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Fr. I. c. Dill. Musc. p. 544, & Icon, t. 82, f. 1. — y. racemosa, Floerk. ; podetia elongated, turgescent, ramose, and, as well as the axils, gaping; branches recurved or erect, fertile ones explanate. Floerk. ! 1. c. p. 152. Fr.! 1. c. - 8. subulata, Floerk. ; podetia elongated, more slender, with subpertuse axils; apices of the fertile ones cloven ; branches erectish, or also recurved, or divergent. Floerk. ! I. c. p. 143. Fr. 1. c. — E. pungens, Ach. ; small, cæspitose, very much and intricately branched, fragile, pallescent or whitish-cinereous. Fr. l.c. C. pungens, Floerk. I. c. p. 156. C. rangiformis, Hoffm.
On the earth, common; most perfect in mountainous regions ; New England to Ohio. New York, Halsey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. — B. Pennsylvania, Dill. - . Greenland, Floerke.
15. C. rangiferina, Hoffm. Th. crustaceous, evanescent ; podetia fruticulose, trichotomously and very much branched, somewhat tomentose, cinerascent; axils subperforate; sterile apices nodding, fertile ones erect, cymose ; apoth. fuscous. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 243. Floerk.! Clad. p. 160. — B. sylvatica, Floerk. ; slender, smoother, pale-strawcolored. Floerk. Clad. p. 167. Fr. I. c. — y. alpestris, Floerk. ; softish, the branches and branchlets very densely thyrsoid-entangled. Floerk. Clad. p. 165. Fr. l. c.
On the earth, common everywhere, and fertile ; New England. New York (a, b, and y), Halsey. Pennsylvania, Dill. Northward to Canada, Michaux ; Greenland, Gieseke; and elsewhere in Arctic Amer. ica, Rich., R. Br.
Series 3. Ochroleuca, Fr.
fuscous-cerulescent at the base. colored, lutescent within.
Podetia ochroleucous; at length
16. C. carneola, Fr. Th. squamulose ; podetia membranaceouscorticate, at length finely pulverulent, ochroleucous, becoming fuscouscerulescent at the base, the scyphiferous ones turbinate; apoth. paleflesh-colored fuscescent. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 233. -a; poderia turbinate, all scyphiferous, simple or proliferous. Fr. I. c. — B; podetia elongated-turbinate, with radiate, subulate prolifications. Fr. I. c. — y. cyanipes, Fr.; poderia very long, cylindrical, simple, or the scyphi obliterated and passing into somewhat divaricate, sterilescent branches. Fr. 1. c. Icon, Laur. in Slurm's Fl. t. 13.
On the earth ; Arctic America. Greenland, Fries.
17. C. Despreauxii, Bory ms. Th. evanescent; podetia elongated, slender, cartilagineous-corticate, the epidermis separating below into bluish-white squamules, and becoming above finely granulate (not pulverulent), pale sulphureous, becoming bluish-fuscescent at the base ; scyphi narrow, proliferous-radiate, or passing into and obliterated in sterilescent branchlets ; apoth. minute, pale-flesh-colored fuscescent. Cenomyce Despreauxii, Bory, fide schedul. in herb. Berol.
On the earth in alpine districts. White Mountains. Newfoundland, Bory!
18. C. amaurocræa, Floerk. Th. crustaceous, evanescent; podetia elongated, slender, polished, somewhat curved-decumbent, palestraw-colored ; apices fuscous-black, those of the sterile podetia subulate, variously branched, of the scyphiferous ones irregularly proliferous-branched; scyphi narrow, oblique, margin dentate-radiate ; apoth. pale-flesh-colored fuscescent. Floerk. ! Clad. p. 119. Cenomyce oxyceras, Ach. Syn.
On the earth in alpine districts. White Mountains, very luxuriant and fertile. Greenland, Floerke, and elsewhere in Arctic America, Rch.
19. C. Botrytis, Hoffm. Th. squamulose ; podetia cylindrical, cartilagineous-corticate, verruculose, ochroleucous ; somewhat divided into subfastigiate branches; apoth. pale-flesh-colored and pallescent. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 234.
On the earth, and decaying logs. New York, Halsey.
20. C. uncialis, Fr. Th. crustaceous, evanescent; podetia fruticulose, dichotomous, smooth, greenish-straw.colored; axils subperforate ; sterile apices erect, blackish, fertile ones digitate-radiate; apoth. at first pale-flesh-colored, fuscescent. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 244. Ach. Syn. p. 276. C. stellata, Schær. ! Spicil. 1, p. 42 (excl. s). Floerk. ! Clad. p. 171. - a. humilior; shorter, more slender, and smooth, somewhat attenuate, the axils often imperforate. Fr. l. c. Cenomyce uncialis, Ach. Lichenogr. Lichen uncialis, Auct. — B. adunca, Ach. ; taller, somewhat turgid, incrassated above ; branches short, stellate-patent, the fertile ones cymose ; axils gaping. Ach. I. c. p. 277. Fr. l. c. (a.) C. biuncialis, Hoffm. C. adunca, Ach. Lichenogr.— y. turgescens, Schær. ; softish, turgid-incrassated, the branches subtruncate, fastigiate. Schær. Spicil. 1, p. 308. Fr. I. c.
On the earth : Q, sands, and sterile pine woods. (fertile?); - , in
similar places, fertile ; and abundant also in mountainous districts;— y, alpine and subalpine regions ; New England. New York, Halsey. Pennsylvania (a and B), Muhl. Canada (B), Michaux.
21. C. Boryi, Tuckerm. Th. (crustaceous) evanescent; podetia turgid, fruticulose, dichotomous, fastigiate-ramose, rugulose becoming reticulate-perforate, pale sulphureous and glaucescent; axils scyphi. form, entire, at length cribrose-perforate ; sterile apices scyphiform, cristate-dentate, entire becoming cribrose, with fuscous tips ; fertile ones somewhat cymose-radiate ; apoth. flesh-colored, at length darkfuscous. C. uncialis, var. reticulata, Russell, in Essex Jour. Nat. Hist. Tuckerm. Enum. Lich. N. Amer. p. 53, excl. syn. — B. lacunosa ; podetia incrassated, obtusish, lacunose-subperforate, glaucous; axils and apices scarcely scyphiform, sparingly subdentate. Cenomyce lacunosa, Bory, fide sched. in herb. Berol.
On the earth, near the sea, fertile ; Hingham, Duxbury, Mr. Russell ! and elsewhere on the coast of Massachusetts, Dr. Porter! Mr. Oakes! – B, alpine and montane districts, infertile ; White Mountains. Monadnoc, Russell! Newfoundland, Bory! I have endeavoured to point out the features that seem to distinguish this remarkable Lichen from C. uncialis, but it is possible that the conclusion of its original indica. tor may be correct. The podetia become very turgid, and at length often explanate, measuring in one of my specimens eight lines in diameter at the base, and five where the branches begin. The Newfoundland specimen, and our alpine ones, belong to an apparently sterile, subalpine state of the Lichen.
Series 4. Cocciferæ, Fr. Podetia greenish, becoming fulves
cent at the base. Apothecia scarlet. * Podetia cartilagineous-corticate, never finely pulverulent. 22. C. cornucopioides, Fr. Th. squamulose ; podetia cartilagineous. corticate, from glabrous becoming verrucose or granulate-subpulverulent, yellowish, at length cinereous-green; the scyphiferous ones elongated-turbinate, attenuate below; scyphi cyathiform, dilated ; apoth. scarlet. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 236. Lichen cornucopioides, L. Fl. Suec. Cenomyce coccifera, Ach. Cladonia, Hoffm. Floerk.! Clad. p. 89. Lichen cocciferus, L. part. Icon, Laur. in Sturm's Fl. tt. 23, 24, 25.
On the earth. Very frequent in mountainous districts, but often in. feriile ; New England. New York, Torrey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. North to the Saskatchawan, &c., Rich., and Greenland, Gieseke.
23. C. bellidiflora, Schær. Th. of minute, dissected squamules; podetia cartilagineous-corticate, elongated, ventricose-cylindrical, glabrous, becoming at length densely clothed with dissected squamules, yellowish, at length cinereous-green; scyphi extremely narrow; apoth. (often conglomerate, or symphycarpeous), scarlet. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 237. Schær.! Spicil. p. 21. Floerk. ! Clad. p. 95.
On the earth, in alpine districts; White Mountains. Greenland, Floerke.
24. C. Hookeri, Tuckerm. Th. of rather thick, large, ascendant squamules; poderia cartilagineous-corticate, elongated, cylindrical, glabrous, becoming at length squamulose, sulphur-yellow; scyphi cupulæform; apoth. scarlet.
On the earth ; Newfoundland, Herb. Hook.! This beautiful species resembles C. deformis in some respects, but belongs to the present subdivision, and seems very distinct from every other scarlet-fruited Cladonia with which I am acquainted. I venture to inscribe it to the illustrious botanist who first proposed a complete survey of the cryptogamy of British America, and who has done more than any other to illustrate it.
25. C. Floerkiana, Fr. Th. squamulose ; podetia cartilagineouscorticate, cylindrical, slender, glabrous, becoming at length granulateverrucose or squamose-decorticate, greenish and pallescent, nigrescent at the base ; scyphi passing into somewhat digitate, fastigiate branches; apoth. scarlet. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 238. Floerk. Clad. p. 99. Lichen digitatus, E. Bot. t. 2439. ICONES, Dill. Musc. t. 15, f. 19, c. Laur. in Sturm's Fl. t. 14, d.
On the earth, decaying logs, dead wood, and rocks, common and fertile; New England.
** Epidermis of the podetia membranaceous, dissolving into a fine
dust. 26. C. macilenta, Hoffm. Th. squamulose; podetia cylindrical, slender, membranaceous-corticate above, becoming hoary-pulverulent; scyphi narrow, tubæform with an erect margin, or obsolete; apoth. scarlet. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 241. - a. filiformis, Fr. ; podetia very slen. der; scyphus narrow, entire, or obliterated by a symphycarpeous apothecium. Fr.! 1. c. C. filiformis, Schær.! Spicil. p. 19. Tuckerm. Lich. N. E. I. c. Cenomyce bacillaris, Ach. C. polydactyla, Floerk. ! Clad. p. 108. — B. clavata, Fr.; podetia ventricose, subulate at the apices or branched, substerile. Fr. l. c.
On the earth, decaying logs, dead wood, and rocks ; common in mountainous districts, and fertile ; New England. Pennsylvania, Muhl. Ochrocarpous states of this species, in which the bright scarlet of the apothecia is changed to a pale yellow, occur in our mountains, but less frequently than similar forms of C. Floerkiana.
27. C. digitala, Hoffm. Th. squamulose ; podetia cylindrical, becoming ochroleucous-pulverulent above; scyphi narrowed, with an incurved, entire margin, becoming at length ampliate, and the margin somewhat proliferous-palmate ; apoth. scarlet. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 240. Schær.! Spicil. p. 22. Floerk. ! Clad. p. 102. Lichen digitatus, L. Icon, Laur. in Sturm's Fl. t. 15, 16. — a. platyphyllina ; lobules of the thallus dilated, somewhat entire ; scyphi mostly entire. Fr. l. c. — B. microphyllina ; squamules of the thallus rather small; scyphi mostly palmate-ramose. Fr. l. c.
Decaying trunks, and moist earth among mosses, in mountainous districts, fertile ; New England.
28. C. deformis, Hoffm. Th. squamulose ; podetia elongated, cylindrical or ventricose, becoming sulphureous-pulverulent above ; scyphi somewhat narrow, becoming at length cupulæform and dilated, with an erect, crenate-dentate margin ; apoth. scarlet. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 239. Schær.! Spicil. p. 23. C. crenulata, Floerk. ! Clad. p. 105.
On the earth, common upon mountains, a conspicuous Lichen, fertile ; New England. Northward to Arctic America, Rich. Greenland, Floerke.
29. C. sulphurina, Michx. (sub Scyphoph.). Podetia simple, at first very simply and slightly scyphiform, thick, submembranaceous, at length subclavate-elongated, smooth, the apices finally irregularly subdivided, and rimose-perforate, hoary-sulphureous; fertile scyphi small; apoth. confluent, black-fuscous. Scyphophorus sulphurinus, Michx. Fl. 2, p. 328. Cenomyce, Ach. Lichenogr. p. 557. Ach. Syn. p. 265.
On the earth, Canada, Michaux! Fries. This is the “Lichen cocciferus; major, Dill. t. 14, f. 6, M,” of Michaux's herbarium, the specimens appearing to me, at the time I examined them, to resemble some states of C. deformis. Fries observes incidentally (Lichenogr. p. 237) upon Canada specimens ( specimina authentica Canadensia ') of Michaux’s Lichen, that the podetia do not become squamulose, that it has