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Subsect. II. Physcia, Fr. 25. P. ciliaris, Ach. Thallus cartilagineous, from green becoming glaucous ; laciniæ linear, ramose, subascendant, channelled beneath, ciliate with simple fibres ; apothecia subterminal, pedicellate, margin erect, at length lacerate-dentate, fimbriate, or obliterated in foliaceous branches; disk plane, black, subpruinose. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 77. Borrera, Ach. B. galactophylla, Tuckerm.; more delicate ; the lacinia very white and powdery beneath ; margins of the apothecia at length obliterated in foliaceous expansions; disk white-pruinose. P. galactophylla, Willd. herb. ! --- y. angustala, Tuckerm. ; laciniæ extremely narrow, of nearly the same color beneath, subterete at the apices. Borrera angustata, Bory ms.

Trees, New England (3), rare. New York, Torrey. Pennsylvania (8), Muhl. ! and southward, where ß is common.

North to Arctic America, Rich. - y, Newfoundland, Bory in herb. Berol.! Rocky Mountains, Herb. Hook.! P. leucomela, Ach., a species near this, but with narrow, ascendant laciniæ, and tomentose marginal fibres, occurs in the Carolinas, Michr.! and California, Menzies! and P. erinacea, Fr., with lacerate-lacinjate, diffuse lobes, which are ciliate, and beset above with very long whitish fibres, in California, Menzies !

26. P. detonsa, Fr. Th. cartilagineous, substellate, naked, glaucousfuscescent (and fuscous) ; whitish on the under side with black fibres; laciniæ narrow, linear, somewhat convex, digitate-multifid, often semiterete, very densely crowded together and imbricated ; apoth. subsessile, margin at length crenate, and leafy, disk plane, becoming darkfuscous. Fr. Syst. Orb. Veg. fide ipsius. P. Novæ Anglia, Tuckerm. in lilt. olim. P. aquila, Muhl. Catal.

Rocks and trees, New England. Ohio, Mr. Lea! Near to P. aqui. la. I have not seen Fries's description.

27. P. pulverulenta, Fr. Th. cartilagineous, substellate, pruinosecinereous; black on the under side and hispid-tomentose ; lacinia linear, multifid, approximate ; apoth. sessile, margin tumid, entire, or squamulose-foliose, disk plane, black-fuscous, subpruinose. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 79. P. pulverulenta, venusta, f. muscigena, Ach. 8. leucoleiptes, Tuckerm. ; the whole thallus white-farinose-pruinose, lobes radiant, margins interruptedly inflexed and pulverulent; apoth. subsessile, disk depressed, white-pruinose, margin subduplicate, the external border foliose or entire. Lichen leucoleiptes, Muhl. in herb.

Willd.! P. venusta, Hals. & Auct. Amer. P. pulverulenta, Muhl. Tuckerm. Lich. N. E. 1. c.

Trunks, rocks, and upon mosses ; Bear Lake and elsewhere in Arctic America, Rich. (Herb. Hook. !). – B, trunks and rocks; New England to Pennsylvania ! often isidioid-efflorescent.

28. P. hypoleuca, Muhl. Th. cartilagineous, substellate, glabrous, naked, glaucous-virescent (and white); very white on the under side, with scattered black fibres ; laciniæ sublinear, approximate, imbricate, multifid, plano-convex, margins naked; apoth. elevated, disk at length black, naked, with an inflexed, crenulate or foliose margin. Muhl. Catal. p. 105, f Eaton Man. Bot. p. 516. Tuckerm. Further Enum. 1. c. P. speciosa, B. hypoleuca, Ach. ! Syn. p. 211.

Trunks, fertile. Pennsylvania, Muhl.! and northward to New Eng. land.

29. P. speciosa, Ach. Th. cartilagineous-membranaceous, substellate, glabrous, greenish-glaucous (and white); very white beneath, with numerous pale fibres; laciniæ linear, somewhat concavo-plane, imbricate, incised-ramose, crenate, ciliate-fibrillose, margins often ascendant, green-pulverulent; apoth. subsessile, margin incurved, crenate, disk rufous-fuscous, nearly naked.' Fr. Lichenogr. p. 80.

Trunks and mossy rocks in woods, infertile ; New England. Pennsylvania, Muhl.

30. P. congruens, Ach. Th. coriaceous-membranaceous, whitish. pallescent; on the under side cinereous-fuscescent, with fibres of the same color; laciniæ laxly-imbricate, flexuous, multifid, recurved at the margins, convex, becoming more plane in the circumference, crenate ; apoth. elevated, concave, livid-fuscescent, subpruinose, with a thin, inflexed, at length flexuous margin. Ach. Lichenogr. p. 491. Swartz Lich. Amer. p. 5 f 1.4. Ach. Syn. p. 207.

Trunks, New England; Swartz, l. c. I have a Lichen from the White Mountains resembling this, except that the under side as well as the fibres are black.

31. P. stellaris, Wallr. Th. subcartilagineous, naked, not pruinose, glaucescent; whitish on the under side, with dark fibres ; laciniæ sublinear, multifid ; apoth. sessile, disk fuscous-black, subpruinose, margin somewhat tumid, subentire. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 82. - a. (stellari-expansa), Fr.; th. stellate-expanded, fibres shorter. Fr. l. c. P. stellaris, aipo

lia, f. anthelina, Ach. B. hispida, Fr.; laciniæ ascendant, hispid on the margins, or tubulose-inflated. Fr. l. c. Borrera tenella, Ach. - 7. (tribracia), Fr. ; lacinia ascendant, squamulose, sparingly fibrillose, pulverulent at the apices. Fr. l. c. Lecanora tribracia, Ach. part.

Trunks, dead wood, and rocks, very common; New England. New York, Torrey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. Illinois, Russell! Northward to Arctic America, Rich.

32. P. cæsia, Ach. Th. subcrustaceous-membranaceous, substellate, gray (and cinerascent), besprinkled with gray soredia ; pale on the un. der side ; laciniæ linear, somewhat convex, subpinnatifid, ciliate-fibrillose ; apoth. sessile, margin thin, somewhat inflexed, entire, disk at length naked, black. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 83. - a. (stellata), Fr.; lacinia stellate-expanded, fibres shorter, soredia regular; P. cæsia, Ach.; and the laciniæ sometimes very narrow. Fr. l.c. P. dubia, Fl. B. (squamulosa), Fr. ; laciniæ squamulose, short, obsoletely fibrillose. Fr. l. c. Lecanora tribracia, Ach. part.

Rocks, stones, and dead wood, fertile ; New England. New York, Halsey. Pennsylvania, Muhl.

33. P. obscura, Fr. Th. submembranaceous, orbicular, not pruinose, greenish, becoming livid-fuscous when dry ; black and fibrillose on the under side ; laciniæ sublinear, somewhat plane, incised-multifid (often sorediiferous, or the margins pulverulent); apoth. sessile, very entire, disk naked from the first, black-fuscous. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 84. P. cycloselis, Ach. B. ulothrix, Fr.; laciniæ linear, subciliate, apoth. fibrillose below. Fr. 1. c. P. ulothrix, Ach.

Trunks, dead wood, &c., and passing into several degenerate states; New England. New York (a and 3), Halsey. Pennsylvania (B), Muhl. Ohio (B), Mr. Lea! Northward to Arctic America (a), Rich. A very distinct species detected recently by Mr. Oakes (P. Tuckermani, Oakes ms.) may be referred to here. Resembling generally small greenish forms of P. parietina, this differs in the foliose-lobate margins of the apothecia, which are also fibrillose beneath, as in P. obscura, ß. It is common on trunks about Boston (Oakes, Tuckerman), and I have found it on rocks at the White Mountains. It was sent from Ohio by the late T. G. Lea, Esq. (Herb. Russell !), and I have North Carolina specimens from Mr. Curtis. (What is P. fibrosa, Fr., referred to in. cidentally, Lich. pp. 75, 97 ?)

Sect. II. The subfoliaceous at length subgranulose thallus arising from a fibrillose hypothallus, which is adnate to the matrix.

Subsect. III. Pyxine, Tuckerm. 34. P. sorediata, Tuckerm. Thallus subcrustaceous-foliaceous, laciniate-multifid, from green becoming glaucescent, and cinerascent; black on the under side, and thickly clothed with greenish-nigrescent fibres; lacinia sublinear, canaliculate, incised, obtuse, irregularly imbricate, and concrete at the centre (often sorediiferous); apothecia at first pale, and concave, becoming black, convex, and finally proliferous-papillate and irregular. Lecidea, Ach. Syn. p. 54. Tuckerm. Further Enum. l. c. Lichen alomatus, Willd. herb. ! Pyxine, Fr. cit. Eschw.

Trunks, common (abundantly fertile in mountain forests), and also on rocks; New England. Pennsylvania, Muhl.! Rocky Mountains, Herb. Hook.! (Southward to Texas !) I have not seen the description of Fries, and am uncertain whether his Pyxine is founded on our Northern Lichen (which is probably what Acharius described), or on the West Indian and South American Lecidea sorediata of Eschweiler. The latter seems distinct, and has been separated as Circinaria Berteriana by Feé (Crypt. Exot. p. 128). Our Lichen appears to me a modification of Parmelia, near to Amphiloma, Fr. The apothecia have some of the features of those of Umbilicaria, and illustrate Fries's observation, that this genus is related to Parmelia.

Subsect. IV. AMPHILOMA, Fr. 35. P. rubiginosa, Ach. Thallus membranaceous, suborbicular, not pruinose, livid-glaucous, laciniate-multifid at the circumference; hypothallus indeterminate, tomentose, bluish-black ; apothecia reddishbrown, with an incurved, crenate margin. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 88.- B. conoplea, Fr.; the centre of the thallus passing into a bluish, pulveraceous-granulose crust; 'apothecia symphycarpeous, immersed, convex, granulose-marginate.' Fr. I. c. P. conoplea, Ach.

Rocks and trunks. B has occurred at the White Mountains ; and I have a from the South.

36. P. Russellii, Tuckerm. Th. orbicular, coriaceous-membranaceous, minutely farinose-granulose, submonophyllous, irregularly radiant, pale-fuscescent-lead-colored ; laciniæ somewhat ascendant; hypoth. indeterminate, of very short white fibres becoming lead-colored at the margins; apoth. (central, very numerous) reddish-chestnut and nigres

cent, with a thick, inflexed, at length rugose, thalline margin. Tuckerm. Enum. Lich. N. Amer. p. 50.

Trunks and dead wood ; Hingham, Mr. Russell. Ipswich, Mr. Oakes.

37. P. Cronia, Tuckerm. Th. orbicular, membranaceous, smooth, radiant, submonophyllous, dark-bluish becoming pale-lead-colored ; laciniæ plane, with elevated, darker margins (beset with elevated, often blackish points, and isidioid branchlets); hypoth. determinate, dark cærulescent.

Rocks among mosses, common on the coast of Massachusetts, and resembling a Collema; infertile. It is very distinct from P. plumbea.

38. P. lanuginosa, Ach. Th. membranaceous, white, pruinose ; in the circumference lobed and crenate ; hypoth. tomentose, bluish-black; apoth. rufous-fuscous, with a pulverulent thalline margin. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 88. — B. (granulosa), Fr. ; thallus, at the centre, or mostly, gran. ulose-pulverulent. Fr. I. c. * (leproso-byssina); the whole thallus dissolved into a leprous-byssine mass. Fr. l. c. Lepraria, Ach.

Rocks in the mountainous districts and on the coast of New Eng. land ; rarely fertile.

Subsect. V. PSOROMA, Fr. 39. P. microphylla, Stenh. Scales of the thallus cartilagineous, imbricate, crenate, livid-cinereous, compacted at length into a cinereous crust; hypothallus becoming black; apothecia superficial, disk fuscousblack, finally convex, and excluding the thalline margin. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 90. Lecidea, Ach.

Rocks in woods, fertile ; New England.

40. P. triptophylla, Fr. Scales of the thallus membranaceous, lividfuscescent, at first stellate-expanded, and lacerate-dissected, at length granulose-coralline; hypoth. bluish-black; apoth. somewhat immersed, disk rather plane, rufous-fuscous, margin erect, persistent. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 91. - a. coronata, Fr. ; apoth. produced from the thallus, with a thalline margin, and either simple or symphycarpeous. Fr. l. c. Lecanora brunnea, Ach. part. B. Schraderi, Schær. ; apoth. produced from the hypothallus, plane, destitute of a thalline margin. Fr. 1. c. — y. corallinoides, Fr.; crust blackish from the predominant hy. pothallus, squamules wholly coralline. Fr. l. c.

Rocks in woods; New England. New York, Halsey. Pennsylvania, Dill. Northward to Arctic America, Rich.

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