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The greatness of things is comparative ; and No beast, of moro potentons size, this does not only hold in respect of extension,

In the Hercinian forest lies; but likewise in respect of dignity, duration,

Nor fiercer in Numidia bred,

With Cartbage were iu trinmph led. and all kinds of perfection. Astronomy opens the mind, and alters our judgment, with regard to the magnitude of extended beings; I QUESTION not but my country customers but Christianity producetb a universal great will be surprised to hear me complain that this ness of soul. Philosophy increaseth our views town is, of late years, very much infested with in every respect, but Christianity extends them lions : and will perhaps, look upon it as a to a degree beyond the light of nature. strange piece of news when I assure them that

How mean must the most exalted potentate there are many of these beasts of prey, who upon earth appear to that eye which takes in walk our streets in broad day-light, beating innumerable orders of blessed spirits, differing about from coffee-house to coffee-bouse, and in glory and perfection! How little must the seeking whom they may devour. amusements of sense, and the ordinary oc- To unriddle this paradox, I must acquaint cupations of mortal men, seem to one who is my rural reader that we polite men of the towa engaged in so noble a pursuit, as the assimila- give the name of a lion to any one that is a tion of bimself to the Deity, which is the pro- great man's spy. And whereas I cannot disper employment of every Christian!

charge my office of Guardian without setting And the inprovement which grows from ha a mark on such a noxious animal, and cautionbituating the mind to the comprehensive views ing my wards against him, I design this whole of religion must not be thought wholly to re-paper as an essay upon the political lion. gard the understanding. Nothing is of greater It has cost me a great deal of time to disforce to subdue the inordinate motions of the cover the reason of this appellation, but after heart, and to regulate the will. Whether a many disquisitions and conjectures on so obo man be actuated by his passions or bis reason, scure a subject, I find there are two accounts these are first wrought upon by some object, of it more satisfactory than the rest. In the which stirs the soul in proportion to its appa- republic of Venice, which has been always the rent dimensions. Hence irreligious men, whose mother of politics, there are near the doge's short prospects are filled with earth, and sense, palace several large figures of lions curiously and mortal life, are invited, by these mean wrought in marble, with mouths gaping in a ideas, to actions proportionably little and low. most enormous manner. Thuse who have a But a mind, whose views are enlightened and mind to give the state any private intelligence extended by religion, is animated to nobler of what passes in the city, put their bands into pursuits by more sublime and remote objects. the mouth of one of these lions, and convey

There is not any instance of weakness in the into it a paper of such private informations as free-thinkers that raises my indignation more, any way regard the interest or safety of the than their pretending to ridicule Christians, commonwealth. By this means all the secrets as men of narrow understandings, and to pass of state come out of the lion's mouth. The themselves upon the world for persons of su informer is concealed; it is the lion that tells perior sense, and more enlarged views. But I every thing. In short, there is not a wismaleave it to any impartial man to judge which nagement in office, or a murmur in conversa. hath the nobler sentiments, wbich the greater tion, which the lion does not acquaint the views; he whose notions are stinted to a few government with. For this reason, say the miserable inlets of sense, or he whuse senti- learned, a spy is very properly distinguished ments are raised above the common taste, by by the name of lion. the anticipation of those delights which will I must confess this etymology is plausible satiate the soul, when the whole capacity of enough, and I did for some time acquiesce in her nature is branched out into new faculties ? it, till about a year or two ago I met with a He who looks for nothing beyond this short little manuscript wbich sets this wbule matter span of duration, or he whose aims are co-ex- in a clear light. In the reign of queen Elizatended with the endless length of eternity ? beth, says my author, the renowned WalsingHe who derives his spirit from the elements, ham had many spies in his service, from whom or he who thinks it was inspired by the Al- the government received great advantage. The mighty?

most eminent among them was the statesman's barber, whose surname was Lion. This fellow

had an admirable knack of fisding out the No. 71.] Tuesday, June 2, 1713.

secrets of his customers, as they were under

bis hands. He would rub and Jather a man's Quale portentum neque militaris

head, till he had got ont every thing that Dannia in kitis alit esculetis ;

was in it. He bad a certain snap in his fingers Nec Jabæ tellos generat, leonam Arida putrix.

and a volubility in his tongue, that would en. Llor. Lib. 1. Od. xxii, 13.

gage a man to talk with him whether he wouli

or no.

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By this means he became an inex | under bim, who are bis retailers in intelligence, haustible fund of private intelligence, and so and bring him in materials for his report ; his signalized himself in the capacity of a spy, chief haunt is a coffee-house, and as his voice that from his time a master-spy goes under is exceeding strong, it aggravates the sound of the name of a lion.

every thing it repeats. Walsingham had a most excellent penetra- As the lion generally thirsts after blood, and tion, and never attempted to turn any man is of a fierce and cruel nature, there are no into a lion whom he did not see highly qua- secrets wbich he hunts after with more delight, lified for it when he was in his human con- than those that cut off beads, hang, draw, and dition. Indeed the speculative men of those quarter, or end in the ruin of the person who times say of him, that he would now and then becomes his prey. If he gets the wind of any play them off, and expose them a little unmer. word or action that may do a man good, it is cifully; but that, in my opinion, seems only not for his purpose, he quits the chace and good policy, for otherwise they might set up falls into a more agreeable scent. for men again, wben they thought fit, and He discovers a wonderful sagacity in seeking desert his service. But however, though in after his prey. He couches and frisks about that very corrupt age he inade use of these in a thousand sportful motions to draw it within animals, he had a great esteem for true men, his reach, and has a particular way of imitating and always exerted the highest generosity in the sound of the creature whom he would enoffering them more, without asking terms of snare; an artifice to be met with in no beast them, and doing more for them out of mere of prey, except the hyæna and the political respect for their talents, though against him, lion. than they could expect from any other minister You seldom see a cluster of newsmongers whom they had served never so conspicuously. without a lion in the midst of them. He never This made Raleigh (who profest himself his misses taking bis stand within ear-shot of one oppunent) say one day to a friend, ' Pox take of those little ambitious men who set up for this Walsingham, he baffles every body; he orators in places of public resort. If there is a won't so much as let a man hate him in pri- whispering-bule, or any public-spirited corner vate.' True it is, that by the wanderings, in a coffee house, you never fail of seeing a roarings, and lurkings of his lions, he knew lion couched upon his elbow in some part of the way to every mau breathing, whu bad the neighbourhood. not a contempt for the world itself. He had A lion is particularly addicted to the perusal sions rampant whom he used for the service of every loose paper that lies in his way. He apof the church, and couchant who were to lie pears more than ordinary attentive to what he down for the queen. They were so much at reads, while he listens to those who are about command, that the couchant would act as him. He takes up the Post-man, and snuffs the rampant, and the rampant as couchant, the candle that he may hear the better by it. I without being the least out of countenance, have seen a lion pore upon a single paragraph and all this within four-and-twenty hours. in an old gazatte for two hours together, if his Walsingham had the pleasantest life in the veigbbuurs have been talking all that while. world; for, by the force of his power and in- Having given a full description of this montelligence, he saw men as they really were, and ster, for the benefit of such innocent persons not as the world thought of them : all this was as may fall into his walks, I shall apply a word principally brought about by feeding his lions or two to the lion himself, whom I would desire well, or keeping them hungry, according to to consider that he is a creature hated both by their different constitutions.

God and man, and regarded with the utmost Having giving this short, but necessary ac- contempt even by such as make use of him. count of this statesman and his barber, who, Hangmen and executioners are necessary in a like the tailor in Shakspeare's Pyramus and state, and so may the animal I have been here Thysbe, was a man made as other men are, mentioning; but how despicable is the wretch notwithstanding he was a nominal lion, I shall that takes on him so vile an employment ? proceed to the description of this strange There is scarce a being that would not suffer species of creatures. Ever since the wise Wal- by a comparison with bim, except that being singham was secretary in this nation, our only who acts the same kind of part, and is statesmen are said to have encouraged the both the tempter and accuser of mankind. breed among us, as very well knowing that a lion in our British arms is one of the supporters N. B. Mr. Ironside has, within five weeks of the crown, and that it is impossible for a last past, muzzled three lions, gorged five, and government, in which there are such a variety killed one. On Monday next the skin of the of factions and intrigues, to subsist without dead one will be hung up in terrorem, at this necessary animal.

Button's coffee-house, over against Tom's in A lion, or master-spy, hath several jack-calls Covent-Garden.

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72.) Wednesday, Juno 3, 1713.

he is making fools merry, and wise men sick;

and that, in the eye of considering persons, be In vitiam libertas excidit, et vim Dignam lege regi

hath less compunction than the common bang. Hor. Ars Poet. ver. 282.

man, and less shame tban a prostitute. -Its liberty was turned to rage; Such rage as civil pow'r was forc'd to tame.-Creech.

lofamy is so cutting an evil, that most per

sons who have 'any elevation of soul, think it Oxford is a place which I am more inqui-worse than death. Those who have it not in sitive about than even that of my nativity; their power to revenge it, often pine away in and when I have an account of any sprightly anguish, and loath their being; and those who saying, or rising genius from thence, it brings bave, enjoy no rest till they have vengeance. my own youthful days into my mind, and I shall therefore make it the business of this throws me forty years back into life. It is for paper to show how base and ungenerous it is this reason, that I bave thought myself a little to traduce the women, and how dangerous neglected of late by Jack Lizard, from whom to expose men of learning and character, who I used to hear at least once a week. The last bave generally been the subjects of these ippost brought me his excuse, wbich is, that be vectives. hath been wholly taken up in preparing some It hath been often said, that women seera exercises for the theatre. He tells me like formed to soften the boisterous passions, and wise, that the talk there is about a public act, sooth the cares and anxieties to which men and that the gay part of the university have are exposed in the many perplexities of life. great expectation of a Terræ-filius, who is to That having weaker bodies, and less strength jash and sting all the world in a satyrical of mind than man, nature hath poured out speech. Against the great licence which hath her charms upon them, and given them such beretofore been taken in these libels, he ex- tenderness of heart, that the most delicate de presses himself with such humanity, as is very light we receive froin them is, in thinking them wusual in a young person, and ought to be entirely ours, and under our protection. Accherished and admired. For my own part, cordingly we find, that all nations have paid & I so far agree with him, that if the university decent homage to this weaker and lovelier part permits a thing, which I think much better let of the rational creation, in proportion to their alone; I hope those, whose duty it is to ap- removal from savageness and barbarism. Chaspoint a proper person for that office, will take tity and truth are the only due returns that care that be utter nothing unbecoming a gen- that they can make for this generous dispotleman, a scholar, and a Christian. Moreover, sition in the nobler sex. For beauty is so far I would have them consider that their learned from satisfying us of itself, that whenever we body hath already enemies enough, who are think that it is communicated to others, we prepared to aggravate all irreverent insiau- behold it with regret and disdain. Whoever ations, and to interpret all oblique indecencies, therefore rubs a woman of ber reputation, dewho will triumph in such a victory, and bid the spoils a poor defenceless creature of all that university thank herself for the consequences. makes her valuable, turns her beauty into

In my time I remember the Terræ-filius loathsomeness, and leaves her friendless, abancontented himself with being bitter upon the doned, and updone. There are many tempers pope, or chastising the Turk; and raised a

so soft that the least calumny gives them pains serious and manly mirth, and adapted to the they are not able to bear. They give them. dignity of his auditory, by exposing the false selves up to strange fears, gloomy reflections, reasoning of the heretic, or ridiculing the and deep melancholy. How savage must be clumsy pretenders to genius and politeness. be, who can sacrifice the quiet of such a mind In the jovial reign of king Charles the Second, to a transient burst of mirth! Let him who wherein never did more wit or more ribaldry wantonly sports away the peace of a pour lady abound, the fashion of being arch upon all that consider what discord he sows in families ; bow was grave, and waggish upon the ladies, crept ofter he wrings the heart of a boary parent; into our seats of learning upon these occasions. how often he rouses the fury of a jealous busThis was managed grossly and awkwardly baud; how he extorts from the abused woman enough, in a place where the general plainness curses, perhaps not unheard, and poured out and simplicity of manners could ill bear the in the bitterness of her soul! What weapolis mention of such crimes, as in courts and great bath she wherewith to repel such an outrage! cities are called by the specious names of air How shall she oppose her softness and imbe and gallantry. It is to me amazing, that ever cility to the bardened forehead of a coward, any man, bred up in the knowledge of virtue who hath trampled upon weakness that could and humanity, should so far cast off all shame not resist him! to a buffoon, who hath slan. and tenderness, as to stand up in the face of dered innocence to raise the laughter of fools! thousands, and utter such contumelies as I have who bath scattered firebrands, arrows, and read and heard of. Let such a one know that deaths, and said, am I not in sport!'

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Ter. Ean. Act. i. Sc. 1.

Irreverent reflections upon men of learning | law to forbid it. Were I to advise in this and note, if their character be sacred, do great matter, I should represent to the orator how disservice to religion, and betray a vile mind noble a field there lay before him for panegyric; in the author. I have therefore always thought what a happy opportunity he had of doing juswith indignation upon that accuser of the tice to the great men who once were of that brethren,' the famous antiquary, * whose em- famous body, or now shine forth in it; nor ployment it was for several years, to rake up should I neglect to insinuate the advantages all the ill-natured stories that had 'ever been he might propose by gaining their friendship, fastened upon celebrated men, and transmit whose worth, by a contrary treatment, he will them to posterity with cruel industry, and be imagined either not to know, or to envy. malicious joy. Though the good men, ill-used, This might rescue the name from scandal ; may out of a meek and Christian disposition, and if, as it ought, this performance turned so far subdue their natural resentment, as to solely upon matters of wit and learning, it neglect and forgive; yet the inventors of such might have the honour of being one of the calumnies will find generous persons, whose first productions of the magnificent printing bravery of mind makes them think themselves house, just erected at Oxford. proper instruments to chastise such insolence. This paper is written with a design to make And I have in my time, more than once known my journey to Oxford agreeable to me, where the discipline of the blanket administered to I design to be at the Public Act. If my advice the offenders, and all their slanders answered is neglected, I shall not scruple to insert in by that kind of syllogism which the ancient the Guardian whatever the men of letters and Romans called the argumentum bacillinum. genius transmit to me, in their own vindication;

I have less compassion for men of sprightly and I hereby promise that I myself will draw parts and genius, whose characters are played my pen in defence of all injured women. upon, because they have it in their power to revenge themselves tenfold. But I think of all the classes of mankind, they are the most No. 73.] Thursduy, June 4, 1713. pardunable if they pay the slanderer in his own coin. For their names being already blazed In amore hæc insunt oinnia. abroad in the world, the least blot thrown upon them is displayed far and wide; and they have

All these things are inseparable from love. this sad privilege above the men in obscurity,

It is a matter of great concern that there that the dishonour travels as far as their fame.

come so many letters to me, wherein I see To be even therefore with their enemy, they parents make love for their children, and, are but too apt to diffuse bis infamy as far as without any manner of regard to the season of their own reputation; and perhaps triumph in life, and the respective interests of their prosecret, that they have it in their power to make geny, judge of their future happiness by the his name the scuff and derision of aster-ages. rules of ordinary commerce. When a man This, I say, they are too apt to do. For some.

falls in love in some families, they use him as times they resent the exposing of their little if his land was mortgaged to them, and he affectations or slips in writing, as much as

cannot discharge bimself, but by really making wounds upon their bonour. The first are trifles it the same thing in an unreasonable scttlethey should laugh away, but the latter deserves ment, or foregoing what is dearer to him than their utmost severity.

his estate itself. These extortioners are of all I must confess a warmth against the buf- others the most cruel, and the sharks, who fooneries mentioned in the beginning of this prey upon the inadvertency of young heirs, are paper, as they have so many circumstances to

more pardonable than those who trespass upon aggravate their guilt. A licence for a man to the good opinion of those who treat with them stand up jo the schools of the prophets, in a upon the foot of choice and respect. The folgrave decent habit, and audaciously vent his lowing letters may place in the reader's view obloquies against the doctors of our church, uneasinesses of this sort, which may perhaps and directors of our young nobility, gentry be useful to some under the circumstances and clergy, in their bearing and before their mentioned by my correspondents. eyes: to throw calumnies upon poor defenceless women, and offend their ears with nauseous

" To Nestor Ironside, Esq. ribaldry, and name their names at length in a public theatre, when a queen is upon the throne: From a certain town in Cumberland, May 21. such a licence as this never yet gained ground " VENERABLE SIR, in our playhouses; and I hope will not need a It is impossible to express the universal

satisfaction your precautions give in a country

so far north as ours; and indeed it were im• Anthony Wood, author of th Athenæ Oxoniensis, a valuable collection of the lives of writers and bishops edua pertinent to expatiate in a case that is by no cated at Oxford, 2 vols. folio, 1691.

means particular to ourselves, all mankind,


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who wish well to one another, being equally cious time, without coming together for ever. concerned in their success. However, as all That must depend upon the old gentleman, nations have not the genius, and each parti- who sees I cannot live without his daughter, cular man has bis different views and taste, and knows I cannot, upon his terms, be ever we northerns cannot but acknowledge our ob- happy with her. I beg of you to send for us ligations in a more especial manner, for your all up to town together, that we may be heard matrimonial precautions, which we more im. before you (for we all agree in a deference to mediately are interested in. Our climate has your judgment) upon these heads, Whether ever been recorded as friendly to the conti- the authority of a father should not accomnuation of our kind; and the ancient histories modate itself to the liberty of a free-born Eng. are not more full of their Goths and Vandals, lish woman ? that in swarms overspread all Europe, than * Whether, if you think fit to take the old modern story of its Yorkshire hostlers and at gentleman into your care, the daughter may torveys, who are remarkably eminent and be not choose her lover for her Guardian ? neficial in every market-town, and most inns Whether all parents are not obliged to of this kingdom. I shall not here presume to provide for the just passions of their cbildren enter, with the ancient sages, into a particular when grown up, as well as food and raiment reasoning upon the case, as whether it proceeds in their tender years ? from the cold temper of the air, or the parti. 'These and such points being unsettled in cular constitutions of the persons, or both; the world, are cause of great distraction, and from the fashionable want of artifice in the it would be worthy your great age and expewomen, and their entire satisfaction in one rience, to consider them distinctly for the he. conquest only, or the happy ignorance in the nefit of domestic life. All which, most venermen, of those soutbern vices which effeminate able Nestor, is bumbly submitted by all your mankind.

northern friends, as well as From this encomium, I do not question

Your most obedient, and but by this time you infer me happy already

• devoted bumble servant, in the legal possession of some fair one, or in

• PASTOR FIDO.' a propable way of being so. But alas! neither


We who subscribe this, are man and wife, minute seizes upon my heart, I presage never

and have been so these fifteen years : but you will. What shall I do? To complain here is must know we have quarrelled twice a day ever to talk to winds, or mortals as regardless as

since we came together, and at the same time they. The tempestuous storms in the neigh-have a very tender regard for one another. We bouring mountains, are not more relentless, observe this babitual disputation bas an ill or the crags more deaf, than the old gentle effect upon our children, and they lose tbeir man is to my sighs and prayers. The lovely respect towards us from this jangling of ours. Pastorella indeed hears and gently sighs, but We lately entered into an agreement, that from it is only to increase my tortures ; she is too that time forward, when either should fall into dutiful to disobey a father; and I neither able, passion, the party angry should go into appor forward, to receive her by an act of dis- other room, and write a note to the other by obedience.

one of the children, and the person writ to, As to myself, my humour, until this acci- right or wrong, beg pardon; because the wri. dent to rutie it, bas ever been gay and thought-ting to avoid passion, is in itself an act of kind. Jess, perpetually toying amongst the women,

ness. This little method, with the smiles of dancing briskly, and singing softly. Por I take the messengers, and other nameless incidents it, more men miscarry amongst them for hav. in the management of this correspondence ing too much than too little understanding. with the next room, has produced inexpressible Pastorella seems willing to relieve me from delight, made our children and servants cbeermy frights; and by her constant carriage, by ful under our care and protection, and made admitting my visits at all hours, bas convinced us ourselves sensible of a thousand good quaall hereabouts of my happiness with her, and lities we now see in each other, which could occasioned a total defection amongst her for- not before shine out, because of our mutnal mer lovers, to my infinite contentment. Ah! impatience. Mr. Ironside, could you but see in a calm

Your humble servants, evening the profusion of ease and tenderness

• PHILIP AND MARY. det wixt us! The murmuring river that glides * P. S. Since the above, my wife is gone out gently by, the cooing turtles in the neighbour of the room, and writes word by Billy, that she ing groves, are harsh compared to her more would have in the above letter, the words Luneful voice. The happy pair, first joined in jangling of ours," changed into the words, Paradise, not more enamoured walked! more “these our frequent debates.” I allow of the sweetly loved ! But alas ! what is all this! an amendment, and desire you would understand im aginary joy, in which we trifle away our pre. accordingly, that we never jangled, but went

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