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(Breutel and Kurr,) New England mountains, sterile (Tuckerman), and from the highest tops of the Black Mountains, North Carolina, (Rugel). Cultivated specimens have been communicated to me from the botanical garden of St. Petersburg, (Dr. Fischer as A. spinulosum americanum,) and from that of Berlin. The lowest pair of the mostly opposite pinnæ is ascending and curved upwards, and has a different direction from the other pinna. The pinnulæ are more deeply pinnatified, with more and sharper teeth than in the common form ; those of the lowest pinne, especially near the base, are much elongated downwards, by which these pinnæ assume a very irregularly triangular shape. The sori are nearer the middle nerve. The stipe is thickly covered with brown or redish paleæ. If this form should eventually prove to be a distinct species, the name of A. campylopterum would be appropriate.--A. (Polystichum) Lonchitis, Sw., also in Greenland (Wormskiold).*-A. (P.) aculeatum, to which Hooker (Fl. Bor. Am. ii, 261,) joins even A. vestitum, Sw., though undoubtedly incorrectly, and Nephrodium setigerum, Presl, which I do not know, appears to include different species, which I think ought to be separated. But Hooker states that the plant of the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific coast is intermediate between A. lobatum and A. angulare, and is identical with A. aculeatum of his British flora. All the American specimens which I have seen were communicated by Mr. E. Tuckerman, as collected on the mountains of New England. They evidently belong to A. (P.) Braunii, Spenn. Fl. Frib., which, therefore, is also an American plant. The different species which usually have been confounded under the name of A. aculeatum have been elucidated by me in a memoir, which is not yet published. I have thus far seen A. Braunii only from Baden and Saxony, and from New England. Prof. Braun states that it has also been observed in Norway: it is cultivated in the botanical gardens of Leipzig and Berlin.—I have to add here a new and well distinguished species of the United States.
A. (Polystichum) Ludovicianum, Kunze: fronde tenuiter coriacea, glabra, oblongo-lanceolata, bipinnata; pinnis (alternis) remotis, oblongo-acuminatis, patenti-erectis inferioribus petiolatis; pinnulis basi adnatis decurrentibus, sterilibus ovato-oblongis acutiusculis serrulatis subsinuatis, fertilibus e basi inæquali subauriculata leviter falcatis lanceolato-oblongis grosse sinuato-dentatis, infimis pinnatifidis, laciniis dentibusque 1-raro 2-sorophoris, obtusis; costulis subtus convexis; soris magnis, convexis, centro ab indusio badio leviter impressis; rhachibus partialibus marginatis, universali stipiteque stramineis, rufo-paleaceis.
In Louisiana legit Ludwig (Herb. Luceanum!). Colitur in horto botanico Berolinensi (vid. specimen !).
* It likewise occurs on the shores of Lake Superior. - A. GR.
A fine species, which cannot be confounded with any one known to me; in habit it approaches somewhat to A. (Nephr.) marginale; it is 1-2 feet high; the circumference of the entire fertile pinnulæ varies from lanceolate to oblong; the veins are repeatedly furcate and the upper branch rarely: also the following bear the sori ; the sterile branches of the veins end just before reaching the margin only slightly thickened.
ONOCLEA.—0. obtusilobata, Schk., according to Hooker's opinion, a variety of 0. sensibilis, and
STRUTHIOPTERIS Pennsylvanica, W., which the same author declares to be synonymous with S. Germanica, W., are not well known to me. An examination of specimens in the royal herbarium of Berlin, inclines me to the same opinion. The genus Rhagiopteris, Presl, is founded on fertile specimens of Onoclea, mixed with sterile ones of an Aspidium.*
ASPLENIUM.-A. pinnatifidum, Nutt., appears to be a rare species.t
Rugel has collected a variety with sharply and irregularly incise-toothed lobes, on rocks of the southern declivity of the Broad River mountains, North Carolina. It is distinguished from A. rhizophyllum by its free, not anastomosing veins, and apparently also by never being proliferous from the tip. Mr. Shuttleworth states that A. rhizophyllum, B. pinnatifidum, Barton, in Eaton, Manual, ed. 5, 120, is the same plant.
A. trichomanoides, Michx., fronde coriacea, glabra, linearilanceolata, brevi-acuminata, basi longe attenuata, pinnata; pinnis sessilibus (oppositis), divergentibus, trapezio-oblongis, obtusis, inferioribus deflexis subcordatis sensim abbreviatis, omnibus subaveniis, margine cartilagineo repando-crenatis ; soris breviusculis, margine approximatis; rhachi stipiteque brevi basi paleaceis, rhizomate brevi, horizontali, radicoso.
This species, so well distinguished from its nearest relatives, has been much mistaken. Michaux's diagnosis and his habitat “ Carolina” permit no doubt but that the plant collected in Georgia and Tennessee by Beyrich, and about Dandridge, Tennessee, by Rugel, and described above from their specimens in my herbarium, is the same as Michaux's. Michaux (Fl. Bor. Am. ii, 265) refers to two figures: 1. Plukenet (Almag.), p. 152, (Phytogr.) t. 287, f. 2; (Michaux's citation is not exactly the same, but these are Kunze's words and figures, and 2. Morrison, p. 567, part. xiv, t. 2, f. 12. var. minor. The latter figure, though rude, represents tolerably well the plant in question, but the former must remain doubtful, for the pinnæ are represented as being auriculated
"As was pointed out in a notice of Presl's Pteridographia, in this Journal, vol. xxxix, p. 174.-A. GR.
+ Grows also on sandstone rocks near Mine la Motte, in southern Missouri.Engelm.
above and below. Swartz, in his Synopsis, p. 79, and 272, refers Michaux's plant, together with the quotations, to A. polypodioides ; but he seems to have had some other plant in view, in drawing up his description, perhaps a form of A. ebeneum, or to have mainly considered Plukenet's figure; as he says, pinna basi utrinque obtuse auritæ, and as he leaves out Michaux's words, "fructificatione lineis brevissimis," and as he says in the descrip tion, “sori lineares, brevissimi, ad latera costæ utrinque puncta Polypodii mentientes, ætate confluentes.” Schkuhr has only considered A. ebeneum, and has figured it as A. trichomanoides, tab. 73. The largest specimens of the true plant, seen by me, are only six inches high, while Swartz mentions his as being 1-2 feet high, nor did I ever see the sori confluent. A. trichomanoides of the English gardens is nothing but A. Trichomanes. As Swartz's alteration of Michaux's name is entirely gratuitous, the latter must be restored to this species.
A. melanocaulon, W. and A. Trichomanes, are united by Hooker, nor can I satisfactorily distinguish them. A. montanum, W., which is considered a rare plant, has been collected in abundance in N. Carolina, by Rugel, and in Georgia, by Beyrich.* A. Adiantum nigrum, Michx., belongs here. I have not seen any American specimens of the true A. Filix foemina ; it appears to be represented by A. Michauxii, Spr. (A. Filix fæmina, Mich., Aspid. angustum, W.), and by A. Athyrium, Spr. (Aspid. asplenioides, W.), the latter extends as far north as Labrador and Newfoundland. Both these species, which are certainly well distinguished, are thrown together by Hooker. The Mexican A. Michaurii, Mart. and Gal., is a distinct species which I have named, A. Martensi. My A. Sibiricum (Aspid. crenatum, Sommerfelt) may yet be discovered in arctic America.
PTERIS.-P. pedata, of the North American Flora, I have not as yet seen, so I am unable to say to which of the lately distinguished species it may belong, probably to P. geraniifolia, Raddi. P. atropurpurea as well as P. gracilis, must be referred to the genus Allosurus. P. caudata of the United States, is not the true Linnæan plant which is common in South America, and the West Indies, and is distinguished by the nodose base of the rhachis, as has already been stated by J. Agardh, Monogr. Pterid. 49, but a variety of P. aquilina, L., Schk., t. 96. b., peculiar to North America, which Desvaux, Prodr., Fil. p. 303, has distingnished under the name of P. latiuscula ; and which ought to be more closely studied. It occurs more or less hairy.
Allosurus.—(Cryptogramma, Br.) A. gracilis, Kaulfuss, Pieris, Mich., is nearly related to A. crispus, though distinct. I have received numerous fine specimens of it from rocks, New York, by Dr. Knieskern. A. acrostichoides, Pr., is unknown to me; and Hooker is probably correct in referring it to A. crispus.
* And even as far east as Hillsboro', North Carolina, by the Rev. Mr. Curtis.
VITTARIA.—Not having compared any North American specimens, I am unable to say whether they belong to the true V. lineata.
BLECHNUM.-B. boreale is a Lomaria.-B. serrulatum, Mich., I have only from South America.
ADIANTUM.—A. Capillus, diffused over almost the whole globe, is also not rare in the southern U. States, where Beyrich collected it (the label does not give the exact locality); Dr. Engelmann sent it from the Hot Springs of Arkansas ; Rugel from Aspalaga, Florida ; and according to E. Tuckerman, it is also found in Alabama.
CHEILANTHES. I refer to this genus Buckley's Pteris Alabamnensis, * and name it Ch. Alabamensis. It is a very distinct species, which has also been collected by Rugel on French Broad River, Tennessee, and is preserved in Shuttleworth's herbarium from Capville, Upper Georgia; it is now also cultivated in the Leipzic botanic garden. It resembles Ch. micromera, Sw.; and my Ch. Linkiana (Ch. micromera, Link), Ch. vestita, Sw. (Nephr. lanosum, Mich.), appears to be common in the southern states. I have seen specimens collected by Beyrich near Augusta, Georgia; by Leibold on the western frontiers of Arkansas ; by Duerinck in Missouri, in Carolina, (Schweinitz,) and on the Broad River Mountains, North Carolina, by Rugel. Ch. tomentosa, Link, (Fil. Spec. h. bot. Berol, p. 65, raised from Mexican spores, now common in European gardens, is new for the flora of the United States. Rugel collected a few specimens with the former in North Carolina, and Prof. A. Gray has sent me specimens from Tennessee under the name of Ch. vestita. Cultivation does not alter it in the least. It is quite probable that some of the numerous species of Mexico may yet be discovered in the southern states. "Ch. dealbata, Pursh, is a Nothochlana, (see above.)
DICKSONIA.—Michaux's name, Nephr. punctilobulum, not as commonly spelled, punctilobum, has the priority (1803); Schkuhr's name, Dicks. pubescens, was published 1809, and Willdenow's, or rather Muhlenberg's mss. name, Polypod. pilosiusculum, dates only from the year 1810. Desvaux has founded his genus Litolobium (not Sitolobium), Prodr. 262, on this species; but the peculiar characters are not sufficient to warrant a generic separation, and I refer with Hooker this plant again to Dicksonia, and name
+ This Journal, 1843, p. 177.
1 On the calcareous rocks of the Hot Springs of Arkansas, I collected together with Ch. destita, a second species, which Prof. A. Braun considers identical with the West Indian Ch. microphylla, Sw...Engelmann.
it D. punctilobula. I have specimens from the West Indies, (Ryan,) Tennessee and North Carolina, (Rugel!) Ludwig collected in Louisiana a fern, specimens of which I received from Lucæ's herbarium, and which resembles very much D. punctilobula ; but it has more acutely dentate segments, rhachis and veins below, sparsely covered with short hairs, very large sori without any trace of an indusium, which is still plainly distinguishable even in fully mature specimens of D. punctilobula. It is impossible to decide about this plant without examining younger specimens, which I hope botanists of the Southern United States will be induced to do. It may possibly be a peculiar Polypodium? Muhlenberg's specimen in Willdenow's herbarium, is plainly D. punctilobula.
CYSTOPTERIS.-C. fragilis has been sent by Dr. Engelmann from Missouri, (rocks on the Merrimac Springs.) The specimens sent from Labrador by Kurr and Breutel,—from the Broad River Mountains, North Carolina, by Rugel,those from Pennsylvania and New England, seen by me, all belong to C. tenuis, Schott, which appears to be well distinguished from C. fragilis, and not a variety of it, as Hooker states; the distinguishing characters remain constant in cultivation. C. bulbifera, Bernhardi, grows also near Painted Rock, below the Warm Springs in North Carolina, (Rugel!)
HYMENOPHYLLUM.—I have not yet seen any North American specimens.
Isoëtes.-Prof. A. Braun has published his investigations on this genus in Flora or Bot. Zeitung, 1846, No. 12.* I have only to add to this valuable paper, that I. lucustris has been communicated to me by Mr. E. Tuckerman from New England. The mention made of an Isoëtes from California, is based on a mistake of Bory's, who speaking of I. flaccida, put California for Florida. I. flaccida has only an apparent affinity with I. longissima, Bory; the spores of this last are large brown, with membranaceous margin, minutely and sparsely farinaceous.
MARSILEA.—I am acquainted with three North American species: M. vestita, H. and Gr., common on the Columbia River in Oregon, collected by Douglas and by Geyer; M. uncinata, A. Braun, collected by Dr. Engelmann on the banks of the Arkansas, and by Beyrich on the Washita in Arkansas; and a third species found by Drummond in Louisiana, the fruit of which I have not seen.t
* A translation has been published in this Journal, ii ser., iii, p. 52, January, 1847.-E.
i Compare Notes on Marsileæ, in this Journal, ii Ser., iii, p. 55, Jan., 1847. Drummond's plant, mentioned by Kunze, is doubtless M. macropoda, Engelm., in this Journal, 1. c., described from specimens collected by Lindheimer near the Matagorda Bay in Texas. M. macropoda: stipitibus supra basin petioli ortis plu. ribus (2-5), basi connatis, receptaculo ter quaterve longioribus, erectis; receptac