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an attention to his point ; though what he is joyments, but relieves him from as certain labouring at does not in the least contribute anxieties. If you will not rejvice with happy to it. Were it not for such honest fellows as men, you must repine at them. Dick Reptile these, the men who govern the rest of their alluded to this when he sail,' he would bale species would have no tools to work with: for no man, out of pure idleness. As for my own the outward show of the world is carried on part, I look at Fortune quite in anotber view by such as cannot find out that they are doing than the rest of the world; and, by my knownothing. I left my man with great reluctance, ledge in futurity, tremble at the approaching seeing the care he took to observe the whole prize, which I see coming to a young lady for conduct of the persons concerned, and compute whom I have much tenderness; and have the inequality of the chances with his own therefore writ to her the following letter, to bands and eyes. “Dear sir,' said I, “they be sent by Mr. Elliot, with the notice of her must rise early that cheat you.' 'Ay,' said he, ticket.

there is nothing like a man's minding his business himself. It is very true,' said I;

• MADAM, 'the master's eye makes the horse fat.' • You receive, at the instant this comes to

As much the greater number are to go with your hands, an account of your having, what out prizes, it is but very expedient to turn our you only wanted, fortune; and to admonish lecture to the forming just sentiments on the you, that you may not now want every thing subject of fortune. One said this morning, else. You had yesterday wit, virtue, beauty; 'that the chief lot, be was confident, would but you never heard of them until to-day. fall upon some puppy;' but this gentleman is They say Fortune is blind; but you will find one of those wrong tempers, who approve only she has opened the eyes of all your beholders. the unhappy, and have a natural prejudice to I beseech you, madam, make use of the adthe fortunate. But, as it is certain that there vantages of having been educated without flatis a great meanness in being attached to a tery. If you can still be Chloe, Fortune has man purely for his fortune; there is no less a indeed been kind to you ; if you are altered, meanness in disliking him for bis happiness. she has it not in her power to give you an It is the same perverseness under different equivalent. colours; and both these resentments arise from mere pride.

Grecian Coffee-house, July 26. True greatness of mind consists in valuing Some time ago a virtuoso, my very good men apart from their circumstances, or ac- friend, sent me a plan of a covered summercording to their behaviour in them. Wealth house; which a little after was rallied by anis a distinction only in traffic; but it must not other of my correspondeuts. I cannot therebe allowed as a recommendation in any other fore defer giving him an opportunity of making particular, but only just as it is applied. It his defence to the learned, in his own words. was very prettily said, ' That we may learn the little value of fortune by the persons on whom

' To Isaac Bickerstaff, Esquire. heaven is pleased to bestow it. However, there

July 15, 1710. is not a harder part in human life, than be- 'I have been this summer upon a ramble, coming wealth and greatness.. He must be to visit several friends and relations; which is very well stocked with merit, who is not will the reason I bave left you, and our ingenious ing to draw some superiority over his friends unknown friend of South Wales, so long in from his fortune; for it is not every man that your error concerning the grass-plots ju my can entertain with the air of a guest, and do green-house. I will not give you the partigood offices with the mien of one that receives culars of my gardener's conduct in the mathem.

nagement of my covered garden ; but content I must confess, I cannot conceive how a man myself with letting you know, that my little can place himself in a figure wherein he can fields within doors, though by their novelty so much enjoy bis own soul, and, that greatest they appear too extravagant to you to subsist of pleasures, the just approbation of his own even in a regular imagination, are in the effect actions, as an adventurer on this occasion, to things that require no conjuration. Your corsit and see the lots go off without hope or fear; respondent may depend upon it, that under a perfectly unconcerned as to himself, but tak- sashed roof, which lets in the sun at all times, ing part in the good fortune of others.

and the air as often as is convenient, he may I will believe there are happy tempers in bave grass-plots in the greatest perfection, if being, to whom all the good that arrives to be will be at the pains to water, mow, and any of their fellow.creatures gives a pleasure. roll them. Grass and herbs in general, the less These live in a course of lasting and substan- they are exposed to the sun and winds, the tial happiness, and have the satisfaction to see livelier is their verdure. They require only all men endeavour to gratify them. This state warmth and moisture; and if you were to see of mind not only lets a man into certain en. my plots, your eye would soon consess, that


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Hor. 2 Sat. v. 39.

the bowling-green at Marybone wears not half his ancestors on the one side, and the ill arts 80 bright a livery.

of their adversaries on the other, could not The motto, with which the gentleman has possibly be settled according to the rules of been pleased to furnish you, is so very proper, the lower courts ; that, therefore, he designed and pleases me so well, that I design to have to bring his cause before the House of Lords it set upon the front of my green-house in next session, where he should be glad if his letters of gold.

Lordship should happen to be present ; for he 'La I am, Sir, &c.

doubted not but his cause would be approved by all men of justice and honour. In this

place the word Lordship was gracefully insertNo. 204.] Saturday, July 29, 1710.

ed; because it was applied to him in that cirGandent prænomine molles

cumstance wherein his quality was the occasion

of the discourse, and wherein it was most useful He with rapture hears

to the one, and most honourable to the other. A title lingling in his tender ears, Francis. This way is so far from being disrespectful

to the honour of nobles, that it is an expedient From my own Apartment, July 28.

for using them with greater deference. I would MANY are the inconveniences which happen vol put Lordship to a man's hat, gloves, wig, from the improper manner of address in com- or cane; but to desire his Lordship's favour, mon speech, between persons of the same or his Lurdship's, or his Lordship's pa. of different quality. Among these errors, there tronage, is a manner of speaking, which exis none greater than that of the impertinent presses an alliance between his quality and his use of Title, and a paraphrastical way of say. merit. It is this knowledge, which distinguished ing, You. I had the curiosity the other day the discourse of the shoe-maker from that of to follow a crowd of people near Biilingsgate, the gentleman. The highest point of good. who were conducting a passionate woman that breeding, if any one can hit it, is to show a sold fish to a magistrate, in order to explain very nice regard to your own dignity, and, with some words, which were ill taken by one of that in your heart, express your value for the her own quality and profession in the public man above you. market. When she came to make her defence, But the silly humour to the contrary bas she was so very full of, ' His Worship,' and of, so much prevailed, that the slavish addition 'If it should please bis Honour,'that we could, of title enervates discourse, and renders the for some time, bardly hear any other apology application of it almost ridiculous. We wrishe made for herself, than that of atoning for ters of diurnals are nearer in our style to that the ill language she had been accused of to- of common talk than any other writers, by wards her neighbour, by the great civilities which means we use words of respect sometimes she paid to ber judge. But this extravagance very unfortunately. The Postman, who is one in her sense of doing honour was no more to of the most celebrated of our fraternity, fell he wondered at, than that her many rings on into this misfortune yesterday in his paraeach finger were worn as instances of finery graph from Berlin of the twenty-sixth of July. and dress. The vulgar may thus heap and Count Wartembourg,' says he, 'great cham. buddle terms of respect, and nothing better berlain, and chief minister of this court, who be expected from them; but for people of raok on Monday last accompanied the king of Prussia to repeat appellatives insignificantly, is a folly to Oranienburg, was taken so very ill, that on not to be endured, neither with regard to our Wednesday his life was despaired of; and we time, or our understanding. It is below the had a report, that his Excellency was dead.' dignity of speech to extend it with more words I humbly presuine tbat it flatters the narraor phrases than are necessary to explain our tion, to say bis Excellency in a case which is selves with elegance: and it is, met hiuks, an common to all men ; except you would infer instance of ignorance, if not of servitude, to what is not to be inferred, to wit, that the aube redundant in such expressions.

thor desigoed to say, ' all wherein he excelled I waited upon a man of quality some morn- others was departed from him.' ings ago.

He happened to be dressing ; and Were distinctions used according to the rules his shoe-maker fitting him, told him, “that if of reason and sense, those additions to men's bis Lord»bip would please to tread bard, or names would be, as they were first intended, that if his Lordship would stamp a little, his significant of their worth, and not their perLordsbip would find bis Lordship's shoe will sons; so that in some cases it might be proper sit as easy as any piece of work his Lordship to say, ' The Man is dead; but bis Excellency should see in England. As soon as my lord will never die.' It is, methinks, very unjust was dressed, a gentleman approached him with to laugh at a Quaker, because he has taken a very good air, and told him, ' be had an up a resolution to treat you with a word, the affair which had long depended in the lower most expressive of complaisance that can be courts; which, through the inadvertency of thought of and with an air of good-nature and charity calls you Friend. I say, it is very un-dation, that we are under the necessity just to rally bim for this term to a stranger, seeking for the agreeable companion, and th when you yourself, in all your phrases of dishonourable mistress. By this cultivation tinction, confound phrases of honour into no art and reason, our wants are made pleasures use at all.

and the gratification of our desires, unde Tom Courtly, who is the pink of courtesy, is proper restrictions, a work no way below ou. an instance of how little moment an undistin-noblest faculties. The wisest map may main guishing application of sounds of honour are totain bis character, and yet consider in whar those who understand themselves. Tom never manner he shall best entertain bis friend or fails of paying his obeisance to every man he divert his mistress. Nay, it is so far from be. sees, who has title or office to make him con- ing a derogation to bim, that he can ia po inspicuous; but his deference is wholly given to stances show so true a taste of his life, or bis outward considerations. I, wbo know him, fortune. What concerns one of the abovecan tell him within half an acre, bow much mentioned appetites, as it is elevated into love, land one man has more than apot ber by Tom's I shall have abundant occasion to discourse of, bow to him. Title is all he knows of honour, before I have provided for the numberless and civility of friendship: for this reason, be crowd of damsels I have proposed to lake care cause he cares for no man living, he is relj. of. The subject iherefore of the present paper giously strict in performing, what he calls, his shall be that part of society, which owes its respects to you. "To this end he is very learned beginning to the commun necessity of Hunger. in pedigree ; and will abate something in the When this is considered as the support of our ceremony of his approaches to a man, if he is being, we may take in under the same head in any doubt about the bearing of his coat of Thirst also; otherwise, when we are pursuing arms. What is the most pleasant of all his the glutton, the drunkard may make his escharacter is, that he acts with a sort of inte. cape. The true choice of our diet, and our grity in these impertinences; and though he companions at it, seems to consist in that would not do any solid kindness, he is wonder which contributes most to cheerfulaess and fully just and careful not to wrong his quality. refreshment: and these certainly are best con. But as integrity is very scarce in the world, I sulted by simplicity in the food, and sincerity cannot forbear having respect for the imper- in the company. By this rule are, in the first tinent: it is some virtue to be bound by any place, excluded from pretence to happiuess all thing. Tom and I are upon very good terms, meals of state and ceremony, which are perfor the respect he has for the house of Bicker- formed in dumb-show, and greedy sullenness. staff. Though one cannot but laugh at his At the boards of the great, they say, you shall serious consideration of things so little esset- have a number attending with as good habits and tial, one must have a value even for a frivolous countenances as the guests, which only circumgood conscience.

stance must destroy the whole pleasure of the repast: for if such attendants are introduced

for the dignity of their appearance, modest No. 205.] Tuesday, August 1, 1710

minds are shocked by considering thein as

spectators; or else look upon them as equals, Νηπι04, εδ' ισασιν οσα λεον ημισυ ταυλος

for whose servitude they are in a kind of sufΚαι οσον εν μαλαχη τε και ασφοδελω μεγ' ονεια. fering. It may be bere added, that the sumpHesiod, Oper, et Dier, ver. 20.

tuous side-board, to an ingenuous eye, bas often Forts! not to know how far an tuinble lot

more the air of an altar than a table. The Careeris abundance by injustice gol; How health and temperance bless the rustic swain,

next absurd way of enjoying ourselves at meals While luxury destroys her pamper'd train,

is, where the bottle is plied without being called R. Il'ynne. for, where humour takes place of appetite, and

the good company are too dull, or too merry, From my own Apartment, July 31.

to know any enjoyment in their senses. NATURE has implanted in us two very strong Though this part of time is absolutely nedesires; hunger, for the preservation of the cessary to sustain life, it must be also conindividuals ; and lust, for the support of the sidered, that life itself is to the endless being species ; or, to speak more intelligibly, the of man but what a meal is to this life, not vaformer to continue our own persons, and the luable for itself but for the purposes of it. If latter to introduce others into the world. Ac. there be any truth in this, the expense of many cording as men behave themselves with regard hours this way is somewhat unaccountable : to these appetites, they are above or below the and placing much thougbt either in too great beasts of the field, which are incited by them sumptuousness and elegance in this matter, or without choice or reflection. But reasonable wallowing in noise and riot at it, are both, creatures correct these incentives, and improve though not equally, unaccountable. I have them into elegant motives of friendship and often considered these different people witin society. It is chiefly from this homely foun- I very great attention, and always speak of thern

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with the distinction of the Eaters and the Happy genius! he is the better man for being
Swallowers. The Enters sacrifice all their a wit. The best way to praise this author is
senses and understanding to this appetite. The to quote him ; and I think I may defy any
Swallowers hurry themselves out of huth, with- man to say a greater thing of him, or bis abi.
out pleasing this or any other appetite at all. lity, than that there are no paragraphs in the
The latter are improved brutes, the former, whole discourse I speak of below these which
degenerated men. I have sometimes thought Collow.
it would not be improper to add to my dead After having recommended the satisfaction
and living men, persons in an intermediate of the mind, and the pleasure of conscience,
state of humanity, under the appellation of he proceeds :
Dozers. The Dozers are a sect, who, instead An ennobling property of it is, that it is
of keeping their appetites in subjection, live such a pleasure as never satiates or wearies;
in subjection to them; nay, they are so truly for it properly affects the spirit ; and a spirit
slaves to them, that they keep at too great a reels no weariness, as being privileged from the
distance ever to come into their presence. causes of it. But can the epicure say so of any
Within my own acquaintance, I know those of the pleasures that he so much dotes upon ?
that I dare say have forgot that they ever were Do they not expire while they satisfy, and,
hungry, and are no less utter strangers to after a few minutes' refreshment, determine in
thirst and weariness; who are bebolden to loathing and unquietness ? How short is the
sauces for their food, and to their food for their interval between a pleasure and a burden !

How undiscernible the transition from one to
I have often wondered, considering the ex- the other! Pleasure dwells no longer upon the
cellent and choice spirits that we have among appetite than the necessities of nature, which
our divines, that they do not think of putting are quickly and easily provided for; and then
vicious habits into a more contemptible and all that follows is a load and an oppression.
unlovely figure than they do at present. So Every morsel to a satisfied Hunger, is only a
many men of wit and spirit as there are in new labour to a tired digestion. Every draught
sacred orders, have it in their power to make to him that bas quenched his thirst, is but a
the fashion of their side. The leaders in hu- further quenching of nature, anıl a provision
man society are more effectually prevailed for rheum and diseases, a drowning of the
upon this way than can easily be imagined. quickness and activity of the spirits.
I have more than one in my thoughts at this He that prolongs his meals, and sacrifices
time, capable of doing this against all the op- his time, as well as his other conveniences, to
position of the most witty, as well as the most his luxury, how quickly does he outset his
voluptuous. There may possibly be more ac- pleasure ! And then, how is all the following
ceptable subjects; but sure there are none time bestowed upon ceremony and surfeit!
more useful. It is visible, that though men's until at length, after a long fatigue of eating,
fortunes, circumstances, and pleasures, give and drinking, and babbling, he concludes the
them prepossessions too strong to regard any great work of dining genteely, and so makes a
mention either of punishments or rewards, shift to rise from table, that be may lie down
they will listen to what makes them inconsi- upon his bed ; where, after he has slept him-
derable or mean in the imaginations of others, self into some use of himself, by much ado be
aod, by degrees, in their own.

staggers to his table again, and there acts over It is certain such topics are to be touched the same brutish scene : so that he passes bis upon, in the light we mean, only by men of whole life in a dozed condition, between sleepthe most consummate prudence, as well as ex- ing and waking, with a kind of drowsiness and cellent wit: for these discourses are to be confusion upon his senses, which, what pleasure made, if made, to run into example, before it can be, is bard to conceive. All that is of such as bave their thoughts more intent upon it dwells upon the tip of bis tongue and within the propriety, than the reason of the discourse. the compass of his palate. A worthy prize What indeed leads me into this way of thinking for a man to purchase with the loss of his time, is, that the last thing I read was a sermon of his reason, and himself! the learned doctor South, upon 'The ways of pleasantness.' This admirable discourse was

No. 206.] Thursday, August 3, 1710. made at court, where the preacher was too wise a man not to believe, the greatest argu- Metiri se quemque sno modulo ac pede verum est.

Ilor. 1 Ep. vii. ver, ult. ment in that place against the pleasures then

All should be confin'd in vogue, must be, that they lost greater plea

Withiu the buonis, which nature hath assign'd, sures by prosecuting the course they were in.

Francis, The charming discourse has in it whatever wit and wisdom can put together. This gentleman

From my own Apartment, August 2. has a talent of making all his facúlties bear The general purposes of men in the conduct to the great end of his hallowed profession. I of their lives, I mean with relation to this life

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only, end in gaining either the affection or the I was the other day walking with Jack Gaioly esteem of those with whom they converse. towards Lincoln's-inn-walks: we met a fellow Esteem makes a man powerful in business, who is a lower officer where Jack is in the di. and affection desirable in conversation ; which rection. Jack cries to him, ' So, how is it, is certainly the reason that very agreeable Mr. - ?' He answers, ' Mr. Gainly, I am men fail of their point in the world, and those glad to see you well.' This expression of who are by no means such, arrive at it with equality gave my friend a'pang, which appeared much ease. If it be visible in a man's carriage in the Ausb of his countenance. * Prythee that he has a strong passion to please, no one Jack,' says I, “ do not be angry at the man ; is much at a loss how to keep measures with for do what you will, the man can only love him ; because there is always a balance in you; be contented with the image the man people's hands to make up with bim, by giving bas of thee ; for if thou aimest at any other, him what he still wants in exchange for what it must be hatred or contempt. I went on, you think fit to deny him. Such a person asks and told him, “ Look you, Jack, I have heard with diffidence, and ever leaves room for de thee sometimes talk like an oracle for half an vial by that softness of his complexion. Achour, with the sentiments of a Roman, the the same time he himself is capable of denying closeness of a schoolman, and the integrity nothing, even what he is not able to perform of a divine ; but then, Jack, while I adThe other sort of man who courts esteem, mired thee, it was upon topics which did not having a quite different view, has as different concern thyself; and where, the greatness of a behaviour ; and acts as much by the dictates the subject, added to thy being personally un of his reason as the other does by the impulse concerned in it, created all that was great in of bis inclination. You must pay for every thy discourse.' I did not mind his being a thing you bave of bim. He considers mankind little out of humour; but comforted him, by as a people in commerce, and never gives out giving biin several instances of men of our acof himself what he is sure will not come in quaintance, who had no one quality in any with interest from anotber. All his words and eminence, that were much more esteemed actions tend to the advancement of his repu- than he was with very many: 'but the thing tation and his fortune, towards wbich be makes is, if your character is to give pleasure, men hourly progress, because he lavishes no part of will consider you only in that light, and not in bis good will upon such as do not make some those acts which turn to esteem and venera. advances to merit it. The man who valuestion.' affection, sometimes becomes popular ; he who When I think of Jack Gainly, I cannot but aims at esteem, seldom fails of growing rich. reflect alsu upon his sister Gatty. She is young,

Thus far we have looked at these different witty, pleasant, innocent. This is her natural men, as persons who endeavoured to be valued character; but when she observes any one adand beloved from design or ambition ; but mired for what they call a fine woman, she is they appear quite in another figure, wben you all the next day womanly, prudent, observing, observe the men who are agreeable and ve. and virtuous. She is every moment asked in nerable from the force of their natural iucli- her prudential behaviour, whether she is not nations. We affect the company of him who well? Upon which she as often answers in a has least regard of himself in bis carriage, who fret, ' Do people think one must be always throws himself into unguarded gayety, volun. romping, always a Jackpudding?' I never fail tary mirth, and general good humour; who to enquire of her, if my lady such-a-one, that has nothing in his head but the present hour, awful beauty, was not at the play last night? and seems to have all his interest and passions She knows the connection between that quesgratified, if every man else in the room is astion and her change of humour, and says, “ It voconcerned as bimself. This man usually has would be very well if some people would exano quality or character amung bis companions ; mine into themselves, as much as they do into let him be born of whom he will, bave what others.' Or, 'Sure, there is nothing in the great qualities he please ; let him be capable world so ridiculous as an amorous old man.' of assuming for a moment what figure he As I was saying, there is a class which every pleases, he still dwells in the imagination of man is in by his post in nature, from which it all who know him but as Jack is impossible for him to withdraw to another, This makes Jack brighten up the room where- and become it. Therefore it is necessary that ever he enters, and change the severity of the each should be contented with it, and not encompany into that gayety and good humour, deavour at any progress out of that tract. To into which his conversation generally leads follow nature is the only agreeable course, them. It is not unpleasant to observe even which is what I would fain inculcate to those this sort of creature go out of his character, to jarring companions, Flavia and Lucia. They check bimself sometimes for his familiarities, are mother and daughter. Flavia, who is the and pretend so awkwardly at procuring to him-mamma, has all the charms and desires of self more esteem than he finds he meets with. I youth still about her, and is not much turned

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