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speak, in perplexed terms of his own making, his present furtune : Lewenbaupt immediately of whátbe in that short time observed. But, despatched three general officers to tbat prince, on the sixth instant, it was thought fit to un- to treat about a capitulation ; but the Swedes, bind his head, and the young woman whom though they consisted of fifteen thousand men, he loved was instructed to open his eyes accord- were in so great want of provision and ammuingly; as well to endear herself to him by such nition, that they were obliged to surrender a circumstance, as to moderate his ecstasies themselves at discretion. His czarish majesty by the persuasion of a voice which had so much despatched an express to general Goltz, with power over him as hers ever had. When this an account of these particulars, and also with beloved young woman hegan to take off the instructions to send out detachments of his hinding of his eyes, she talked to him as folo cavalry, to prevent the king of Sweden's joinlows.

ing his army in Poland. That prince made “Mr. William, I am now taking the binding his escape with a small party by swimming off, though, when I consider what I am doing, over the Boristhenes; and it was thought he I tremble with the apprehension, that though designed to retire into Poland by the way of I have from my very childhood loved you, dark Volhivia. Advices from Bern of the eleventh as you were, and though you had conceived instant say, that the general diet of the Hel. so strong a love for me, you will find there is vetic body held at Baden concluded on the such a thing as beauty, which may ensnare you sixth ; but the deputies of the six cantons, who into a thousand passions of which you are now are deputed to determine the affair of Tockeninnocent, and take you from me fur ever. burg, continue their application to that busiBut, before I put myself to that hazard, tell ness, notwithstanding some new difficulties me in what manner that love, you always pro- started by the abbot of St. Gall. Letters from fessed to me, entered into your heart ; for its Geneva of the ninth, say, that the duke of usual admission is at the eyes.'

Savoy's cavalry had joined count Thaun, as The young man answered, “ Dear Lidia, if bad also two imperial regiments of hussars ; I am to lose by sight the soft pantings which and that his royal highness's army was disposed I have always felt when I heard your voice; if in the following manner: the troops under the I am no more to distinguish the step of her I command of count Thaun are extended from love when she approaches me, but to change Constans to St. Peter D'Albigni. Small parties that sweet and frequent pleasure for such an are left in several posts from thence to Little amazement as I knew the little time I lately St. Bernard, to preserve the communication. saw; or if I am to bave any thing besides, with Piedmont by the valley of Aosta. Some which may take from me the sense I have of forces are also posted at Taloir, and in the caswhat appeared most pleasing to me at that tle of Doin, on each side of the lake of Anneci. time, which apparition it seems was you ; pull General Rbebinder is encamped in the valley out these eyes, before they lead me 10 be un- of Oulx with ten thousand foot, and some degrateful to you, or undu myself. I wished for tachments of borse ; his troops are extended them but to see you; pull them out, if they from Exilles to Mount Genevre, so that he may are to make me forget you.'

easily penetrate into Dauphine on the least Lidia was extremely satisfied with these as motion of the enemy; but the duke of Berwick snrances; and pleased herself with playing takes all necessary precautions to prevent such with his perplexities. In all his talk to her, an enterprise. That general's head quarters be showed but very faint ideas of any thing are at Francin; and he hath disposed his army which had not been received at the ears ; and in several parties, to preserve a communicaclosed his protestation to her, by saying, that tion with the Maurienne and Briançon. He if he were to see Valentia and Barcelona, whom hath no provisions for his army but from he supposed the most esteemed of all women, Savoy ; Provence and Dauphine being unable by the quarrel there was about them, he would to supply bin with necessaries. · He lest two never like any but Lidia.

regiments of dragoons at Annen, wbo suffered

very much in the late action at Tessons, where St. James's Coffee-house, August 15.

they lust fifteen hundred who were killed on We have repeated advices of the entire de- the spot, four standards, and three hundred feat of the Swedish army near Pultowa, on the prisoners, among whom were forty officers. twenty-seventh of June, 0. S. ; and letters from The last letters from the duke of Marlborough's Berlin give the followir account of the remains camp at Orchies of the nineteenth instant, ad. of the Swedish army since the battle : Prince vise, that monsieur Ravignon being returned Menzikoff, being ordered to pursue the victory, from the French court with an account that came up with the Swedish army, which was the king of France bad refused to ratify the caleft to the command of general Lewenhaupt, pitulation for the surrender of the citades of on the thirtieth of June, 0). S. on the banks Tournay, the approaches have been carried on of the Boristhenes ; whereupon be sent general with great vigour and success : our uniners Lewenbaupt a summons to submit bimself to have discovered several of the enemy's mines,

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who have sprung divers others, which did little any subject, but applies proper language, temexecution ; but for the better security of the per, and skill, with which the thing in debate troops, both assaults are carried on by the cau. is to be treated, told the youth, 'that gentletious way of sapping. On the eighteenth, the man had spuken nothing but what was literally confederate army made a general forage with true ; but fell upon it with too much earnestout any loss. Marshal Villars continues in his Dess to give a true idea of that sort of people former camp, and applies himself with great he was declaiming against, or to remedy the diligence in casting up new lines behind the evil which he bewailed : for the acceptance of old on the Scarp. The duke of Marlborougb these men being an ill whieb had crept into the and prince Eugene designed to begin a gene. conversation-part of our lives, and not into our ral review of the army on the twentieth. constitution itself, it must be corrected where

it began; and, consequently, is to be amended

only by bringing raillery and derision'upon the No. 56.] Thursday, August 18, 1709.

persons who are guilty, or those who converse Quicquid agunt homines

with them. For the sharpers,' continued he, nostri est faitago libelli. Juv. Sat. 1. 85, 86.

at present, are not as formerly, under the acWhatever good is cloue, whatever ill

ceptation of pick-pockets : but are by custom By human kind, shall this collection fill.*

erected into a real and venerable body of men, White's Chocolate-house, August 17.

and have subdued us to so very particular a deThere is a young foreigner committed to my ference to them, that though they were known care, who puzzles me extremely in the questions to be men without honour or conscience, no he asks about the persons of figure we meet in demand is called a debt of honour so indispublic places. He has but very little of our putably as theirs. You may lose your honour language, and therefore I am mightily at a loss to them, but they lay none against you': as the to express to him things for which they have no priesthood in Roman Catholic countries can word in that tongue to which he was born. It purchase what they please for the church ; but has been often my answer, upon his asking who they can alienate nothing from it. It is from such a fine gentleman is ? That he is what we this toleration, that sharpers are to be found call a shurper; and he wants my explication. among all sorts of assemblies and companies ; I thought it would be very unjust to tell him, and every talent amongst men is made use of he is the same the French call Coquin ; thé by some one or other of the society, for the Latins, Nebulo : or the Greeks, Pécran :t for, good of their common cause : so that an unexas custom is the most powerful of all laws, and perienced young gentleman is as often ensnared that 'the order of men we call sharpers are re- by his understanding as bis fully; for 'who ceived amongst us, not only with permission, could be unmoved, to hear the eloquent Dromio but favour, I thought it unjust to use them explain the constitutivn, talk in the key of like persons upon no establishment; besides Cato, with the severity of one of the ancient that it would be an unpardonable dishonour to sages, and debate the greatest question of state our country to let him leave us with an opinion, in a common chocolate or coffee-house ? who that our nobility and gentry keep company could, I say, hear this generous declamator, with common thieves and cheats: I told him, without being fired at bis noble zeal, and be'they were a sort of tame hussars, that were coming his professed follower, if he might be allowed in our cities, like the wild ones in our admitted ? Monoculus's gravity would be no samp; who had all the privileges belonging to less inviting to a beginner in conversation ; and iis, but at the same time, were not tied to our the spare of his eloquence would equally catch discipline or laws. Aletheus, who is a gentle one who had never seen an old gentleman so man of too much virtue for the age he lives in, very wise, and yet so little severe. Many other would not let this matter be thus palliated ;

instances of extraordinary men among the brobut told my pupil, 'that he was to understand therhood might be produced; but every man, that distinction, quality, merit, and industry, who knows the town, can supply himself with were laid aside among us by the incursions of such examples without their being named. Will these civil hussars; who had got so much coun. Vafer, who is skilful at finding out the ridiculous tenance, that the breeding and fashion of the side of a thing, and placing it in a new and age turned their way to the ruin of order and proper light, though he very seldur talks, econoiny in all places where they are admitted.' Thought fit to enter into this subject. He has But Sophronius, who never falls into heat upon income of his estate will bring in within seven

lately lost certain loose sums, which half the

years : besiiles which, he proposes to marry, • is the first of some patriotic and excellent papers, to set all right. He was, therefore, indolent gamesters, sharpers, and swindlers of his time, with a view enough to speak of this matter with great imto guard his onwary countrymen from their snares; and, partiality. 'When I look around me,' said * to banish fraud and cozenage from the presence aud con. this easy gentlemau, and consider in a just versation of gentlemen.' * The word. rascal,' printed in Greek characters, balance us bubbles, elder brothers whose supe port our dull fathers contrived to depend upon may be better understood by the good people certain acres, with the rooks, whose ancestors of England. These sort of men, in some ages, left them the wide world; I cannot but admire were sycophants and flatterers only, and were their fraternity, and contemn my own. Is not endued with arts of life to capacitate them for Jack Heyday much to be preferred to the knight the conversation of the rich and great; but he has bubbled ? Jack has his equipage, his now the bubble courts the impostor, and prewenches, and his followers : the knight, so far tends at the utmost to be but his equal. To from a retinue, that he is almost one of Jack's. clear up the reasons and causes in such revolu. However, he is gay, you see, still; a forid out- tions, and the different conduct between fools side-His habit speaks the man—And since he and cheats, shall be one of our labours for the must uubutton, he would not be reduced out good of this kingdom. Ilow, therefore, pimps, wardly, but is stripped to his upper coat. But footmen, fiddlers, and lackeys, are elevated into though I have great temptation to it, I will companions in this present age, shall be acnot at this time give the history of the losing counted for from the influence of the planet side ; but speak the effects of my thoughts, Mercury on this island ; the ascendency of since the loss of my money, upon the gaining which Sharper over Sol, who is a patron of the people. This ill fortune makes most men con. muses and all bonest professions, has been noted templative and given to reading ; at least it by the learned Job Gadbury,* to be the cause, has happened so to me; and the rise and fall that ' cunning and trick are more esteemed of the family of Sharpers in all ages has been than art and science.' It must be allowed also, my contemplation.'

to the memory of Mr. Partridge, late of Cecil, I find, all times have had of this people : street in the Strand, that in his answer to an Homer, in his excellent heroic poem, calls horary question, At what hour of the night to them Myrmidons, wbo were a body that kept set a fox-trap in June 1705 ? he has largely among themselves, and had nothing to lose ; discussed, under the character of Reynard, the therefore never spared either Greek or Trojan, manner of surprising all Sharpers as well as when they fell in their way, upon a party. him. But of these great ,points, after more But there is a memorable verse, which gives mature deliberation. us an account of what broke that whole body, and made both Greeks and Trojans masters of

St. James's Coffee-house, August 17. the secret of their warfare and pluuder. There 'To Isaac Bickerstaff, Esquire. is nothing so pedantic as many quotations ;

'SIR, therefore, I shall inforın you only, that in this

'We have nothin at prese

new, but that battalion there were two officers called Ther- we understand by some Owlers,+ old people die sites and Pandarus : they were both less re- in France. Letters from Paris of the tenth nowned for their beauty than their wit; but instant, N. S. say, that monsieur d’Andre, each had this particular happiness, that they marquis d'Oraison, died at eighty-five: monwere plunged over bead and ears in the same sieur Brumars, at one hundred and two years, water which made Achilles invulnerable ; and died for love of his wife, who was ninety-two had ever after, certain gifts wbich the rest of at her death, after seventy years cohabitation. the world were never to enjoy. Among others, Nicholas de Boutheiller, parish-preacher at they were never to know they were the most Sasseville, being a bachelor, held out to one dreadful to the sight of all mortals, never to hundred and sixteen. Dame Claude de Massy, be diffident of their own abilities, never to relict of monsieur Peter de Monceaux, grand blush, or ever to be wounded but by each audiencer of France, died on the sevente nth, 01her. Though some historians say, gaming aged one hundred and seven.

Letters of the began among the Lydians, to divert hunger, 1 seventeenth say, monsieur Chrestien de Lacould cite many authorities to prove it had its moignon died on the seventh instant, a person rise at the siege of Troy; and that Ulysses won

of great piety and virtue ; but having died the sevenfold shield at hazard. But be that as

young, his age is concealed for reasons of state. it may, the ruin of the corps of the Myrmidons on the fifteenth, his most Christian majesty, proceeded from a breach between Thersites attended by the dauphin, the duke of Burand Pandarus. The first of these was leader of gundy, the duke and dutchess of Berry, asa squadron, wherein the latter was but a private sisted at the procession which he yearly perman; but having all the good qualities neces- forms in memory of a vow made by Lewis the sary for a partisan, be was the favourite of his Thirteenth, in 1638. For which act of piety, officer. But the whole history of the several his majesty received absolution of his confessor, changes in the order of Sharpers, from those for the breach of all inconvenient vows made Myrmidons to our modern men of address and plunder, will require that we consult some ancient manuscripts. As we make these en- * Gadbury was an almaoack-maker and astrologer. quiries, we shall diurnally communicate them word is perhaps derived from the necessity of carrying on

+ Ouler signifies one who carries contraband goods; the to the public, that the Knights of the Industry an illicit trade by night.

by himself. I am, sir, your most humble ser. one regards, because all know it is within their vant.

power. The best course Emilia can take is, HUMPHREY KIDNEY.' to have less humility ; for if she could have as

good an opinion of herself for having every From my own Apartment, August 17.

quality, as some of her neighbours have of I am to acknowledge several letters which I themselves with one, she would inspire even bave lately received ; among others, one sub them with a sense of her merit, and make seribed Philanthropos, another Emilia, both that carriage, which is now the subject of their which shall be honoured. I have a third from derision, the sole object of their imitation. an officer in the army, wherein he desires 1 Until she has arrived at this value of herself, would do justice to the many gallant actions she must be contented with the fate of that which have been done by men of private cha- uncommon creature, a women too humble. racters, or officers of lower stations, during this long war; that their families may bave the White's Chocolate-house, August 19. pleasure of seeing we lived in an age, wherein Since my last, I have received a letter from men of all orders bad their proper share in Tom Trump, tu desire that I would do the fame and glory. There is nothing I should fraternity of gamesters the justice to owo, that undertake with greater pleasure than matters there are notorious Sharpers, who are not of of this kind; if, therefore, they who are ac- their class. Among others, he presented me quainted with such facts would please to com- with the picture of Harry Coppersmith, in municate them by letters, directed to me at little, who, he says, is at this day worth half Mr. Morphew's, no paies should be spared to a plumb, * by means much more indirect than put them in a proper and distinguishing light. by false dice. I must confess there appeared

This is to admonish Stentor, that it was not some reason in what he asserted; and he met admiration of his voice, but my publication of me since, and accosted me in the following it, which has lately increased the number of manner: It is wonderful to me, Mr. Bickerbis bearers.

staff, that you can pretend to be a man of penetration, and fall upon us Knights of the In

dustry as the wickedest of mortals, when there No. 57.) Saturday, August 20, 1709.

are so many who live in the constant practice Quicqaid agunt homines

of baser methods, unobserved. You cannot, nostri est farrago libelli. Juv. Sat. i. 85, 86. though you know the story of myself and the Whatever good is done, whatever ill

North Briton, but allow I am an honester man By buman kind, shall this collection fill.

than Will Coppersmith, for all his great credit Will's Coffee-house, August 19.

among the Lombards. I get my money by

men's follies, and he gets his by their distresses. I was this evening representing a complaint The declining merchant communicates his sent me out of the country from Emilia. She griefs to him, and he augments them by exsays, her neighbours there have so little sense tortion. If, therefore, regard is to be had to of wbat a refined lady of the town is, that she, the merit of the persons we injure, who is the who was a celebrated wït in London, is in that

more blameable, he that oppresses an unhappy dull part of the world in so little esteem, that

man, or he that cheats a foolish one ? All they call her in their base style a Tongue-Pad. mankind are indifferently liable to adverse Old True Penny bid me advise her to keep her strokes of fortune; and he who adds to them, wit until she comes to town again, and admo- when he might relieve them, is certainly a nish her, that both wit and breeding are local; worse subject, than he who unburdens a man for a fine court-lady is as awkward among whose prosperity is unwieldy to him. Besides country housewives, as one of them would ap- all which, he that borrows of Coppersmith pear in a drawing-room. It is therefore the does it out of necessity; he that plays with me most useful knowledge one can attain at, to does it out of choice.' understand among wbat sort of men we make

I allowed Trump there are men as bad as the best figure; for if there be a place wbere himself, which is the height of his pretensions ; the beauteous and accomplished Emilia is un- and must confess, that Coppersmith is the acceptable, it is certainly a vain endeavour to

most wicked and impudent of all Sharpers; a attempt pleasing in all conversations. Here is creature that cheats with credit, and is a robWill Úbi, who is so thirsty after the reputation ber in the habit of a friend. The contemplaof a companion, that his company is for any tion of this worthy person made me reflect on body that will accept of it; and for want of the wonderful successes I have observed men knowing whom to choose for himself, is never of the meanest capacities meet with in the chosen by others. There is a certain chastity world, ar.d recollect an observation. I once of behaviour wbicb makes a man desirable ; and which if he transgresses, his wit will have the same fate with Delia's beauty, which no * A Plumb is a term in the city for L.100,000



heard a sage man make ; which was, ' That I prefer beasts, victuals, and ridiculous amours he had observed, that in some professions, the before them. Amongst these people, he is lower the understanding, the greater the ca- sober who is never drunk with any thing but pacity.' I rernember, he instanced that of a wine; the too frequent use of it having rel)banker, and said, that the fewer appetites, dered it flat and insipid to them: They endeapassions, and ideas a man had, he was the bet-vour by brandy, and other strong liquors, to ter for his business.'

quicken their taste, already extinguished, and There is little sir Tristram, without con- want nothing to complete their debauches, but Dection in his speech, or so much as common to drink aqua-fortis. The women of that sense, has arrived by his own natural parts at country basten the decay of their beauty, by one of the greatest estates amongst us. But their artifices to preserve it: they paiut their bonest sir Tristram knows himself to be but cheeks, eye-brows, and shoulders, which they a repository for cash: he is just such a utensil lay open, together with their breasts, arms, and as his iron chest, and may rather be said to ears, as if they were afraid to hide those places hold money, than possess it. There is nothing which they think will please, and never thiok so pleasant as to be in the conversation of these they show enough of them. The physiogno. wealthy proficients. I had lately the honourmies of the people of that country are not at to drink half-a-pint with sir Tristram, Harry all neat, but confused and embarrassed with a Coppersmith, and Giles Twoshoes. These wags bundle of strange hair, which they prefer begave one another credit in discourse, according fore their natural: with this they weave someto their purses ; they jest by the pound, and thing to cover their heads, which descends make answers as they honour bills. Without down half way their bodies, hides their features, vanity, I thought myself the prettiest fellow of and hinders you from knowing men by their the company; but I had no manner of power faces. This nation has, besides this, their God over one muscle in their faces, though they and their king. The grandees go every day smirked at every word spoken hy each other. at a certain hour, to a temple they call a Sir Tristram called for a pipe of tobacco; and church : at the upper end of that temple there telling us tobacco was a pot-herb,' bid the stands an altar consecrated to their God, where drawer bring him the other balf-pint. Two- the priest celebrates some mysteries which they shoes laughed at the knight's wit without call holy, sacred, and tremendous. The great moderation; I took the liberty to say it was men make a vast circle at the foot of the altar, but a pun.' 'A pun!' said Coppersmith ; ' you standing with their backs to the priest and the would be a better mav by ten thousand pounds boly mysteries, and their faces erected towards if you could puu like sir Tristram. With that their king, who is seen on his knees upon a they all burst out together. The queer curs throne, and to wbom they seem to direct the maintained this style of dialogue until we had desires of their hearts, and all their devotion. drunk our quart a-piece, hy half-piots. All! However, in this custom, there is to be recould bring away with me is, that Twoshoes is marked a sort of subordination; for the people not worth twenty thousand pounds: for his appear adoring their prince, and their prince mirth, though be was as insipid as either of adoring God. The inhabitants of this region the others, bad no more effect upon the com- call it It is from forty-eight degrees of pany than if he had been a bankrupt.

latitude, and more than eleven hundred league's From my own Apartment, August 19.

by sea, from the Iroquois and Hurons.'

Letters from Hampstead say, there is a coxI have heard it has been advised by a dio comb arrived there, of a kind which is utterly cesan to his inferior clergy, that instead of new. The fellow has courage, which he takes broaching opinions of their own, and uttering himself to be obliged to give proofs of every doctrines which may lead themselves and hour he lives. He is ever fighting with the hearers into error, they would read some of men, and contradicting the women. A lady, the most celebrated sermons, printed by others who sent to me, superscribed him with this for the instruction of their congregations. In description out of Suckling: imitation of such preachers at second-hand, I

• I am a man of war and might, shall transcribe from Bruyere one of the most

And know thus much that I can fight elegant pieces os raillery and satire which I

Whether I am i'th' wrong or right,

Devoutly. have ever read. He describes the French as if speaking of a people not yet discovered, in

No woman ander heaven I fear,

New Oaths I can exactly swear : the air and style of a traveller.

And forty healths my brain will bear, 'I have beard talk of a country, where the

Most stouts. old men are gallant, polite, and civil: the young men, on the contrary, stubborn, wild, without either manners or civility. They are No. 58.] Tuesday, August 23, 1709. free from passion for women, at the age when

Qnicquid agunt bominesin other cuuntries they begin to feel ic; and

nostri est farrago tibelli. Str. Sat. i. 83, 06.

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