinct, would we be rid of the black stem rust?
Doctor TAYLOR. Within a given area, yes; except as it might come in from the outside.
Mr. Hart. If we extinguish entirely in this country the barberry bush, would we entirely extinguish the black stem rust?
Doctor KELLERMAN. You would prevent serious epidemies in the Northern States. You would not in the South, because there in mild winters the stem rust will over winter; but in the North the cold weather kills it, except on the barberry. The barberry is the only thing that can carry it over through the winter. The barberry serves two purposes in the North. Carrying it over through the winter and starting it earlier in the spring. It should be noted that the severest epidemics occur on spring wheat plantings and spring wheat is not planted in the South.
Mr. BUCHANAN. Is it an evergreen plant?
Mr. Hart. I do not have a clear picture of that barberry bush in my mind. I probably know it.
Mr. BUCHANAN. Have you one in your house here in Washington ?
Doctor KELLERMAN. We have a specimen here and we have good photographs.
Mr. HART. I should know it, but I do not. Doctor TAYLOR. It is pretty well cleared out of the lower one-third of the peninsula of Michigan. There are still some heavy strands in the northern part of Michigan.
California, San Francisco--United States for
est pathology field oflice. Connecticut, New Haven-Yale University
Office and laboratory space available
space leased at $1 per year.
Louisiana, New Orleans-United States forest Office and laboratory space available pathology field laboratory.
space available through cooperation.
ment owned building.
able through cooperation.
able through cooperation.
space. Available through cooperation.
$21, 780 Cooperation: Forest Service. Major activity: Investigation of forest and orna
mental tree diseases; direction of forest pathology activities for national forest
districts 4 and 5; forest pathology service for the national parks.
tions of larch canker and related diseases and of tree surgery; investigation of
forest trees and forest products.
with the division of horticultural crops and diseases. Major activity: Chest
nut breeding chestnut blight investigations. 10, 080 Cooperation: Forest Service. Major activity: Investigations of forest and orna
mental tree diseases, direction of forest pathology activities for national forest
service district 3.
vestigations of Dutch elm disease.
ornamental tree diseases; direction of forest pathology activities for National
Forest Service district 6.
Investigation of forest and shade trees.
ornamental trees and shrubs. 15, 127 Cooperation: Forest Service (Forest Products Laboratory). Major activity:
Investigations of diseases of structural timber and forest products.
FRUIT AND VEGETABLE CROPS AND DISEASES
Mr. BUCHANAN. The next item is a large one. It is: Fruit and vegetable crops and diseases: For investigation and control of diseases, for improvement of methods of culture, propagation, breeding, selection, and related activities concerned with the production of fruits, nuts, vegetables, ornamentals, and related plants, for investigation of methods of harvesting, packing, shipping, storing, and utilizing these products, and for studies of the physiological and related changes of such products during processes of marketing and while in commercial storage, $1,144,100.
Doctor TAYLOR. I present the following for the record in substantiation of this item : Appropriation, 1932
Appropriation, 1933 :
1. Agricultural Act----
Total appropriation 1933. Budget estimate 1934.
15, 000 1, 215, 000 1, 144, 100
70, 900 There is an apparent increase of $8,500 in this item, but owing to the transfer of $1,0000 from “ Salaries, Office of the Secretary," which has been correspondingly reduced, as pro rata of supply handling charges for 1934, there is an actual increase of $7,500, which is explained as follows:
(1) $7,500 increase under subtropical fruit production investigations is for the maintenance and protection of citrus groves on the Chinsegut Hill Bird Refuge near Brooksville, Fla. The bird refuge donated to the department during the fiscal year 1932 in the vicinity of Brooksville, Fla., has citrus groves comprising a total of approximately 70 acres. The development and care of these citrus plantings would logically come within this division, but in view of the material reductions of this item for 1933, funds can not be diverted for this purpose without disorganization or elimination of one or more important lines of work, and therefore it has been necessary to transfer this amount from the appropriation for Cereal Crops and Diseases which has been reduced accordingly for 1934.
(2) Apparent increase of $1,000 from Salaries, Office of the Secretary,” which has been correspondingly reduced, as pro rata of supply handling charges for 1934.
(3) $79,400 reduction on account of continuation of legislative furlough.
CHANGE IN LANGUAGE
The provision that $15,000 shall be available toward the establishment of a pecan experiment station in Mississippi is omitted as this station is now being established.
WORK UNDER THIS APPROPRIATION
Under this appropriation investigations are conducted to determine the best methods of culture, propagation, breeding, selection, disease control, and related activities as affecting the most profitable production of orchard fruits, small fruits, nuts, vegetables, ornamentals, nursery stocks, and related plauts. The interrelation of various orchard practices and problems concerned with the putrition and physiology of the various horticultural plants are studied. Investigations for determining the best methods of harvesting, packing, shipping. storing, and utilizing horticultural products are also conducted, including the physiological and related changes of perishables during marketing and storage. In addition to cooperative activities with the State Agricultural Experiment
Stations, Bureau of Indian Affairs of the Department of the Interior, and others, field stations and laboratories are maintained at the following points; Spring Hill, Ala.
Shreveport, La. Chula Vista, Calif.
Presque Isle, Me. Fresno, Calif.
Beltsville, Md. Indio, Calif.
Bethesda, Md. Los Angeles, Calif.
Meridian, Miss. Oakville, Calif.
Springfield, Mo. Pomona, Calif.
Toms River, N, J. Riverside, Calif.
New York, N. Y. Sacramento, Calif.
Chadbourn, N. C. Greeley, Colo.
Charleston, S. C. Eustis, Fla.
Hood River, Oreg. Orlando, Fla.
Austin, Tex. Albany, Ga.
Brownwood, Tex. Fort Valley, Ga.
Bellingham, Wash. Philema, Ga.
Seattle, Wash. Chicago, Ill.
Wenatchee, Wash. Vincennes, Ind.
Yakima, Wash. Robson, La.
Cheyenne, Wyo, Deciduous fruit production inrestigations.-This work includes studies of the type of growth associated with high-quality production and the fertilizer treatment, water requirements and other cultural factors in growing tree fruits under experimentation, as well as production studies on grapes and the small fruits such as strawberries, raspberries, and blackberries. By hybridization and selection improved varieties of peaches, plums, apples, pears, apricots. grapes, and berries are being developed. Selections of bud variations of deciduous fruit varieties are propagated to develop improved strains or varieties of these fruits. This work is of especial importance to small fruit breeding in North Carolina, Maryland, and Oregon, to the breeding and bud selection of deciduous fruits for all major fruit sections, and to the grape production particularly in California, South Carolina, and Mississippi. (Bureau of Agricultural Engineering and Bureau of Chemistry and Soils cooperating.)
Nut production investigation 8.-This work includes experiments on culture and breeding of almonds, walnuts, and filberts in the Pacific Coast States; pecans in Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, and other Southern States, and black walnuts, hickories, filberts, and chestnuts in the Central and Northeastern States. These studies are undertaken in order to determine the best procedures for development of domestic nut production throughout the nut-growing regions of the country. (Bureau of Entomology and Bureau of Chemistry and Soils cooperating.)
Subtropical fruit production investigations.-Cultural studies are conducted to determine those methods of pruning, fertilization, soil management, and other practices which will result in greater yields of higher quality fruit. Citrus, figs, avocados, and other subtropical fruits are included in these studies, which are conducted in the southern border States. These studies have as their object the efficient production of citrus fruits as well as the encouragement of other subtropical fruits. (Bureaus of Agricultural Engineering, Chemistry and Soils, and Entomology, cooperating.)
Plant propagation, nursery management, and stock storage.—This work is of especial benefit to nurserymen and plant propagators and consists of study of propagation of fruit and rose stocks by seed and by cuttings; testing and selecting stocks for apples, pears, and cherries; comparison of rose stocks for outdoor hybrid teas, and greenhouse grafting of roses and certain other ornamentals; storage experiments with nursery stock to determine the most suitable moisture and temperature conditions.
Crop physiology.—These investigations relate particularly to dates, pistache nuts, new citrus hybrids and other new and noncompetitive crops. The purpose of this work is to determine various factors which govern the success or failure of horticultural plants under different soil and climatic conditions with special reference to the accurate determination of such factors in case of new and noncompetitive crops not now grown on a commercial scale in this country. Breeding work is carried on whenever necessary to adapt such new crops to the soil and climatic conditions they must endure in this country, Experiments with dates, pistaches and figs are under way in California, Arizona and Texas, and new hybrids such as the Tangelo (cross of tangerine with