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Desjardins, Martin, mär-tăn, gallicized mense insurance interests, there being in the name of Martin Vanden Bogaert, French city 45 insurance companies. The insurance sculptor: b. Breda 1640; d. Paris 2 May 1694. pay-roll approximates $200,000 per month. The He excelled as a sculptor, decorator, and wood- products of Des Moines' 412 factories, employcarver, executing many works for the churches ing more than 5,000 operatives, amount to more of Paris, the College of the Four Nations, pal- than $20,000,000. The city boasts of a jobbing ace of Versailles, etc. His chief work was a trade of $103,000,000 a year an increase of monument to Louis XIV. 1686, removed in 1792 100 per cent in six years. and destroyed save a few parts now in the Banks and Publications. There

17 Louvre and the Invalids. Another Louis XIV., banks in the city, with a combined capital of an equestrian statue, remains at Lyons, with $3,200,000 and deposits on 1 Jan. 1912, of $40,several portraits in busts and bas-reliefs at the 000,000. There are published in the city three Louvre and at Versailles.

daily newspapers, four weekly newspapers, and De Smet, dě smět, Peter John, American

47 other periodicals. Jesuit missionary to the Indians; b. Dender- Institutions, etc.-Among the most imposing

Public Buildings, Churches, Educational monde, Belgium, 31 Dec. 1801 ; d. St. Louis, Mo., 23 May 1873. In 1822, being yet only a scholas- structures in the city are the new State capitol, tic in the order, he was sent by his superiors to Monument, costing $150,000, erected on the site

erected at a cost of $3,000,000; the Soldiers' join the Jesuit mission in the United States of the old state house; the State Historical and was an instructor first in the Indian school building, for the collection and preservation of at Florissant, Mo., and then (1828) in the uni- historical records, specimens of art, science, versity newly founded at St. Louis. After this and taxidermy, frontage 260 feet, depth 90 feet

, having been ordained priest, he entered on his destined field of labor as missionary to the ab- height 60 feet, cost $500,000; the county courtorigines, traversing on foot or in canoes or with house; the United States government_buildwhatever means of conveyance was possible, ing, containing the post-office and Federal the regions inhabited by the Potawatomies, courts; the State arsenal; the city library, conSioux, Blackfeet, Flatheads, Pend' Oreilles, and taining over 50,000 volumes; two large hospitals other tribes in the valleys of the Missouri,' Yel- and the city hall

. There are several small lilowstone, Platte, and Columbia, and on both braries, five large opera houses, and 32 hotels. sides of the Rocky Mountains.

The education of the young is provided for by On many occasions he was a commissioner 47 public schools and several high schools, the on behalf of the United States government For higher and technical education there are

pupils being furnished with free text books. in pacifying the redmen when, provoked to Drake University (Christian), founded in 1881; fury by the wrongs done them, they went Des Moines College (Baptist) (q.v.), founded on the war path. In his journeys he wandered 100,000 miles in those wilder- Park Normal College (Presbyterian); Iowa

in 1865; Danish Lutheran College; Highland nesses in the course of his labors of 40 College of Medicine and Surgery, one college years. But in the meantime he made visits to Europe repeatedly, to collect funds for

The support of osteopathy, and 7 technical schools.

A of the missions and to enlist young men for college population of the city is 6,500. labor in the same field.

military post for cavalry was established there His collections in Europe amounted to by Congress, the land and buildings costing

$1,200,000. 1,000.000 francs. He wrote several narratives of his experience in the western wilds, among

Public Works.-The city has 19 public parks them: "Letters and Sketches of a Residence covering in all 970 acres of land, and the Iowa in the Rocky Mountains) (1843); Oregon State Fair Grounds, 600 acres in extent, are Missions (1847); (Western Missions' also permanently located there. The streets (1863); New Indian Sketches) (1868).

are well laid out and paved, there being 130

miles of brick and asphalt pavement; the city Des Moines, de-moin, Iowa, city, capital of is lighted by gas and electric light, the gas disthe State, and county-seat of Polk County; tributed by 100 miles of mains, and the electric near the geographical centre of the State, lon. current carried over 110 miles of wire; the 16° 43' 52" W.; lat. 41° 35' 45" N. It is situ- sewage and water systems are excellent, the ated at the junction of the Des Moines and waste being carried off by 93 miles of brick Raccoon rivers, and is entered by 17 steam and pipe sewers, and the water conveyed to all railroads and 4 interurban electric roads, oper- parts of the city through 110 miles of mains by ating 203 miles of track. The city is built on the Holly system for general use and fire proa plateau 849 feet above the sea-level, is in- tection. tersected by both rivers, which are spanned by History, Government and Population.-- Des 8 bridges, and is 54 square miles in area. The Moines was first settled in 1846 by emigrants business portion lies near the rivers and the from Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky and Missouri. residences are on the higher grounds beyond. In 1851 it was incorporated as the town of

Industries. The city is located in the heart Fort Des Moines and in 1857 received its charof a rich coal mining district, the mines in the ter as the city of Des Moines. In 1856 it bevicinity employing over 3,500 persons, and hav- came the capital of the State by act of the ing an annual output of 3,500,000 tons. The legislature. The form of government before principal industries, besides coal mining, in- 1907 was under the general incorporation laws clude pork packing, structural iron, liquors, of the State and council of nine members brick and tile, foundry and machine shop elected annually, and representing the seven products, brass goods, clay products, carriages wards into which the city is divided. In 1907 and wagons, furniture, typewriters, cotton and the Des Moines plan of commission governwoolen goods, cement, wall paper and propri- ment was adopted. Five commissioners elected etary medicine. It is also noted for its im-, at large direct the affairs of the city The




annual income of Des Moines is about $1,100,- 1794. From the commencement of the Revolu000, and the budget of expenditures amounts tion he was connected with Robespierre, with to $800,000, the principal items being $420,119.17 whom he had studied at college. His friendship for schools, $98,000 for the fire department, for Danton was the cause of his fall. Robe$65,000 for street lighting, and $35,000 for the spierre, at the head of the Committee of Public police department. The city debt in 1912, ex- Safety, was making rapid progress toward : clusive of school debt, was $600,000; property tyranny. Danton, assisted by the leaders of the valuation $06,000,000, and rate 2 mills. Cordeliers, intended to resist this committee, Among American cities Des Moines ranks 35th and Camille commenced the attack in his jourin population and 17th in postage receipts. nal, "Le Vieux Cordelier,' in which he declared

Des Moines College, a coeducational in- himself against the terrorists. With Danton he stitution at Des Moines, Iowa, was organized in was arrested on 30 March 1794. On 2 April he 1865 under the name University of Des Moines. was condemned, and on the 5th executed. This name

was afterward changed to Des De Sola, Abraham, Canadian rabbi: b. Moines College in order to conform more nearly London, England, 18 Sept. 1825; d. New York to the aim of its supporters, the Baptists of 5 June 1882. Under the careful supervision of Iowa. Like most schools of the kind, it has his father he received a thorough Hebrew edupassed through severe financial struggles and cation, and having perfected himself in his genreverses. It is now entirely free from debt, with eral studies, he was called in 1847 to Montreal, an invested endowment of about $80,000 and Canada, by its Portuguese-Hebrew congregation. pledges sufficient to increase this sum to $100,000. His scholarship and energy soon brought him to It also has a beautiful campus comprising two the front, and in 1848 he was appointed profesblocks upon which are two substantial brick sor of Hebrew and Semitic literature McGill buildings. An additional block adjoining is set College, Montreal. His literary labors consisted apart as an athletic field, the whole comprising partly of contributions to the Occident of about nine acres and valued, with the buildings, Philadelphia and The Jewish Messenger of at $60,000. The school has four departments: New York, on historical and rabbinical themes, college, academy, music, and art. The college and partly of a revision of the Portuguesehas steadily maintained as its aim a high class Hebrew liturgy. On 9 Jan. 1872 he opened the of work, and has taken rank with the best of House of Representatives of Washington with Iowa colleges. It has 22 instructors. It was prayer, the first foreign clergyman to have rethe first college to become affiliated with the ceived the privilege. Among his more imporUniversity of Chicago. Under this arrangement tant works may be mentioned: The Sanatory the work of the school is constantly subject to Institutions of the Hebrews'; Lectures on the the approval of the University. Professors and Mosaic Cosmogony); and Scripture Zoology, instructors have ample opportunity to carry on He was for many years president of the Natural their own studies, either in attendance at the History Society of Montreal. University or by correspondence.

Desola'tion Land, or Desolation Island, an Des Moines River, the largest river in island belonging to Chile, in the archipelago of Iowa; formed by the east and west forks in Tierra del Fuego. It is 70 miles long and about southwest Minnesota; flows south-southeast to 15 miles in breadth. The name Desolation Isthe capital city, then southeast to a point about land is also sometimes applied to Kerguelen four miles below Keokuk, where it empties into Land (q.v.) in the Indian Ocean. the Mississippi River; estimated length, 500 De Soto, dā-sõ'to, Bernado, Costa Rican miles. It drains 10,000 square miles in Iowa; statesman: b. 1854. He was elected president of flows through a region rich in agricultural and the republic in 1887. During his administration grazing grounds, bituminous coal, and timber; the finances of the country, disordered by Guarreceives the water of Raccoon, North, Middle, dia, were placed on a secure footing, and the South, and Boone rivers. In its lower course it work of completing the interoceanic railway falls rapidly and affords abundant water power from Port Limon, on the Caribbean Sea, to San for manufacturing.

José, the capital, and thence to Punta Arenas, Desmond, Humphrey Joseph, lawyer and on the Pacific coast, was prosecuted. Under him author: b. Ozaukee County, Wis., 14 Sept. 1858. the long-dreamed of unification of the central He was graduated from the University of Wis- American republic became an accomplished fact. consin in 1880, and took the degree of A. M. De Soto, Hernando, ār-nän'dö, Spanish from the Notre Dame University in 1895. He nobleman, conqueror, and explorer: b. Villanuentered upon the practice of law at Milwaukee, eva de la Serena (Badajoz) about 1496; d. 1542 was elected to the Wisconsin Assembly for the or 1543. The date of his birth can not be ascerterm 1891-2, and became proprietor of the Mil- tained precisely, some authorities placing it as waukee Citisen, St. Paul Northwestern Chron- late as 1500. But that which is here given is icle, the Washington New Century and the Mem- more likely to be correct, especially because we phis Journal. He is a contributor to many re- find him bearing a conspicuous part in cenviews and the author of a number of books; tral American expeditions between the years among others Mooted Questions of History) 1516-20. We can not easily assume that he (1895); (Random Notes of a Trip to Europe) was less than 20 in 1516. As a captain in 1523-4 (1897); "Church and Law (1898); "Outlooks he shared the adventures of Córdoba's fleet on and Insights” (1899); “Marked Copy) (1900); the Nicaraguan coasts, and was overcome by Gil «Chats Within the Fold” (1901): "A Reading Gonzalez Dávila (q.v.) through treachery. JoinCircle Manual” (1902); Ways of Well Doing) ing Francisco Pizarro in Panama with two (1902); «The Know Nothing Party) (1904); and ships, 60 men, and 10 horses, to take part in the "Little Uplifts” (1909).

conquest of Peru, he was appointed second in Desmoulins, Benoït Camille, bě-nwä-kä- command. In 1532 he was the first Spaniard mel da-moc-lăn, French revolutionist : b. who spoke with Atahualpa; going to visit the Guise, Picardy, 2 March 1760; d. Paris 5 April unfortunate Inca in the character of an ambas



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sador, he continued to be well disposed toward a Aouring-mill, and the repair shops of the
him during his captivity. He returned to railroad. Pop. about 4,900.
Spain in 1536, where he married in Madrid, the Desoxybenzoin,
following year, Inés de Bobadilla, daughter of C.H3.CO.CH.C.Hs ; obtained by the action of

phenyl - benzyl - ketone,
Pedrarias Davila (q.v.). Wholly misled by the zinc and hydrochloric acid on chlorobenzil CoHo.
first reports of the wealth of Florida, De Soto CO.Cbl2.CoHs, or by heating monobrom-stilbene
resolved to undertake the conquest of that coun- with water to 180° It crystallizes out of alco-
try, which was represented to be as rich as
Peru. He sold his property, and devoted the benzoin can also be obtained by reducing ben-

hol in large tables which melt at 55°. Desoxyproceeds to the equipment of his ships and the zoin C.H.CO.CH(OH).C.Hs. outfit of his men, Charles I. bestowing upon him readily enough the title of governor of soldier: d. 'London 21 March 1803. He was

Despard, děs'pärd, Edward Marcus, Irish Florida and Cuba. At Sanlúcar he collected 950 superintendent of the English colony in Honfighting men, besides the sailors. Seven large

duras. ships and three small ones formed the feet, his

In consequence of complaints made wife and family accompanying him in the 'San against him he was recalled in 1790. This made Cristóbal. Sailing from Sanlúcar 6 April 1538, him disaffected, and he matured a plan to assashe reached Santiago de Cuba safely, and there sinate the king on his way to open Parliament entered upon his duties as governor of the is- The conspirators were arrested and tried by speland; but transferred his authority at that point çial commission at Southwark 5 Feb. 1803. There to his wife before proceeding to Havana being na doubt of their guilt

, Despard and nine (August 1538). By his orders Havana harbor of his associates suffered death. was fortified (see CUBA). During the stay in Despenser, dě-spěn'sėr, Hugh le, English Cuba his command was strengthened ; 1,000 well- courtier : b. about 1262; d. 27 Oct. 1326. He armed men were finally ready, and this was distinguished himself as a soldier and diploprobably the best force which up to that time mat in the service of Edward II. and became had undertaken the conquest of any part of Earl of Winchester in 1322. His tyranny as the America. The fleet sailed from Havana 12 May royal favorito led to a revolt of the barons and 1539. In Florida the Spaniards were moderately his own downfall. successful until they reached the province of Despenser, Hugh le, English courtier, son Tascaluza, where a great host of natives at of the preceding: b. about 1290; d. November tacked them. It was said that in this nine 1326. He deserted the baronial party for that hours' fight 11,000 Indians fell, while on the of Edward II., and became a royal favorite. He Spanish side 70 were killed and nearly all and his father were involved in the misfortunes (including De Soto himself) were wounded. following the flight of King Edward from LonWorn out by the long marches, which did not don, and were beheaded in the same year. lead to the discovery of treasure, the soldiers plotted to abandon the enterprise. On learning dā-pa-re-a, French writer: b. Arnay-le-Duc

Despériers, Bonaventure, bo-nẵ-van-toor of this, De Soto marched his men toward the about 1505'; d. 1544. He was secretary to Marinterior, hoping to reach New Spain (Mexico) garet of Navarre. He wrote a series of 90 by land, and knowing that, at any rate, his

stories: followers would not care to desert

him when ceits, printed in 1558. In 1537 was published

New Recreations and Merry Conthe ships had been left far behind. In a noctur- his Cymbalum Mundi' in French, a virulent nal battle (December 1540) the Spaniards were

Four months later they burned by the common hangman, and of which again severely treated.

attack on the Christian religion, which was came upon a fort surrounded with a stockade, in only one copy is in existence. storming which many were killed, and nearly all wounded. De Soto still led them forward,

Des Plaines (dė plān) River_(named from through the present Gulf States, and probably a species of maple called by the French plaine). as far north as Kentucky, until he contracted A river of Illinois which rises in the southa fever and died — according to Garcilaso, in eastern part of Wisconsin and flows south and 1542, though Herrera says 1543. The Spanish southwest until it unites with the Kankakee soldiers, who had thought to leave their com

River at Dresden, Ill., to form the Illinois River. mander in the lurch, were in this manner finally In length the Des Plaines is about 150 miles. separated from him. At first they buried him For, some distance the river flows almost parin a trench the natives had opened near a village allel with the shore line of Lake Michigan. For on the bank of a great river he had discovered; several miles the waters of the Des Plaines but several days afterward – either fearing the have been made to contribute to the Chicago hostiles would dishonor the body, or suddenly Drainage Canal (q.v.) realizing how they themselves might best honor Despoblado, dăz-po-blä'do (desert), it — they hollowed out the trunk of an ever- name given in South America to any barren green oak, weighted the rude coffin with armor, tracts in the Andes, which are so high and placed the disinterred body within it, and sunk cold as to be uninhabitable. It is given as a it by night in the deepest part of the river, which specific name to (1) a treeless, uninhabited they called the Grande and we call the Missis- plateau, nearly 10,000 feet above the sea, on sippi.

the Bolivian and Argentine frontier; and (2) a MARRION WIlcox.

region in Peru between the central and western De Soto, de sö'to, Mo., a mining city in Cordilleras, ranging from 14,000 to 18,000 feet Jefferson County, on the St. Louis, Iron Moun- above the sea-level. tain & Southern Railroad, about 40 miles south Despot (from the Greek despotēs), origiby west of St. Louis, and 15 miles west of the nally a master, a lord; at a later period it became Mississippi River. In addition to its mining an honorary title which the Greek emperors gave interests of zinc and lead, it has a large trade to their sons and sons-in-law when governors in agricultural products. Its industries include of provinces. Alexis III., surnamed Angelus,

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