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2. S. crocata, Ach. Th. submembranaceous, scrobiculate, greenishglaucous-fuscescent ; on the under side lanuginous, liver-colored at the circumference, with minute, pale-lemon-colored cyphellæ ; lacinia short, rounded, crenulate, with yellowish-pulverulent margins; 'apoth. scattered, fuscous-black.' Delis. Stict. p. 56.

Rocks among mosses, New England, infertile ; less common in the Northern mountains. S. Feei, Delis. I. c. p. 44, from North America, is perhaps a Southern species.

3. S. sylvatica, Ach. Th. coriaceous-membranaceous, laciniate-lobed, lacunulose, greenish-fuscous ; tomentose, and subfuscous-cinerascent beneath, with urceolate, whitish cyphellæ ; lobes somewhat truncate, rounded, crenulate ; 'apoth. marginal, peltate, rufous-fuscous.' Fr. Lichenogr. p. 51.

Rocks, among mosses. Pennsylvania, Muhl., New York, Halsey. S. fuliginosa, Ach., differs principally in its round-lobed, rugose fronds, frequently isidioid-efflorescent, and its (normal) sessile, orbiculate apothecia. The described apothecia of S. sylvatica depend upon the figures of Dillenius, Wulfen, &c. The species is now unknown in a fertile state.

4. S. quercizans, Ach. Th. cartilagineous, laciniate, plane, pale-rufous-fuscous; somewhat tomentose, and subfuscous-nigrescent beneath, with urceolate (membranaceous), whitish cyphellæ ; lobes subimbricate, oblong, rounded, crenulate ; 'apoth. scattered, disk somewhat concavoplane, with a thin entire margin.' Delis. Stict. p. 84. Lobaria, Michx.

Pennsylvania, Herb. Montagne! Mossy rocks, New York, Russell ! The specimens from Mr. Russell seem to me to differ from S. sylvatica in the characters indicated by Delise, and to agree with his S. querci. zans, as they also do with my brief notes on the specimen (from Carolina) in herb. Michaux. S. Beauvoisii, Delis. I. c. p. 83, constituted on a North American Lichen, seems hardly distinct from the present.

5. S. scrobiculata, Ach. Th. coriaceous, suborbiculate, lax, scrobiculate, leaden-gray (and glaucescent); lanuginous on the under side, with naked, white spots; laciniæ rounded, somewhat entire (commonly sorediiferous); apoth. scattered, from rufous becoming fuscous.' Fr. Lichenogr. p. 53.

Trunks, and rocks among mosses, New England; infertile. Northward to Newfoundland, Pylaie. S. limbata, Ach., a species resembling this, but with urceolate, true cyphellæ, very possibly occurs with us.

6. S. anthraspis, Ach. Th. cartilagineous-membranaceous, lacu

nose-reticulate, broadly round-lobed, cinereous-virescent; rugulose and somewhat villous beneath, with small, white, sorediiform cyphellæ ; lobes somewhat crenate; apoth. scattered, disk at length convex, black, , and excluding the entire thalline margin. Ach. Syn. p. 233.

On the earth, among mosses; Northwest Coast, Menzies! New York, Halsey. The upper surface resembling that of S. pulmonaria.

7. S. pulmonaria, Ach. Th. coriaceous, lax, lacunose-reticulate, dark green (and olivaceous) ; tomentose on the under side, with naked, white spots ; lacinia elongated; discrete, sinuate-lobed, retuse-truncate; apoth. submarginal, rufous. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 53. Lichen pulmonarius, L.

Trunks in mountain forests, fertile. Also on rocks, where various sterile forms are found. Among these is S. linita, Ach., quoted by Delise as from the United States, which has occurred at the White Mountains, with all the features of the Swiss Lichen. New England. New York, Torrey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. Newfoundland, Pylaie.

8. S. glomerulifera, Delis. Th. coriaceous-cartilagineous, thick, orbicular, appressed, smooth, from pale green becoming glaucescent; villous on the under side, with scattered, excavated cyphellæ (which are often wanting); lacinia elongated, sinuate-lobed; apoth. scattered, dark-reddish-chestnut, with a rugose, persistent margin. Delis. Stict. p. 129. Tuckerm. Further Enum. I. c. Parmelia, Ach.

Trunks of trees, and rocks, fertile ; New England. Pennsylvania, Muhl, in herb. Willd.! Northward to Newfoundland, Pylaie. The green glomerules of the European Lichen always wanting in ours. Young plants of this species may be taken for the next.

9. S. herbacea, Ach. Th. membranaceous, appressed, smooth, obscurely green (and glaucescent); on the under side paler, lanuginous, the membranaceous, hoary cyphellæ rare ; lacinia sinuate-repand, rounded at the apices; apoth. scattered, rufous, margin crenulate. Ach. Syn. p. 341. Parmelia, Ach. Syn. p. 198.

Trunks and rocks. Pennsylvania, Muhl. New York, Torrey, Halsey. Arctic America, Rich.


Apothecia scutelliform, orbicular, adnate horizontally to the disk of the thallus, with an equal thalline margin. Disk at first connivent

closed, somewhat waxy. Thallus expanded horizontally from a centre, two-sided, of various form, upon a hypothallus. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 56.


Sect. I. The fibrillose hypothallus adnate to the foliaceous thallus,

which is discrete from the matrix. Subsect. I. IMBRICARIA, Fr. — Apothecia elevated, subpedicellate,

regular; disk very thin, naked, placed upon the gonimous layer. Thallus imbricate-foliaceous ; often black-dotted from abortion

of the apothecia. - Sp. 1-24. Subsect. II. Physcia, Fr. — Apothecia at first closed, at length de

hiscent. Disk thickish, waxy, placed upon the medullary layer. Thallus normally foliaceous ; ascendant or stellate ; fibrillose

on the under side. * Thallus normally ascendant, or loosely decumbent; apoth. some

what obliquely marginate. - Sp. 25. ** Thallus normally stellate-appressed ; apoth. plane. -Sp. 26


Sp. 34.

Sect. II. Thallus subfoliaceous, at length compacted into a conglom

erate, subgranulose crust; arising from a fibrillose (rarely ob

solete) hypothallus, which is adnate to the matrix. Subsect. III. Pyxine, Tuckerm. Apothecia erumpent, at first

closed, palish ; becoming patellæform, and, with the altered thalline margin, black; finally cephaloid, excluding the margin. Thallus subfoliaceous, imbricate-laciniate, at length crustaceous-concrete at the centre, on a black, fibrillose hypothal.

lus. Subscct. IV. AMPHILOMA, Fr. — Apothecia erumpent, somewhat cor

onate with an accessory thalline margin. Disk waxy, thickish, naked. Thallus foliaceous, somewhat monophyllous, rounded, at length crustaceous-compact at the centre, placed on a spongy

pannose hypothallus. - Sp. 35-38. Subsect. V. PSOROMA, Fr. — Apothecia for the most part two-formed,

adnate or immersed; arising in the one case from the thallus, with a crenate-thalline margin ; and in the other from the hypothallus, with an entire proper margin. Disk waxy. Thallus of discrete, foliaceous squamules, arising from a common hy. pothallus; often at the centre, or wholly, concrete in a subgranulose crust.

Sp. 39-41.

Sect. III. Thallus crustaceous, lobed at the circumference, or wholly

squamulose-effigurate. Hypothallus smooth, adnate to the ma

trix, often confused with the thallus. Subsect. VI. PLACODIUM, Fr. — Apothecia plano-scutelliform, elevat

ed, disk without proper margin, naked. Thallus as above.

(Thalline margin often colored like the disk.) - Sp. 42-47. Subsect. VII. Psora, Fr. — Apothecia innate, at first somewhat ur

ceolate, afterwards scutelliform. Disk with a proper margin (visible at least in the younger apothecia), normally at first

cæsious-pruinose. Thallus as above. — Sp. 48 - 50. Sect. IV. Thallus crustaceous, uniform. Circumference similar, or

the hypothallus sometimes fibrillose-radiant. Subsect. VIII. PATELLARIA, Fr. - Apothecia regular, scutelliform,

sessile, the thalline margin persistent. Lamina of the disk somewhat plane, without proper margin. Thallus crustaceous, adnate to an indeterminate, mostly black hypothallus. Disk not

cæsious-pruinose. - Sp. 51-66. Subsect. IX. URCEOLARIA, Fr. — Apothecia innate in the crust, or

immersed in protuberant warts. Lamina urceolate, or protuberant, verrucæform, blackish, normally cæsious-pruinose, marginate. Thallus crustaceous; the whitish hypothallus confused with the thallus, or often fibrillose and radiant. — Sp. 67 - 70.

Sect. I. The fibrillose hypothallus adnate to the foliaceous thallus.

Subsect. I. IMBRICARIA, Fr.

Series 1. Glaucescentes, Fr. 1. P. crinita, Ach. Thallus submembranaceous, suborbicular, glaucous-fuscescent (the whole thallus, as well as the apothecia, beset with isidioid granules and branchlets); black and somewhat smooth on the under side, and here and there black-fibrillose ; lobes plane, with somewhat ascendant, erose-crenate, ciliate margins ; apothecia (imperforate) marginal, subpedicellate,cyathiform, with a thin, inflexed, crenulate margin, at length explanate, large. Ach.! Syn. p. 196. P. perforata, ß. Fr.

Trunks, &c., fertile ; New England. New York, Torrey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. There appear to be indications of other differences beside the isidioid efflorescence to distinguish this from P. perforata. The latter is perfectly normal with us.

2. P. perforata, Ach. Th. membranaceous, smooth, greenish-glaucescent; on the under side black, with dark fibres ; lobes rounded, ascendant, subcrenate, ciliate ; apoth. large, rufous, elevated, infundibuliform ; disk perforate, at length explanate, margin very entire. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 55. Trees, particularly on the coast, luxuriant and fertile.

Also on stones, &c., in sterile states. Pennsylvania and Virginia (from Bartram and Mitchell), Dill., the original stations of the Lichen. New Eng. land. New York, Torrey. Northwest Coast, Menzies (Herb. Smith!).

3. P. perlata, Ach. Th. submembranaceous, suborbicular, greenish-glaucous; on the under side blackish-fuscous, scarcely fibrillose; lobes rounded, plane, not ciliate ; apoth. elevated, dark red, cyathiform, at length explanate, margin thin, entire. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 59.

- B. olivetorum, Ach. ; margins of the lobes elevated, crisped, whitepulverulent. Ach. Syn. p. 198.

Trunks and rocks in mountainous districts, fertile ; and common also in sterile forms; New England. New York, Halsey.

4. P. scortea, Ach. Th. subcoriaceous, orbicular, smooth, glaucouswhite ; on the under side black, hispid-fibrillose ; lobes longish, sinuate-crenate, incised; apoth. rufous-fuscous, margin somewhat entire. Ach. Syn. p. 197.

Stones and trunks, fertile ; New England. New York, Halsey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. Less common than the next, with which Fries unites it.

5. P. tiliacea, Ach. Th. membranaceous, orbicular, smoothish, glaucous-cinerascent; on the under side blackish-fuscous, with black fibres; lobes sinuate-laciniate, the external ones rounded, crenate ; apoth. subfuscous, margin very entire. Ach. Syn. p. 199.

Trunks, fertile, very common; New England. New York, Halsey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. Nova Scotia, Menzies !

6. P. Borreri, Turn. Th. cartilagineous-membranaceous, orbicular, smoothish, glaucous-cinerascent (with round, marginate soredia); on the under side fuscescent, fuscous-fibrillose ; laciniæ rounded at the apices, naked ; apoth. chestnut, margin inflexed, entire. Fr. Lichen. ogr. p. 60. – B. rudecta, Tuckerm. ; soredia immarginate ; the whole thallus beset with isidioid granules and branchlets. P. rudecta, Ach. ! Syn. p. 197.

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