Imágenes de páginas

41. P. Hypnorum, Fr. Scales of the thallus minute, imbricate, granulate-crenulate, somewhat yellowish-fuscescent; pale on the under side; apoth. sessile, dilated, disk membranaceous, fulvous-fuscescent, with an elevated, granulose, thalline margin. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 98. Icon, Laur. in Sturm's Fl. t. 18.

On the earth, growing over mosses and twigs, in alpine districts. White Mountains, frequent upon Salix Uva-Ursi, on Mount Pleasant, &c., fertile. Northward to Arctic America, Rich.

Sect. III. Thallus crustaceous, lobate at the circumference, or wholly

squamulose and effigurate.

Subsect. VI. PLACODIUM, Fr. 42. P. straminea, Wahl. Thallus crustaceous, plicate-radiose, strawcolored ; lacinia convex, teretish, contiguous; apothecia plane, reddish-fuscous, with a tumid thalline margin. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 109.

Rocks. Greenland, Fries. And elsewhere in Arctic America, Rich.

43. P. saxicola, Ach. Th. cartilagineous, appressed, areolate-squamulose, pale-greenish; the circumference of somewhat plane, radioselobate, concrete laciniæ; apoth. appressed, disk yellowish-fulvous, margin thin, at length crenate. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 110. Lecanora galacti

na, Ach.

Rocks and stones, fertile; New England. New York, Halsey.

44. P. chrysoleuca, Ach. Th. cartilagineous, subfoliaceous, crenatelobate, greenish-straw.colored; fuscescent on the under side ; apoth. appressed, disk golden-fulvous, and dark orange-red, with a thin, flexuous, evanescent margin Fr. Lichenogr. p. 113. Lecanora rubina, Ach. Squamaria, Hoffm. Tuckerm. Lich. N. E. 1. c.

Rocks, New England. Northward to Arctic America, Rich. (Herb. Hook.!).

45. P. oreina, Ach. Th. crustaceous-adnate, areolate-verrucose, pale-greenish-straw.colored ; at the circumference radiose-lobate, plane, incised, black-marginate ; apoth. depressed, disk somewhat tumid, black, margin obtuse, very entire. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 113. P. straminea, var. Ach. Mey. Tuckerm. Further Enum. I. c.

Rocks, throughout New England; fertile. 46. P. elegans, Ach. Th. stellate-radiose, appressed, dark orange

red, naked on both sides ; lacinia somewhat discrete, linear, convex, contiguous, flexuous; apoth. of the same color, very entire. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 114.

Rocks and stones near the sea, New England. Northward to Newfoundland, Pylaie, Point Lake, &c., Rich., and Melville Island, R. Br.

fertile ;

47. P. murorum, Ach. Th. crustaceous, adnate, contiguous, in the circumference radiose-plicate, pale yellow; white underneath ; apoth. sessile, disk naked, dark yellow, with a thin, entire, somewhat flexuous margin. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 115. - p. miniata, Fr. ; th. verrucose, less and more narrowly radiose, naked, vermilion-colored. Fr. I. c. Leca

nora, Ach.

Rocks and stones near the sea, New England, fertile. — , Pennsylvania, Muhl. Arctic America, Rich.

Subsect VII. Psora, Fr. 48. P. molybdina, Wahl. Thallus crustaceous, areolate-verrucose, radiate-plicate, dark-fuscous; white beneath ; laciniæ of the circumference linear; apothecia innate, disk urceolate, blackish-fuscous, marginate, with a tumid thalline margin. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 126.

Rocks. Greenland, Fries.

49. P. cervina, Sommerf. Th. areolate-squamaceous; the scales crustaceous, subpeltate, repand or lobed, from greenish becoming lividchestnut; on the under side white ; apoth. at first immersed, marginate, at length protuberant, disk rufous-fuscous. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 127.

- B. squamulosa, Fr.; th. chestnut-tawny; apoth. naked, thalline mar. gin thin or wanting. Fr. l. c.

Rocks. White Mountains. Northward to Arctic America, Rich.

50. P. chrysomelana, Ach. (sub Lecanora). Th. crustaceous, areolate, yellow; areolæ flat, submembranaceous, somewhat lobate, here and there discrete ; apoth. appressed, disk plane, sanguineous-black, thalline margin elevated, subrugose, at length flexuous. Ach. Syn. p. 148.

North America (Pennsylvania ?), Muhl., Ach.

Sect. IV. Thallus crustaceous, uniform.

Subsect. VIII. PATELLARIA, Fr. 51. P. pallescens, Fr. Crust subtartareous, rugose-granulate, glauces

cent; hypothallus pale; apothecia tumid, disk plane, pale, innate-pruinose, with an erect, entire, persistent margin. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 132. Lecanora Parella, ß. Ach. Lichen pallescens, L. Spec. Pl. B. Parel. la, Fr.; crust amylaceous-tartareous, plicate-verrucose, milk-white, disk at length chinky or verrucose. Fr. l. c. Lecanora Parella, Ach. Lichen Parellus, L. Mant.

Trunks, rails, stones, &c., ascending to alpine districts. -B, rocks near the sea and large lakes. New England. New York, Torrey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. Northward to Arctic America, Rich.

52. P. tartarea, Ach. Cr. tartareous, granulate-conglomerate, glaucescent; hypoth. pale ; apoth. adnate, disk plane, rugulose, pale-yellowish-flesh-colored, with an inflexed, entire margin. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 133. - B. frigida, Ach.; hypothallus confused with the thallus ; crust at length granulate, whitish ; apoth. smaller, reddish-flesh-colored. Fr. l. c.

Rocks ; ß incrusting twigs, mosses, lichens, &c., and ascending to alpine districts; New England. New York, Halsey. Arctic America, Grev. (Pl. W. Greenl.).

53. P. rubra, Ach. Cr. subcartilagineous, smoothish, at length granulate-pulverulent, glaucescent; hypoth. pale; apoth. adnate, disk concave, red, with a tumid, inflexed, crenulate margin. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 134. Lecanora, Ach.

Trunks in mountainous districts ; New England. Pennsylvania, Muhi.

54. P. oculata, Fr. Cr. cartilagineous-tartareous, rugose, uneven, papillose, glaucescent; hypoth. pale ; apoth. sessile, concave, disk subfuscous, with an elevated, very entire margin, which is whiter than the thallus. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 135. — ; thallus isidioid, branched ; apoth. becoming black. Fr. l. c. Isidium oculatum, Ach. Turn. f Borr. Lich. Brit. p. 103.

Trunks in mountainous districts; White Mountains. Northward to Arctic America, Rich., Hook.

55. P. subfusca, Fr. Cr. cartilagineous, at first contiguous, smooth, becoming chinky and granulate, glaucescent; hypoth. macular; apoth. adnate, disk plano-convex, subfuscous, whitish within, with an erect margin colored like the thallus. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 136 (excl. P. albella). - a. discolor, Fr.; cr. as above; apoth. regular, disk thickish, always naked (red, rufous, fuscous, or black), margin entire, or at

length rugose. Fr. I. c. Lecanora subfusca, f. L. epibryon, Ach. B. distans, Fr.; cr. thin ; apoth. orbiculate, margin elevated, crenulate, disk thin, pale, at first pruinose, finally naked. Fr. I. c. Lecanora distans, Ach.

Trunks, dead wood, rocks, and stones. -B, trunks. New England. New York, Torrey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. Northward to Arctic Amer. ica, Rich.

56. P. albella, Ach. Cr. cartilagineous, thin, milk-white; apoth. orbiculate, tumid, pale-flesh-colored, whitish-pruinose, margin very entire, subevanescent. Ach. Syn. p. 168. Fr. Summ. Fl. Scand. P. subfusca, y. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 139. — B. angulosa, Fr.; apoth. aggregated, angulose-irregular, disk livid-fuscous, glaucous-pruinose, with a flexuous, subpersistent margin. Fr. Summ. Fl. Scand. P. subfusca, 8. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 139. P. angulosa, Ach.

Trunks; New England. New York (a and B), Halsey.

57. P. cæsio-rubella, Ach. Cr. thin, softish, white; apoth. scattered (rather large), disk plane, becoming at length somewhat tumid, pale-reddish and fuscescent, at first cæsious-pruinose, equalling the tumid very entire margin. Ach. Syn. p. 267.

Trunks ; New England. New York, Halsey. Pennsylvania, Muhl.

58. P. atra, Ach. Cr. cartilagineous, at length granulose-verrucose, glaucescent; hypoth. black; apoth. sessile, disk at length somewhat tumid, polished, very black, within black, with an elevated, persistent, subentire margin. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 141.

Rocks and stones; New England. New York, Halsey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. Arctic America, Rich.

59. P. cinerea, Fr. Cr. subtartareous, areolate-rimose, glaucous-ci. nereous; hypoth. black ; apoth. innate, disk naked, nigrescent, pale within, with a black, obtuse, subelevated thalline margin. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 142. Urceolaria, Ach.

Rocks and stones, very common, and passing into many varieties. An ochraceous state (Urceolaria Acharii, Ach.) occurs not uncommonly about mountain streams. New England. New York, Halsey. Arctic America, Rich.

60. P. badia, Fr. Cr. cartilagineous, rimose-areolate, subsquamulose, dark-olive; hypoth. black; disk naked, polished, fuscous-black, with an entire, persistent thalline margin. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 147.

Rocks and stones (granite), ascending to alpine districts; New England. Arctic America, Rich. Areolæ sometimes dispersed and squamaceous, with subimmersed, punctiform (imperfect) apothecia. Such a state, according to Fries, is the Endocarpon smaragdulum of some authors; and a similar one, tinged dark red by the oxide of iron, the Endocarpon Sinopicum, Wahl. The former is common in New Eng. land, and occurs in New York, Halsey. The latter is frequent on alpine and subalpine rocks on our higher mountains.

61. P. sophodes, Ach. Cr. tartareous, verrucose-granulate, from green becoming fuscescent; hypoth. black; disk opake, unpolished, fuscous-nigrescent, thalline margin thick, at length rugulose. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 149. Lecanora, Ach. B. exigua, Fr. ; small ; crust fus. cous-cinerascent; hypoth. obsolete; margins of the apothecia whitish, and disappearing. Fr. 1. c. Lecanora, Ach.

Trunks and dead wood; New England. New York (v and 8), Halsey. Pennsylvania (w), Muhl. Arctic America (3), Rich.

62. P. ventosa, Ach. Cr. tartareous, rimose-areolate, pale yellow; hypoth. white ; apoth. appressed, at length irregular, disk somewhat convex, dark-brownish-red, with a thin, pale, very entire margin. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 153. Lecanora, Ach.

Alpine and subalpine rocks; White Mountains. Newfoundland, Pylaie, and northward to Arctic America, Rich.

63. P. varia, Fr. Cr. cartilagineous, areolate-verrucose, yellowishgreen, becoming ochroleucous; hypoth. smooth, macular; apoth. ses. sile, disk polished, yellowish-flesh-colored, or discolored, with a thin, erect, entire margin. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 156. — R. Fr. ; apoth. scutelliform, plano-concave, with a persistent, sometimes crenulate, or pulverulent thalline margin. Fr.! 1. c. P. varia, Ach. B. symmicta, Fr.; disk of the apothecia somewhat excluding the paler, very entire margin, from pale.yellowish becoming fuscous. Fr.! 1. c. - y. sepincola, Fr.; apoth. somewhat immersed, convex, immarginate, from fulvous becoming black. Fr. I. c. Lecidea, Ach. - 8. polytropa, Fr.; crust areolate and granulate; margins of the apothecia pale, entire, somewhat flexuous. Fr. I. c. Lecidea, Ach.

Dead wood, stones, and trunks; New England. New York, Halsey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. B, granite rocks in mountainous districts; New England. Arctic America, Rich.

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