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infundibuliform and not true scyphi, and much of the habit of C. uncialis ; thus distinguishing it from C. bellidiflora, to which Floerke referred it. It is probable that the “ Bæomyces tubulosus, Richard. Canada,” of Herb. Willd. ! which also appeared to me to resemble C. deformis, belongs to Michaux's species, and in this case the thallus is squamulose, and the podetia are finely pulverulent above. It appears certain that the C. sulphurina of Fries is not the C. Hookeri of this Enumeration. The species is also common in North Carolina, according to Fries, who received his specimens from Schweinitz.
XIV. BÆOMYCES, Fr. Apothecia from the first globose, immarginate, velate, at length empty and araneous within, the base closely surrounding a stipe. Thallus crustaceous, uniform, protruding fertile stipes, which are destitute of a cortical stratum. The structure of Bæomyces roseus has been illustrated very
minute. ly by Dr. Küttlinger (Allg. Bot. Zeit. 1845, pp. 577 - 584, & t. vi.).
B. roseus, Pers. Crust verrucose, glaucous; stipes short, cylindrical ; apothecia subglobose, flesh-colored. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 246.
Sterile clay-soils, and sands; New England; and abundant also on the sterile surfaces of slides in the White Mountains. New York, Tor. rey. Pennsylvania, Muhl.
XV. BIATORA, Fr.
Apothecia margined at first by a waxy thalline exciple converted into a proper exciple, becoming at length hemispherical or globose, subimmarginate, solid, and cephaloid. Disk at length dilated, turgid, concealing the paler margin, placed upon a stratum oftener paler, never coal-black. Thallus horizontal, arising from a hypothallus, somewhat crustaceous, effigurate, or uniform. Podetia wanting, but the apothecia stipitate in a few species. The margin of the apothecia never originally black. Fr.
Sect. I. Thallus squamose, or lobed at the circumference.
* Apothecia sessile. 1. B. decipiens, Fr. Scales of the thallus discrete, somewhat peltate, angulate, dark-flesh-colored; beneath and at the circumference
white ; apothecia marginal, adnate, somewhat immarginate, blackish, white within. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 252. Lecidea, Ach. Syn. p. 52.
On the earth, especially in alpine districts. Arctic America, Rich. Pennsylvania, Muhl.
2. B. globifera, Fr. Th. squamose, imbricate, greenish-chestnut, somewhat shining ; scales reniform, rugose, lobate ; apoth. elevated, globose, somewhat immarginate, from rufous becoming black, whitish within. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 255. Lecidea, Ach. Syn. p. 51. Icon, Laur. in Sturm's Fl. t. 26.
Clefts and depressions of rocks. North America, Ach. Pennsylvania, Muhl. New York, Halsey.
3. B. rufo-nigra, Tuckerm. Th. squamose, imbricate, from pale rufous becoming blackish ; scales irregularly suborbiculate, ascending, crenate-lobate ; apoth. adnate, plane, obtusely margined, atrorufous, at length convex, black. Placodium sp. nov. Tuckerm. Lich. N. E. I. c. 1838.
Rocks; near Boston. Scales of the thallus small, obscure to the
4. B. atro-rufa, Fr. Th. crustaceous, smoothish, adnate, at first contiguous, becoming at length areolate, cinereous-fuscescent; black be. neath ; at the circumference foliaceous-lobate ; apoth. applanate-adnate, rufous-fuscous, whitish within. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 255. Lecidea, Ach. Lichenogr. p. 200.
On the earth in alpine districts. , White Mountains.
Apothecia stipitate, margin at length revolute. 5. B. placophylla, Fr. Th. subcrustaceous, orbicular, corrugated, glaucous-virescent, at the circumference foliaceous, lobes rounded, and crenate ; white beneath ; apoth. stipitate, pileiform, rufous-fuscous ; stipes thick, compressed, longitudinally rugulose. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 257. Bæomyces, Ach. Meth. p. 323, f. Icon, t. 7, f. 4. Lich. Univ.
On sandy, sterile earth ; slides, and banks of streams, in the White Mountains.
6. B. Byssoides, Fr. Th. crustaceous, effuse, granulose, greenishglaucous, squamulose at the circumference; hypoth. fibrillose, white; apoth. substipitate, pileiform, from flesh-colored becoming fuscous ; stipes rather short, somewhat compressed, corticate with the ascending granules of the crust or naked, often subdivided at the apex. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 257. Beomyces rupestris, Ach. Lich. p. 573. B. rufus, Wahl. B. Byssoides, Schær. - a. Fr. ; granules of the crust subsquamaceous, crenulate (and deliquescent), greenish-glaucous. Fr. l. c. – B. rupestris, Fr. ; cr. thin, smoothish, subcontiguous (or powdery); apoth. smaller. Fr. l. c. Bæom. rupestris, Pers.-y. lignatilis, Fr.; cr. rugose, cinereous-glaucescent; apoth. subsessile, fuscous-black. Fr. l. c. Beom. lignorum, Pers.
Common in mountainous districts : Q, sterile sandy and clayey soils; slides, banks of streams, and road-sides, in the mountains of New Eng. land. — B, rocks in mountain forests, New England. New York, Halsey. — », decaying wood, in similar situations with the last, apothecia almost sessile. The three varieties occur often in close neighbourhood at the White Mountains. This species, Stereocaulon Fibula, and S. aciculare illustrate the connection of Stereocaulon with the sessile Bi. atoræ. The difference of structure, indicated by Fries as generically distinguishing Bæomyces roseus from this and the last species, referred to Bæomyces by Acharius, has been further illustrated by Dr. Küttlinger in Allg. Bot. Zeit. 1845, l. c.
Sect. II. Thallus effuse, uniform.
7. B. icmadophila, Fr. Crust tartareous, granulate, greenish-glaucous; hypothallus white ; apothecia (large) softish, incarnate, exciple cupular, with a thin, evanescent margin. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 258. Lecidea, Ach. Bæomyces, DC.
Decaying wood in mountain forests, and on the earth ; ascending to alpine districts; New England. New York, Torrey. Pennsylvania, Muhl. Arctic America, Rich. Apothecia sometimes a little stipitate in ours, as in the European Lichen.
8. B. vernalis, Fr. Cr. of minute, glaucescent granules, arising from a membranaceous, whitish hypothallus ; apoth. at length subglobose, clustered, flesh-colored, and fulvous-ferrugineous. Lecidea ver. nalis, Borr. in Hook. Br. Fl. 2, p. 183. L. luteola, Ach.
Trunks in mountain forests, growing over mosses; New England. New York, Halsey, Arctic America, Rich.
9. B. pineti, Fr. Cr. very thin, granulose, greenish-glaucescent; apoth. (minute) sessile, whitish; disk becoming at length yellowish
flesh-colored, finally falling out and the apothecia urceolate. Lecidea, Ach. Syn. p. 42. Hook. Br. Fl. 1. c. Biatora, Fr. Summ. Fl. Scand.
Scales of fir-bark, and on the earth. Pennsylvania, Muhl.
10. B. sanguineo-atra, Fr. Cr. thin, membranaceous, effuse, whit. ish-cinerous, becoming granulose ; apoth. sanguineous, with an obscure paler margin, at length black. Fr. Summ. Fl. Scand. B. vernalis, B. sanguineo-atra, Fr. Lichenogr. p. 263.
Trunks and rocks, growing over mosses, in mountainous districts; New England.
11. B. carneola, Fr. Cr. confused with the hypothallus, cartilagineous-membranaceous, glaucescent, at length granulate-pulverulent ; apoth. sessile, concave, naked, from reddish-flesh-colored becoming fuscous, exciple cupular, with an elevated, at length evanescent, paler margin. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 264. Lecidea, Ach.
Trunks; New England. New York, Halsey. Apothecia somewhat larger in my specimens than in the European Lichen.
12. B. spadicea, Ach. (sub Lecid.). Cr. cartilagineous-membranaceous, granulate, glaucescent; apoth. thick, margin very finely rugu. lose, at length somewhat convex and excluding the margin, light-chestnut becoming blackish, within of the same color. Lecidea spadicea, Ach. Syn. p. 34.
Trunks ; Pennsylvania, Muhl., Ach. Southward. Fries considers this scarcely distinct from the last. (Lichenogr. p. 264.)
13. B.cinnabarina, Sommerf. Cr. confused with the hypothallus, cartilagineous, uneven, glaucous becoming whitish ; apoth. appressed, cinnabar-red, naked, becoming at length convex, and immarginate. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 266. Lecidea, Sommerf. Vet. Ac. Handl. 1823 (e Fr.).
Trunks. Greenland, Fries. Lecidea coccinea, Schwein. in Hals. Lich. N. Y. I. c. 1824, which cannot, by the description, be distin. guished from this, occurs in New York, Halsey, and appears to extend to N. Carolina ! (Mr. Curtis).
14. B. chlorantha, Tuckerm. Cr. of discrete, subsquamaceous-verrucose granules, bright green, and white within (or deliquescent sorediiferous); apoth. somewhat elevated, becoming plane, and at length convex, with a thick, flexuous, paler margin; within white ; disk nigrescent.
Bark of Pinus Strobus, and other trees; New England. Resem
bling Lecidea enteroleuca, but with a different crust, and, I think, the apothecia of the present genus.
15. B. decolorans, Fr. Cr. tartareous, confused with the hypothallus, areolate-granulose, glaucescent; apoth. appressed, naked, from flesh-colored becoming fuscous and black, with a thin, elevated, paler margin ; finally convex and irregular, and the margin disappearing. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 266. Lecidea, dein Lecanora granulosa, Ach. Lecidea decolorans, Floerk. Ach. Syn.
On the earth, and decaying wood, in mountainous regions; New England. Northward to Arctic America, Rich.
16. B. anomala, Fr. Cr. confused with the white hypothallus, at length granulose, white-cinerascent; apoth. becoming hemisphericalglobose, somewhat hyaline-livid, at length fuscescent and black, margin very thin, evanescent. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 269. Lecanora commutata, Ach. Syn. p. 149.
Trunks, dead wood, &c. New York, Halsey. An obscure species. Nomen omen. Fr.
17. B. mixta, Fr. Cr. cartilagineous, confused with the hypothallus, rugose-verrucose, milky-glaucescent; apoth. adnate, exciple annular, disk at first plane, pruinose, flesh-colored or livid, becoming at length turgid, fuscous, and black, and excluding the obtuse margin. Fr.! Lichenogr. p. 268. Lecidea anomala, Ach. part. Tuckerm. Lich. N. E.
Trunks, and dead wood. New England.
18. B. porphyritis, Tuckerm. Cr. subcartilagineous, smooth, chinky, at length rugose, glaucescent (and greenish-sorediiferous); white within; apoth. elevated on a white thalline stratum which constitutes an evanescent spurious margin, or sessile ; disk at first somewhat plane, pruinose, with a thick, elevated margin, at length convex, and excluding the margin, fuscous-nigrescent.
Trunks, in the mountains of Massachusetts and New Hampshire. Near to B. mixta, but as that is one of the smallest, this is the largest Biatora that I am acquainted with. Several apothecia sometimes occupy the same thalline stratum, as in B. ochrophæa and B. aurantiaca. With age the apothecia become flexuous, and very large, a single exciple having sometimes a diameter of two lines.
19. B. ochrophæa, Tuckerm. Cr. subcartilagineous, thickish, gran.