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as any poor man hath been. For there I, speaking of the sacrament, and inveighing against them that esteemed it no better than a piece of bread, told even the same thing of pænitentes, audientes, catechumeni, energumeni," that I spake of before; and I bade them depart as unworthy to hear the mystery; and then I said to those that be sancti, Cyprian the Martyr shall tell you how it is that Christ calleth it, saying, Panis est corpus, cibus, potus, caro2, &c., Bread is the The place of body, meat, drink, flesh, because that unto this material expounded. substance is given the property of the thing whereof it beareth the name: and this place then took I to utter as the time would then suffer, that the material substance of bread doth remain." Mr Fecknam (which, as is reported to me, did belie me openly in the same matter at Paul's Cross,) heard all this my talk, as red as scarlet in his face, and herein answered me never one word.

St Cyprian

"You do know well," quoth Mr Secretary, "that Origen and Tertullian were not catholic, but erred.”

the doctors

points.

"Sir," quoth I, "there is none of all the doctors that None of all are holden in all points, but are thought to have erred in holden in all some things. But yet I never heard that it was either laid to Origen's charge, or to Tertullian, that ever they were thought to have erred in this matter of the sacrament."

taketh

"What," quoth Mr Chomley, late chief justice, "doth StAugustine not Christ say plainly, that it is his very flesh and his words of the very sacrament blood, and we must needs eat him, or we can have no life?" figuratively "Sir," quoth I, "if you will hear how St Augustine expoundeth that place, you shall perceive that you are in a wrong box." And when I began to tell St Augustine's mind in his book De Doctrina Christiana3, "Yea, yea," quoth Mr Secretary, "that is true. St Augustine doth take it figuratively in deed."

by Bourn's own confession.

"Forty years ago," quoth Mr Fecknam, "all were of one opinion in this matter."

"Forty years ago," quoth I, "all held that the Bishop of Rome was supreme head of the universal church."

[Cyp. Ib. The words are, Ipse enim et panis, et caro, et sanguis; idem cibus et substantia et vita factus est Ecclesiæ suæ, quam corpus suum appellat, dans ei participationem spiritus. ED.]

[ Lib. I. Sect. 24. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1685, tom. iii. col. 52. See notes to The Brief Declaration. ED.]

?

Dist. 21.
Quamvis.

"What then?" was Master Fecknam beginning to say, &c. but Mr Secretary took the tale, and said, that was but a positive law.

"A positive law?" quoth I, "no, Sir, he would not have it so for it is in his decrees, that he challenged it by Christ's own word. For his decree saith: Nullis Synodicis constitutis, neque conciliis, sed viva voce Domini prælata est Ecclesia Romana omnibus ecclesiis in toto mundo: dicente Domino Petro, Tu es Petrus', &c. The church of Rome was advanced above all other churches in the world, not by any synodical constitutions, nor yet any councils, but by the lively voice of the Lord, according as the Lord said to Matt. xvi. Peter, Thou art Peter, &c. And in another place he en

John i.

treateth, Tu es Cephas, id est caput, Thou art Cephas, that is to say the head."

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Tush, it was not counted an article," quoth Mr Secretary, "of our faith."

"Yes," said I, "if ye call that an article of our faith, which is to be believed under pain of damnation. For he saith: Omnino definimus, declaramus, pronunciamus, omnem humanam creaturam subesse Romano pontifici de necessitate salutis: We do absolutely determine, declare, and pronounce, that every creature is subject to the obedience of the Bishop of Rome upon necessity of salvation."

And here when we spake of laws and decrees, Mr Roger Chomley thought himself much wronged, that he could not be suffered to speak, the rest were so ready to interrupt him and then he up and told a long tale what laws were of Kings of England made against the Bishop of Rome, and was vehement to tell how they alway of the clergy did fly to him. And here, because he seemed to speak of many

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[The words of the decree are Sancta tamen Romana Catholica et Apostolica Ecclesia nullis Synodicis constitutis cæteris ecclesiis prælata est, sed evangelica voce Domini et Salvatoris nostri primatum obtinuit, 'Tu es Petrus' inquiens, &c." Dist. 21. cap. 3. Decreta Gratiani, Paris, 1585, cols. 115, 116. ED.]

L'Extravag. Comm. lib. 1. tit. de majoritate et obedientiâ-the words are, "Porro subesse Romano pontifici omnem humanam creaturam declaramus, dicimus, definimus, et pronunciamus, omnino esse de necessitate salutis." Ed. Lugd. 1509, fol. 8. See also the conclusion of the Bull of Boniface VIII. "Unam Sanctam." ED.]

things beside our purpose, whereof we spake before, he was answered of his own fellows, and I let them talk.

Finally, we departed in peace, and Master Secretary promised in the end, that of their talk there should come to me no harm. And after I had made my moan for lack of my books, he said they were all once given him but Dr Ridley's sith I know (said he) who hath them now, write me the away. names of such as ye would have, and I will speak for you the best I can.

JUDICIA DUO.

I. A DETERMINATION

CONCERNING

THE SACRAMENT,

MADE

AT CAMBRIDGE

AFTER

THREE DISPUTATIONS HELD THERE, JUNE 20, 1549.

II. JUDICIUM NICHOLAI RIDLÆI, EPISCOPI
LONDINENSIS, DE EPISTOLIS DECRE-

TALIBUS, SCILICET CLEMENTIS

ANACLETI, LUCII, PONTIANI

ET ALIORUM VESTUSTIS

SIMORUM PONTI

FICUM.

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