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what I have said, no more than eight of the the province of Holland before the year one twenty millions can be applied either to our thousand six hundred and seventy. I think it is dead stock of luxury, our stock in ioland or in sir William Temple's Observations upon the foreign trade, or our stores or magazines. So United Netherlands. The government there that still there will remain twelve millions, was indebted about thirteen millions, and paid which are now no otherwise to be disposed of the interest of five per cent. per annum. Tbey than in buying of lands or houses, or our new had got a sum of money, I think not above a parliamentary funds, or in being lent out at million, with which they prepared to discharge interest upon mortgages of those securities, or such a part of the principal. The creditors to persons who have no other ways to repay were so unable to find so good an interest else. the value than by part of the things themselves. where, that they petitioned the States to keep
The question then is, what effect these twelve their money, with an abatement of one per millions will have towards reducing the inte-cent. of their interest. The same money was rest of money, or raising the value of estates; offered to the same number of other creditors for as the former grows less, the latter will with the same success, until one per cent. of ever rise in proportion. For example, while their whole interest was abated, yet at last such the interest of money is five per cent. per a part of the principal was discharged. And annum, a man lends two thousand pounds to when this sum came to be lent to private per. raise a revenue of one hundred pounds per sons, it had the same effect; there one per annum, by the interest of his money; and for cent. of the common interest was abzied the me reason be gives two thousand pounds throughout the whole province, as well beor more, to purchase an estate of one hundred tween subject and subject, as between the subpounds per annum. Again, if the interest of jects and their governors. bnd potbing is so money shall fall one per cent. he must be notorious, as that the value of lands in that forced to lend two thousand four hundred country has risen in proportion, and that espounds to gain the revenue of one hundred tates are sold there for thirty years' value of pounds per annum, and for the same reason their whole rents. It is not then to be doubted, he must give at least two thousand four hun. that twelve millions extraordinary to be leuc dred pounds to purchase an estate of the same at interest, or purchase lands, or government yearly rent. Therefore if these twelve millions securities, must have the like effect in England, newly gained shall reduce one per cent. of the at least that lands will rise four years' rent in present interest of money, they must of neces- every purcbase above their present value. And sity increase every estate at least four years' how great an improvement must this be of the value in the purchase.
lander interest ? It is ever easier to meet with men that will The repts of England, according to the proborrow money than sell their estates. An evi- portion of the land-tax, should be little more dence of this is, that we never bave so good a than eight millions, yet perhaps they may be revenue by buying, as by lending. The first twelve. If there is made an additiou of four thing therefore that will be attempted with years' value in every purcbase, this, upon all these twelve millions, is to lend money to those the rents of England, amounts to forty-eight that want it. This can hardly fail of reducing nuillions. So that, by the importation and one per cent of the present interest of money, clear gain of twenty millions by trade, the and consequently of raising every estate four landed interest gains an improvement of fortyyears' value in the purchase.
eight millions, at least six times as much as all For in all probability all the money or value other interests joined together. now in England, not applied to any of the uses I should think this argument, which I have above-mentioned, and wbich therefore lies dead, endeavoured to set in a clear light, must needs or affords no revenue to the owners, until it be sufficient to show, that the landed and the can be disposed of to such uses, does not ex- trading interests cannot in reality but be ceed twelve millions; yet this sum, whatever friends to each other. it is, is sufficient to keep down money to the present interest, and to hold up lands to their present value. One would imagine then, is No. 77.] Tuesday, June 9, 1713. this sum should be doubled, if twelve millions
-Certum voto pete finem, extraordinary should be added to it, they should
Hor. Lib. 1. Ep. ii. 56. reiluce half the present interest of money, and double the present value of estates. But it will easily be allowed they must reduce one per The writers of morality assign two sorts of cent. of the present interest of money, and add goods, the one is in itself desirable, the other the value of four years' rent to the purchase of is to be desired, not on account of its own exevery estate.
cellency, but for the sake of some other thing To confirm the belief of this, an arguinent which it is instrumental to obtain. These are might be taken from what really happened in usually distinguished by the appellations of end
--To wishes fix an end.
and means. We are prompted by nature to join in a thoughtless pursuit of those landesire the former, but that we have any ap. guages, without any further view. They look petite for the latter is owing to choice and de- on the ancient authors, but it is with an eye liberation.
to phraseology, or certain minute particulars But as wise men engage in the pursuit of which are valuable for no other reason but bemeans, from a farther view of some natural cause they are despised and forgotten by the good with which they are connected; fools, rest of mankind. The divine maxims of mowho are acted by imitation and not by rea- rality, the exact pietures of human life, the son, blindly pursue the means, without any prusound discoveries in the arts and sciences, design or prospect of applying them. The re- just thoughts, bright images, sublime senti sult whereof is, that they entail upon them- ments, are overlooked, while the mind is learn. selves the anxiety and toil, but are debarred edly taken up in verbal remarks. from the subsequent delights which arise to Was a critic ever known to read Plato with wiser men; since their views not reaching the a contemplative mind, or Cicero, in order end, terminate in those things, which although to imbibe the noble sentiments of virtue and they have a relative goodness, yet, considered a public spirit, which are conspicuous in the absolutely, are indifferent, or, it may be, evil. writings of that great man; or to peruse the
The principle of this misconduct is a certain Greek or Roman historians, with an intention shortsightedness in the mind : and as this de- to form his own life upon the plan of the illusfect is branched forth into innumerable errors trious patierns they exbibit to our view? Plato in life, and bath infected all ranks and con. wrote in Greek. Cicero's Latin is fine. And ditions of men; so it more eminently appears it often lies in a man's way to quote the an. in three species, the critics, misers, and free-cient historians. thinkers. I shall endeavour to make good this There is no entertainment upon earth more observation with regard to each of them: And noble and befitting a reasonable mind, than first, of the critic.
the perusal of good authors; or that better Profit and pleasure are the ends that a rea- qualifies a man to pass his life with satisfacsonable creature would propose to obtain by tion to himself, or advantage to the public. study, or indeed by any other undertaking. But where men of short views and mean souls Thuse parts of learning which relate to the give themselves to that sort of employment imagination, as eloquence and poetry, produce which nature never designed them for, they an immediate pleasure in the mind. And sub. indeed keep one another in countenance; but lime and useful truths, when they are conveyed instead of cultivating and adorning their own in apt allegories or beautiful images, make minds, or acquiring an ability to be useful to more distinct and lasting impressions; by the world, they reap no other advantage from which means the fancy becomes subservient to their labours, than the dry consolation arising the understanding, and the mind is at the from the applauses they bestow upon each same time delighted and instrueted. The ex- other. ercise of the understanding in the discovery of And the same weakness, or defect of the truth, is likewise attended with great pleasure, mind from whence pedantry takes its rise, does as well as immediate profit. It not only likewise give birth to avarice. Words and mostrengthens our faculties, purifies the soul, ney are both to be regarded as only marks of subdues the passions; but besides these ad-things; and as the knowledge of ihe one, so vantages, there is also a secret joy that flows the possession of the other is of no use, unless from intellectual operations, proportioned to directed to a further end. A mutual comthe nobleness of the faculty, and not the less merce could not be carried on amcig men, if affecting because inward and upseen.
some common standard had not been agreed But the mere exercise of the memory as upon, to which the value of all the various such, instead of bringing pleasure or imme- products of art and nature were reducible, and diate benefit, is a thing of vain irksomeness which might be of the same use in the conveyand fatigue, especially when employed in the ance of property, as words are in that of ideas. acquisition of languages, which is of all others Gold, by its beauty, scarceness, and durable the most dry and painful occupation. There nature, seems designed by Providence to a purmust be therefore something further proposed, pose so excellent and advantageous to manor a wise man would never engage in it. And, kind. Upon these considerations that metal indeed, the very reason of the thing plainly came first into esteem. But such who cannot intimates that the motive which first drew men see beyond what is nearest in the pursuit, be. to affect a knowledge in dead tongues, was holding mankind touched with an affection that they looked on them as means to convey for gold, and being ignorant of the true reamore useful and entertaining knowledge into son that introduced this odd passion into hutheir miods.
man nature, imagine some intrinsic worth in There are, nevertheless, certain critics, who, the metal to be the cause of it. Hence the seeing that Greek and Latin are in request, I same men who, had they been turned towards
learning, would have employed themselves in him that has a genius, but the skill likes in laying up words in their memory, are by a dif- doing it without one. In pursuance of this ferent application employed to as much pur- end, I shall present the reader with a plain pose, in treasuring up gold in their coffers. and certain recipe, by which even sonnetteers They differ only in the object; the principle and ladies may be qualified for this grand per. on which they act, and the inward frame of formance. mind, is the same in the critic and the miser. I know it will be objected, that one of the
And upon a thorough observation, our mo- chief qualifications of an epic poet, is to be dern sect of free-thiokers will be found to knowing in all arts and sciences. But this labour under the same defect with those two in- ought not to discourage those that bave go glorious species. Their short views are termi- learning, as long as indexes and dictionaries pated in the next objects, and their specious may be bad, which are the compendium of all pretencos for liberty and truth, are so many knowledge. Besides, since it is an established instances of mistaking the means for the end. rule, that none of the terms of those arts and But the setting these points in a clear light sciences are to be made use of, one may venmust be the subject of another paper.
ture to affirm, our poet cannot impertinently offend in this point. The learning which will
be more particularly necessary to bim, is the No. 78.] Wednesday, June 10, 1713.
ancient geography of towns, mountains, and
rivers : for this let him take Cluverius, value -Docebo
four-pence. Unde parentar opes; quid alat, formetqne poetam. Hor. Ars Puet, ver. 306. Another quality required is a complete skill
in languages. To this I answer, that it is noto. I will teach to write, Tell what the duty of a poet is,
rious persons of no genius have been ostenties Wherein his wealth and ornament consist,
great linguists. To instance in the Greek, of And how he may be form'd, and how improv'd.
which there are two sorts; the original Greek,
and tbat from which our modern authors transIt is no small pleasure to me, who am zea. late. I should be unwilling to promise imposlous in the interests of learning, to think I may sibilities, but modestly speaking, this may be bave the honour of leading the town into a learned in about an hour's time with ease. I very new and uncommon road of criticism. As have known one, who became a sudden prothat kind of literature is at present carried on, fessor of Greek, immediately upon application it consists only in a knowledge of mechanic of the left-hand page of the Cambridge Homer rules which contribute to the structure of dif- to his eye. It is in these days with authors ferent sorts of poetry; as the receipts of good as with other men, the well-bred are familiarly housewives do to the making puddings of flour, acquainted with them at first sight; and as it oranges, plums, or any other ingredients. It is sufficient for a good general to bave surveyed would, methinks, make these my instructions the ground be is to conquer, so it is enough more easily intelligible to ordinary readers, if for a good poet to have seen the author he is I discoursed of these matters in the style in to be master of. But to proceed to the purwhich ladies learned in economics, dictate to pose of this paper. their pupils for the improvement of the kitchen and larder.
A Receipt to make an Epic Poem. I shall begin with epic poetry, because the
FOR THE FABLE. critics agree it is the greatest work buman na. 'Take out of any old poem, bistory book, ture is capable of. I know the French have romance, or legend, (for instance, Geoffry of already laid down many mechanical rules for Monmouth, or don Belianis of Greece) those compositions of this sort, but at the saine time parts of story which afford most scope for long they cut off almost all undertakers from the descriptions. Put these pieces together, and possibility of ever performing them; for the throw all the adventures you fancy into one first qualification they unanimously require in tale. Then take a hero whom you may choose a poet, is a genius. I shall bere endeavour for the sound of his name, and put him into (for the benefit of my countrymen) to make it the midst of these adventures. There let him manifest, that epic poems may be made ‘with work for twelve books; at the end of which out a genius,' nay, without learning, or much you may take him out ready prepared to conreading. This must necessarily be of great use quer, or to marry; it being necessary that the to all those poets who confess they never read, conclusion of an epic poem be fortunate.' and of whom the world is convinced they never To make an Episode.—'Take any remaining
What Moliere observes of making a adventure of your former collection, in which dinner, that any man can do it with money, you could no way involve your hero; or any and if a professed cook cannot without, he has unfortunate accident that was too good to be Jois art for nothing; the same may be said of tbrown away; and it will be of use applied to inaking a poem, it is easily brought about by any other person, who may be lost and eva
porate in the course of the work, without the For a Battle.' Pick a large quantity of least damage to the composition.'
images and descriptions from Homer's Iliads, For the Moral and Allegory.—' These you with a spice or two of Virgil, and if there re. may extract out of the fable afterwards, at main any overplus you may lay them by for a your leisure. Be sure you strain them suffi- skirmish. Season it well with similes, and it ciently.'
will make an excellent battle.'
For Burning a Town.—' If such a descripFOR THE MANNERS.
tion be necessary, because it is certain there is . For those of the hero, take all the best one in Virgil, Old Troy is ready burnt to your qualities you can find in all the celebrated he hands. But if you fear that would be thought rues of antiquity; if they will not be reduced borrowed, a chapter or two of the Theory of to a consistency, lay them all on a heap upon the Conflagration, well circumstanced, and him. But be sure they are qualities which done into verse, will be a good succedaneum.' your patron would be thought to have : and, As for Similes and Metaphors, they may to prevent any mistake which the world may be found all over the creation; the most ig.. be subject to, select from the alphabet those norant may gather them, but the danger is in cap'tal letters that compose bis name, and set applying them. For this advise with your book. them at the head of a dedication before your seller. puem, However, do not absolutely observe
FOR THE LANGUAGE. the exact quantity of these virtues, it not being determined, whether or no it be necessary for
(I mean the diction.) 'Here it will do well the hero of a poem to be an honest man.-Por to be an imitator of Milton, for you will find the under characters, gather them from Homer it easier to imitate him in this, than any thing and Virgil, and change the names as occasion else. Hebraisms and Grecisms are to be found serves.
in him, without the trouble of learning the
languages. I knew a painter, who (like our FOR THE MACHINES,
poet) had no genius, make his daubings to be 'Take of deities, male and female, as many thought originals by setting them in the smoke. as you can use. Separate them into two equal You may in the same manner give the veneraparts, and keep Jupiter in the middle. Let ble air of antiquity to your piece, by darkening Juno put him in a ferment, and Venus mollify it up and down with Old English. With this him. Remember on all occasions to make use you may be easily furnished upon any occasion, of volatile Mercury. If you bave need of de- by the dictionary commonly printed at the end vils, draw them out of Milton's Paradise, and of Chaucer.' extract your spirits from Tasso. The use of I must not conclude, without cautioning all these machines is evident; for since no epic writers without genius in one material point, poem can possibly subsist without them, the which is, never to be afraid of having too much wisest way is to reserve them for your greatest fire in their works. I should advise ratber to necessities. When you cannot extricate your take their warmest thoughts, and spread them bero by any human means, or yourself by your abroad upon paper; for they are observed to own wits, seek relief from heaven, and the cool before they are read. gods will do your business very readily. This is according to the direct prescription of Horace in his Art of Poetry:
No. 79.] Thursday, June 11, 1713. Nec deas intersit, nisi digans vindice Nodus
Præclara et pulchra minantem Inciderit
Vivere vec recte, niec saaviter Never presome to make a god appear,
Hor. Lib. I. Ep. viu. 3. Bat for a business worthy of a god,
- I make a poise, a gandy show,
Creech. That is to say, a poet should never call upon
Yet what an ill, unpleasant life I live! the gods for their assistance, but when he is in It is an employment worthy a reasonable great perplexity.'
creature, to examine into the disposition of
men's affections towards each other, and as far FOR THE DESCRIPTIONS,
as one can, to improve all tepdericies to good For a Tempest.—' Take Eurus, Zephyr, nature and charity. No one could be unmoved Auster, and Boreas, and cast them together in with this epistle, which I received the other
Add to these of rain, lightning, day from one of my correspondents, and which and of thunder (the loudest you can) quantum is full of the most ardent benevolence. sufficit. Mix your clouds and billows well to. gether until they foam, and thicken your de
To the Guardian. scription here and there with a quicksand.
• SIR, Brew your tempest well in your head, before 'I seldom read your political, your critical, you set it a blowing.'
your ludicrous, or if you will call them so, your
polite papers, but when I observe any thing He was to be sure removed when he was only which I think written for the advancement of capabie of giving offence, though avoided when good.will amongst men, and laying before them still an object of compassion. There are not objects of charity, I am very zealous for the words to give mankind compunction enough promotion of so honest a design. Believe me, on such an occasion; but I assure you I think sir, want of wit or wisdom, is not the infirmity the miserable have a property in the superfluous of this age ; it is the shameful application of possessions of the fortunate ; though I despair both that is the crying evil. As for my own of seeing right done them until the day wherein part, I am always endeavouring at least to be those distinctions sball cease for ever, and they better, rather than richer, or wiser. But I never must both give an account for their bebaviour lamented that I was not a wealthy man so under their respective sufferings and enjoybeartily as the other day. You must underments. However, you would do your part as stand that I now and then take a walk of mor. a guardian, if you would mention, in the most tification, and pass a whole day in making pathetic terms, these miserable objects, and myself profitably sad. I for this end visit the put the good part of the world in mind of exerthospitals about this city, and when I bave ing the most noble benevolence that can be rambled about the galleries at Bedlam, and imagined, in alleviating the few remaining seen for an hour the utmost of all lamentable moments of the incurable. objects, human reason distracted; when I have A gentleman who belonged to the hospital, from grate to grate offered up my prayers for was saying, he believed it would be done as a wretch who has been reviling me, for a figure soon as mentioned, if it were proposed that a that has seemed petrified with anguish, for a ward might be erected for the accommodation man that has held up his face in a posture of of such as have no more to do in this world, aduration toward beaven to utter execrations but resign themselves to death. I know do and blasphemies; I say, when I have beheld readier way of communicating this thought to all these things, and thoroughly reflected on the world, than by your paper. If you omit them, until I have start led myself out of my to publish this, I shall never esteem you to be present ill course, I have thought fit to pass the man you pretend; and so recommending to the observation of less evils, and relieve my- the incurable to your guardianship, self by going to those charitable receptacles 'I remain, Sir, about this town, appointed only for bodily dis.
'Your most humble servant, tresses. The gay and frolic part of mankind
• PHILANTHROPOS.' are wholly unacquainted with the numbers of It must be confessed, that if one turns one's their fellow-creatures, who languish under pain eyes round these cities of London and West. and agony, for want of a trifle out of that ex- minster, one cannot overlook the exemplary pense hy wbich those fortunate persons pur- instances of beroic charity, in providing rechase the gratification of a superfluous passion, straints for the wicked, instructions for the or appetite. I ended the last of these pilgri- young, food and raiment for the aged, with mages which I made, at Si. Thomas's hospital regard also to all other circumstances and rein Southwark. I had seen all the variety of lations of human life; but it is to be lamented woe which can arise from the distempers which that these provisions are made only by the attend human frailty ; but the circumstance middle kind of people, while those of fashion which occasioned this letter, and gave me the and power are raised above the species itself, quickest compassion, was beholding a little boy and are unacquainted or unmoved with the of ten years of age, wh was just then to be calamities of others. But, alas ! how monstrous expelled the house as incurable. My heart is this hardness of beart! How is it possible melted within me to think wbat would become that the returns of hunger and thirst should not of the poor child, who, as I was informed, bad | importune men, though in the highest afflunot a farthing in the world, nor father, norence, to consider the miseries of their fellowmother, nor friend to help it. The infant saw creatures who languish under necessity. But my sorrow for it, and came towards me, and as I hintea just now, the distinctions of man. bid me speak, that it might die in the house. kind are almost wholly to be resolved into those
* Alas! There are crowds cured in this place, of the rich and the poor; for as certainly as and the strictest care taken, in the distribution wealth gives acceptance and grace to all that of the charity, for wbolesome food, good physic, its possessor says or does ; so poverty creates and tender care in behalf of the patients; but disesteem, scorn, and prejadice, to all the unthe provision is not large enough for those der ings of the digent. The necessitons wbom they do not despair of recovering, which man has peither hands, lips, or understanding, makes it necessary to turn out the incurable, for his own or friend's use, but is in the same for the sake of those whom they can relieve. condition with the sick, with this difference I was informed this was the fate of many in a only, that his is an infection no pan will rem year, as well as of this pour child, who I sup- lieve, or assist, or if he does, it is seldom with poso, corrupted away yet alive in the streets. so much pity as contempt, and rather for the