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2. V. elæochroa, Tuckerm. Cr. applanate, rimose-areolate, olivaceous; perith. with a wide base, globose, emerging and conical at the apex, becoming at length depressed and umbilicate.

Rocks (limestone), Ohio, Mr. Lea! Apparently related to V. elæina, Borr. (E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2623, f. 2), and V. olivacea, Fr. (Lichenogr. p. 438), but very different from V. olivacea, Pers. (Borr. 1. c. t. 2596, f. 1), which is a bark-Lichen.

3. V. nigrescens, Pers. Cr. somewhat gelatinous-tartareous, chinky, fuscous-nigrescent, within white; perith. entire, globose, covered by the crust and verrucose-prominent, subpapillate ; nucleus whitish. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 438.

Rocks and stones (limestone), New England. New York, Halsey.

4. V. umbrina, Wahl. Cr. verrucose-granulate, or smoothish, from fuscescent at length dark-brown; perith. entire, globose, somewhat prominent above the crust, papillate. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 441.

Rocks and stones (granite), near water; New England. We have doubtless other saxicoline species, but they occur often in imperfect states, and are easily overlooked. I have an alpine Verrucaria, with large perithecia, from the White Mountains, but the crust is deficient.

** Corticolæ. Crust innate in the matrix, often deficient. 5. V. nitida, Schrad. Cr. innate in the matrix, smooth, greenish, olivaceous, or fuscous ; perith. entire, covered, becoming at length somewhat prominent, persistent, ostioles subpapillate; nucleus fluxile. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 443. Borr. in E. Bot. Suppl. t. 2607, f. 1.

Trunks; the hue varying with the different epidermis of the matrix; New England. Pennsylvania, Muhl. V. composita, Schwein. in Hals. Lich. N. Y. I. c. p. 9, has apothecia clustered, forming dark spots, but I have not been able to find in my specimens, which agree apparently with the description, any constant characters to separate it from the present.

6. V. alba, Schrad. Cr. innate in the matrix, becoming at length denudate, white ; perith. subglobose, entire, denudate, persistent, immersed at the base, ostiole papillate, or pertuse. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 444. - B; cartilagineous, smoothish; perith. smaller. Fr. 1. c. V. glabra

ta, Ach.

Trunks. New England. Perithecia prominent.

7. V. gemmata, Ach. Cr. innate in the matrix, effuse, smoothish,

white-hoary ; perith. hemispherical, dimidiate (not immersed at the base), persistent; nucleus wbitish. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 444.

Trunks. New England. New York, Halsey.

8. V. epidermidis, Fr. Cr. innate in the matrix or obsolete; perith. dimidiate, the base patent, innate-superficial, at length collapsing, and, together with the nucleus, applanate-depressed. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 447. a; perith. larger, orbiculate. Fr. l. c. V. analepta, Ach.

; perith. larger, elliptical. Fr. l. c. V. Cerasi f epidermidis, Ach. — y i perith. small, punctiform (with the habit of the next species). Fr. 1. c. V. stigmatella, Ach. part.

Trunks, mostly on smooth bark ; New England, and westward. New York (a and B), Halsey. Arctic America, Rich.

9. V. punctiformis, Pers. Cr. innate in the matrix or obsolete ; perith. innate-superficial, semiglobose, subdimidiate, the base inflexed; nucleus globose. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 447. V. stigmatella, Ach. part.

Trunks on smooth bark ; New England. New York, Torrey. Penn: sylvania, Muhl. Arctic America, Rich.

10. V. pulla, Ach. Cr. smoothish, blackish-fuscous; perith. minute, hemispherical, glabrous, subpapillate, black within. Ach. Syn. p. 88.

Bark of Dirca palustris, Ach., who compares it with V. carpinea, which is referred to the last species by Fries.


XXIX. PYRENOTHEA, Fr. Perithecia round, carbonaceous, closed, pertuse at length with a simple ostiole, and protruding the somewhat gelatinous, bursting nucleus, finally dehiscent, explanate, and empty. (A disciferous state occurs in a single species.) Thallus crustaceous.

P. leucocephala, Fr. Crust smooth, glaucescent; perithecia subglobose, naked, black, coronate with the white, persistent, globuliform nucleus. Fr. Lichenogr. p. 450.-B. Lecidina, Fr. ; crust somewhat leprous; disk dilated-scutelliform, rigescent, covered for the most part with a dense pale-yellowish-cinereous bloom. Fr. 1. c. Lecidea abietina, Ach.

Trunks (B), Arctic America, Rich.

Appendix to the Lichenes, f-c.

COLLEMACEÆ. Filamentous, or foliaceous gelatinous-conglutinate plants without discrete layers. Sporidia included in asci, and immersed in a thalamium, which is contained either in a thalline exciple or a proper exciple.

Several genera are included here formerly referred to Lichenes, but separated by Fries, and with other genera constituted a distinct family, intermediate between Lichenes and aquatic Algæ. Collema and Leptogium may be said to have the thallus of Phyceæ with the apothecia of Lichenes, and Ephebe is considered by Fries nearly related to the Byssi.

SYNOPSIS. Tribe I. COLLEMEÆ, Fr. - Thallus gelatinous-conglutinate,

caulescent or foliaceous. 1. COLLEMA. Apothecia scutelliform, with a thalline exciple. 2. LeptogiUM. Apothecia scutelliform, with a proper exciple.

Tribe II. EPHEBIDEÆ. - Thallus filamentous, not gelatinous. 3. EPHEBE. Apothecia scutelliform, with a thalline exciple.

Tribe I. COLLEMEÆ, Fr.

I. COLLEMA, Hoffm. Apothecia at first subglobose, becoming at length discoid-open and scutelliform, with a thalline exciple. Thallus corneous-gelatinous, somewhat pulpy, of a moniliform-filamentous texture, variously lobed. * Thallus imbricate-plicate, becoming thick and turgid when wet.

1. C. pulposum, Ach. Thallus thick, suborbicular, very compact, blackish-green, of numerous, somewhat imbricate, plicate, rather entire or repand-crenate, erectish lobes, those of the circumference larger, somewhat appressed ; apothecia somewhat crowded, slightly concave, rufous, with an elevated, irregular margin. Ach. Syn. p. 311. Scher.! Spicil. 2, p. 538 (sub Parmelia). C. cristatum, Borr. in Hook. Br. Fl. 2, p. 208. Icon, Wulf. in Jacq. Coll. 3, p. 139, t. 12, f. 1.

Upon rocks, among mosses. Pennsylvania, Muhl. I have not observed this species in the granite region of New England,

2. C. plicatile, Ach. Th. thick, orbicular, black-green; lobes rugose-plicate, ascending, laciniate ; apoth. concave, of nearly the same

color with the thallus, with a thick, elevated margin. Ach. Syn. p. 314. Hook. Br. Fl. 2, p. 209. Schær. Spicil. 2, p. 543 (sub Parmelia). Exs. Schleich, ! Lich. Helv.

Rocks (limestone, Schær.), New York, Russell ! I have seen only a small fragment, but it appears to belong to this rather than to the preceding species.

3. C. tenax, Ach. Th. rather thick, suborbicular, glaucous-green, of somewhat plane, rounded, cut, or crenate lobes; apoth. scattered, at first urceolate, becoming rather elevated, concave, rufescent, with a somewhat entire margin. Ach. Syn. p. 314. — B. pallescens, Ach.; th. yellow-virescent, pale beneath, the lobes irregular, densely complicated, irregularly crenate, ascending ; apoth. submarginal. Ach: I. c.

Rocks among mosses, Pennsylvania, Muhl. ! * New York, Spreng.! The cited specimens belong probably to the variety ß of Acharius, but were not considered to differ from a by Floerke.

4. C. fasciculare, Ach. Th. suborbicular, imbricate-plicate, olivegreen, the lobes dilated upward, waved, those of the circumference rounded, cut-crenate ; apoth, marginal, at length elevated-subpedicellate, fasciculate, the disk somewhat convex, rufous. Ach. Syn. p. 317. Fr.! Lich. Suec. 50. Icon, E. Bot. t. 1162.

Trunks and rocks, New England. Pennsylvania, Muhl.

5. C. pustulatum, Ach. Th. substellate, lacerate-laciniate, the la. ciniæ expanded, plane, irregularly crenate, besprinkled above with paler pustules which pass at length into apothecia ; disk punctiform, black. Ach. Syn. p. 351. Parmelia leucoderma, Willd. herb. ?

Upon mosses, North America, Ach., who says it is a minute species, very distinct from the last.

Penn. (P. leucoderma, Willd.), Muhl. ! 6. C. granulatum, Hook. Th. foliaceous, membranaceous, corrugated, granulated on both sides, imbricate-complicate, blackish-olive, the lobes somewhat rounded, waved and crisped, rather entire ; apoth. scattered, sessile, blackish-fuscous, margin entire. Hook. Br. Fl. p. 2, 211. Lichen granulatus, Huds. (e Hook.). Collema furvum, Ach. Exs. Schær.! Lich. Helv. 413, 414. Icon, E. Bot. t. 1757.

Stones and trunks. New England. New York, Halsey. Pennsylvania ? Muhl. ** Thallus thin, foliaceous, gelatinous-membranaceous, lobed princi

pally at the circumference. 7. C. melanum, Ach. Th. foliaceous, somewhat stellate, blackish

green, the lobes elongated, radiant, multifid, with elevated, waved and crisped, crenate margins; apoth. submarginal, somewhat plane, at length rufescent; with a subgranulate margin. Ach.! Syn. p. 315. - 8. jacobæifolium, Ach.; laciniæ narrow, strict, lacerate-pinnatifid ; apoth. marginal, with an entire margin. Ach. l. c. Exs. Schær.! Lich. Helv. 422.

Rocks among mosses and trunks. New England.

8. C. palmatum, Ach. Th. cæspitose-pulvinate, brownish-green, of crowded, erectish, palmate-divided, somewhat linear and terete laciniæ; apoth. rufous-fuscous. Ach. Syn. p. 319.

On the earth, and trunks. Pennsylvania, Mull.

9. C. nigrescens, Ach. Th. somewhat monophyllous, membranaceous, expanded, round-lobed, rugose-plicate, olivaceous-nigrescent; costate-lacunose beneath ; apoth. (minute). central, crowded, at length convex, rufous-fuscous, with a very entire margin. Ach. Syn. p. 321. Hook. Br. Fl. 2, p. 211. Exs. Schær. ! Lich. Helv. 410.

Rocks and trunks. N. England. N. York, Halsey. Penn., Muhl.

10. C. flaccidum, Ach. Th. foliaceous, membranaceous, smooth, flaccid, blackish-green ; lobes somewhat ascending, rounded, rather en'tire, undulate-plicate ; apoth. scattered (small), somewhat plane, rufous. Ach. Syn. p. 322. Hook. Br. Fl. 2, p. 211. Exs. Schær.! Lich. Helv. 412.

Rocks and trunks. New England.

11. C. tunaforme, Ach. Th. foliaceous, membranaceous, somewhat rugose, blackish-green, besprinkled with fuliginous powder; lobes oblong, deeply cut, sinuate-laciniate, obtuse, flexuous, crisped, subcrenate; apoth. scattered, somewhat plane, fuscous, with a very entire margin. Ach. Syn. p. 322.

Rocks (especially limestone, Ach.). Pennsylvania, Muhl. in herb. Willd.! The specimen appeared to me to agree with an original one from Acharius. Schærer refers the species to C. flaccidum. It is said to occur in Massachusetts.

12. C. pulchellum, Ach. Th. membranaceous, orbicular, plane, somewhat laciniate, round-lobed at the circumference, plicate-papulose and dark-green above, beneath paler and deeply lacunose ; apoth. crowded, elevated, the disk urceolate, pale, the margin thin, coarctate, very entire, at length somewhat rugulose. Ach. Syn. p. 321.

Trunks and rocks, New England. Pennsylvania, Muhl.! Ohio; Mr. Lea !

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