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Trunks, &c., fertile; New York, Halsey. -B, New England. Pennsylvania, Muhl. The anamorphous development called by Sommerfelt Lecidea Parmeliarum, and referred by Acharius to Endocarpon, occurs not unfrequently in this species, as well as in the next.

7. P. saxatilis, Ach. Th. subcartilagineous, reticulate-lacunose, glaucous-cinerascent; black and fibrillose beneath; laciniæ sinuate. lobed, plane, subretuse ; apoth. dark-chestnut, margin at length crenate. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 61. -a; lacinia irregularly imbricate, nar. rower. Ach. Lichenogr. p. 469. - 3. rosaformis, Ach.; th. orbicular, lobes wider, besprinkled commonly with elongated, marginate soredia ; apoth. smaller, less explanate. Ach. I. c. p. 471.- 4. omphalodes, Fr.; th. smoothish, shining, dark purplish-fuscous, lacinia subtruncate. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 62. Parmelia omphalodes, Ach. Syn. p. 203.

Rocks and stones, and, somewhat less commonly, on trees and rails, fertile ; New England. New York, Torrey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. Northward to Arctic America, Rich. — y. Arctic America.

8. P. aleurites, Ach. Th. membranaceous, orbicular, contiguous, rugose-plicate, glaucescent (at length furfuraceous); on the under side pale, with fuscous fibres; lobes discrete at the circumference, plane, rounded, cut-crenate; apoih. dark-fuscous, margin at length crenulate. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 62.

Dead wood, and firs, in mountainous districts, fertile; and on rocks, sterile. The sterile plant is also common on rails, &c., on the coast. New England. New York, Halsey. Fries refers to this species the P. obsessa, Muhl. Catal., and Ach. Syn. p. 213.

9. P. lævigata, Ach. Th. membranaceous, suborbicular, smooth, glaucescent; black, and fibrillose on the under side ; laciniæ multifid, linear, plane, cut, divaricate (often sorediiferous); apoth. chestnut, margin very entire. Ach. Syn. p. 212.

Trunks (very common on beech in mountainous districts), fertile.

10. P. sinuosa, Ach. Th. membranaceous, suborbicular, smooth, glaucescent; black, and fibrillose on the under side; laciniæ linear, wider at the circumference, sinuate-pinnatifid, the sinuses wide, circular; apoth. somewhat plane, fuscous, margin thin, very entire. Ach. Syn. p. 207.

Trunks and rocks. Nova Scotia, Ach. Fries and Meyer refer this and the last to a single species, but Borrer regards them distinct.

11. P. terebrata, Mart. Th. somewhat inflated, suborbicular, green. ish-glaucescent; plicate-rugose and black on the under side ; lacinia radiant, approximate, plane-appressed, sublinear (often sorediiferous), with small, regular, rounded perforations; apoth. scattered, plane, red, margin very entire. Mart. Fl. Crypt. Erlang. P.diatrypa, Ach. Syn. p. 219. Tuckerm. Lich. N. E. I. c.

Trunks in mountain forests, frequent, and rocks, fertile ; New Eng. land.

12. P. physodes, Ach. Th. somewhat inflated, suborbicular, glaucous-white ; black-fuscous and naked on the under side ; laciniæ loosely imbricate, linear, sinuate-multifid, somewhat convex; apoth. elevated, reddish-fuscous, with an inflexed, entire margin, at length explanate. Ach. Syn. p. 218. — B. enteromorpha, Tuckerm. ; laciniæ effuse, lax, somewhat elongated, ventricose-inflated ; apoth. subpedicellate, ventricose-cyathiform, at length explanate, very entire. P. enteromorpha, Ach.! Syn. p. 219. P. platycarpa, Tuckerm. Lich. N. E. l. c.

Trunks, dead wood, and rocks, fertile ; New England. New York, Torrey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. North to Arctic America, Rich. -B, firs and other trees in high mountain forests. Northwest Coast, Menzies! Douglas in herb. Hook.! Mountains of New England, fertile, and evidently passing into a.

13. P. colpodes, Ach. Th. somewhat inflated, suborbicular, greenish-glaucescent; black and spongy on the under side; lacinia somewhat plane, at the circumference ramose-multifid, with irregularly dentate margins ; apoth. elevated, chestnut, margin inflexed, entire. Swartz Lich. Amer. p. 4, & t. 3. Ach. ! Syn. p. 219.

Trunks. Near Boston, Swartz (the original station of the Lichen). Throughout New England, common and fertile. New York, Halsey. Pennsylvania, Muhl.

Series 2. Olivaceo-fusca, Fr. 14. P. olivacea, Ach. Th. membranaceous, orbicular, smooth, rugulose (elevated-punctate, or granulate-farinose), olivaceous-fuscous ; paler and subfibrillose on the under side ; lobes radiant, appressed, plane, rounded, crenate ; apoth. dark-olive, with an inflexed, at length crenate margin. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 66.

Trees in mountainous districts, fertile ; also degenerant on dead wood and stones; New England. New York, Torrey. Pennsylvania, Muhl.! Northward to Arctic America, Rich.

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15. P. Fahlunensis, Ach. Th. subcartilagineous, smoothish, from dark-olive becoming blackish ; on the under side paler, subfibrillose ; lacinia digitate-multifid, somewhat plane, subcanaliculate ; apoth. darkfuscous, crenulate. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 66. — B. sciastra, Fr.; smaller, orbicular; apoth. subentire. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 67. Parmelia, Ach.

Alpine and subalpine rocks, and occurring also at lower elevations in mountainous districts. White Mountains ; Chin of Mansfield, and other of the Green Mountains; fertile. Northward to Newfoundland, Pylaie, and Arctic America, Rich. B, Greenland, Dill.

16. P. stygia, Ach. Th. subcartilagineous, shining, from olivaceous-fuscous becoming black ; very black on the under side and obsoletely fibrillose ; laciniæ palmate-multifid, sublinear, convex, recurved at the apices; apoth. fuscous-black, crenate. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 67. B. lanata, Mey. ; laciniæ setaceous, filiform, terete, intricate, fuscousnigrescent; apoth. subgranulate-marginate. Mey. Entwick. der Flecht. p. 231. Fr. l. c. p. 68. Cornicularia lanata, Ach. Syn. p. 302.

Alpine and subalpine rocks. White Mountains and the higher Green Mountains. Northward to Newfoundland, Pylaie, and Arctic America, R. Br. -B, White Mountains, infertile. Northward to Arctic America, Hook. Melville Island, R. Br.

Series 3. Ochroleucæ, Fr. 17. P. caperata, Ach. Th. submembranaceous, orbicular, rugose (or granulose-pulverulent), ochroleucous ; on the under side blackish and sparingly fibrillose ; lobes sinuate-laciniate, rounded, somewhat entire at the apices ; apoth. fuscous-red, margin tumid-incurved, rugose-crenate. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 69.

Trunks and stones, not commonly fertile ; New England. New York, Torrey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. Westward to Illinois, Russell ! North to Arctic America, Rich.

18. P. conspersa, Ach. Th. submembranaceous, smoothish, polished (oftener black-punctate), greenish-straw-colored ; fuscous and black-fibrillose beneath ; laciniæ variously flexuous, somewhat plane at the circumference, sinuate ; apoth. dark-chestnut, margin subentire. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 69. – 3. stenophylla, Ach. ; lacinia elongated, linear, pinnatifid, imbricate-complicate. Ach. Syn. p. 209.

Rocks and stones, commonly remarkable for its very numerous apothecia ; New England. New York, Torrey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. North to Arctic America, Rich. Degenerate on rails, &c.

19. P. incurva, Fr. Th. cartilagineous-membranaceous, stellate-imbricate, globuliferous, greenish-straw.colored (and ochroleucous); black and fibrillose on the under side ; laciniæ very narrow, multifid, subterete, recurved at the apices ; apoth. rufous-fuscous, subentire. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 70. P. recurva, Ach.

Rocks in mountainous districts (subalpine, and descending). White Mountains ; fertile.

20. P. ambigua, Ach. Th. membranaceous, orbicular, stellate-imbricate, farinose-sorediiferous, greenish-straw-colored (and ochroleucous); black and fibrillose on the under side ; laciniæ plane, linear, appressed, multifid ; apoth. adnate, rufous-fuscous, very entire. Fr. Lichenogr. p.71.

Trunks and dead wood in mountainous districts, fertile ; and on rocks, infertile ; White Mountains. Northward to Arctic America, Rich.

21. P. centrifuga, Ach. Th. submembranaceous, suborbicular, greenish-straw-colored (and ochroleucous); white and fibrillose on the under side (the crust-like centre often falling away, and leaving a concentrically disposed circumference); laciniæ linear, concrete, convex, rugose ; apoth. rufous-fuscous, margin subentire. Fr.! Lichenogr. p.71.

Rocks (subalpine and descending) in mountainous districts, fertile ; New England. New York, Torrey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. Northward to Newfoundland, Herb. Banks ! Pylaie. An ochroleucous, black-punctate, not concentrically disposed state is P. Halseyana, Tuckerm. Lich. N. E. l. c. It occurs in the Notch of the White Mountains.

Series 4. Citrine, Fr. 22. P. parietina, Fr. Th. foliaceous or squamulose, imbricate, membranaceous, sublobate, yellow; paler and obsoletely fibrillose on the under side ; apothecia with elevated margins, very entire. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 72. - a. (foliacea), Fr. ; th. foliaceous, from greenish becoming bright yellow ; lobes explanate, appressed. P. parietina, Ach. B. aureola, Fr.; th. foliaceous, somewhat zoned and subcentrifugal, dark.goldenyellow ; lobes concrete, plicate-ramose. P. aureola, Ach. y. rutilans, Fr.; th. foliaceous-subcrustaceous, imbricate complicate, irregularly laciniate. P. rutilans, Ach. -- 8. laciniosa, Duf.; th. naked, lacerate-dissected, squamulose ; lacinia ascending, naked. — &. polycarpa, Fr. ; th. smaller, conglomerate ; the lobes complicated, and covered with the

very numerous apothecia. Lecanora caudelaris, B. Ach. §. lobulata, Fr. ; th. obliterated, or consisting only of very short, scattered, appressed lobules, with small apothecia. — n. substellata, Ach.; th. foliaceous, substellate, lacerate-laciniate, laciniæ expanded, pulverulent. — 9. concolor, Fr.; th. pulverulent, squamulose, lacerate-laciniate, scales crowded, ascendant. Lecan. caudelaris, a. Ach. - 1. citrinella, Fr. ; the whole thallus dissolved into a yellowish-green dust.

Very common : a, on trunks, rocks, &c.; B, on rocks and stones (especially maritime), exposed to the sun; y and S, on trunks, exposed to the sun ; & and S, on the smaller branches and twigs of trees; n and 9, on smooth bark, the last also common on dead wood ; -, on bark and dead wood in moist places ; New England. New York (y and 9), Halsey. Pennsylvania (9), Muhl. Ohio (u), Mr. Lea! Illinois (u), Rus. sell! Northward to Nova Scotia (y), Menzies ! Newfoundland (@), Pylaie, and Arctic America (ε and 9), Rich. ! I have adopted Fries's view of the European species nearly entire. He remarks that he has distinguished and enumerated these forms, not so much on account of their importance as distinct states, as to furnish an example, that can almost everywhere be authenticated, of the extremely Protean character of the thallus of Lichens.

23. P. diversicolor, Ach. Th. suborbicular, yellowish-orange-red (becoming whitish with age), of rather narrow, somewhat lacerate-ramose, rugose, at length concrete laciniæ; white-cinerascent, with fibres of the same color beneath ; apoth. numerous, concave, blackish-sanguineous, margin thick, at length white. Ach. Syn. p. 210.

Arctic America, and southward, Ach.

24. P. chrysophthalma, Ach. Th. subfoliaceous, cartilagineous. membranaceous, lacerate-ramose, from dark reddish-yellow becoming whitish ; on the under side whitish, and fibrillose at the margins; laciniæ depressed-subascendant, plano-convex, pinnatifid; apoth. darkorange, fibrillose-ciliate or naked. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 75. Borrera, Ach.-B. exilis, Fr. ; lacinia very narrow; margins of the apothecia naked. Fr. l. c. Borrera, Ach.

Trunks and branches of trees near the coast, and luxuriant in places exposed to the sea-spray; New England. New York, Torrey (at Newburgh, Russell !). Pennsylvania, Muhl. Illinois, Russell !

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