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The Second Ground.·



Now my second ground against this transubstantiation The second are the ancient fathers a thousand years past. And so far against off is it that they do confirm this opinion of transubstantiation, stantiation, that plainly they seem unto me both to think and to teach Fathers. the contrary.

Dionysius1 in many places calleth it bread. The places are Dionys. in so manifest and plain, that it needeth not to recite them.

Eccle. Hie


ad Phila

Ignatius to the Philadelphians saith: "I beseech you, Ignatius brethren, cleave fast unto one faith, and to one kind of delph. preaching, using together one manner of thanksgiving: for the flesh of the Lord Jesus is one, and his blood is one which was shed for us. There is also one bread broken for us, and one cup of the whole church."

Irenæus writeth thus: "Even as the bread that cometh Irenæus, lib. iv. cap. 34. of the earth receiving God's vocation is now no more common bread, but sacramental bread, consisting of two natures, earthly and heavenly; even so our bodies, receiving the Eucharist, are now no more corruptible, having hope of the resurrection"."

Tertullian is very plain, for he calleth it a figure of the Tertulliabody, &c."


[1 Dionysius, Pseudo-Areopagita, wrote about A.D. 365, Cave. ED.] [* Παρακαλῶν ὑμᾶς μιᾷ πίστει καὶ ἑνὶ κηρύγματι καὶ μιᾷ εὐχαριστίᾳ χρῆσθαι. μία γάρ ἐστιν ἡ σὰρξ τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ, καὶ ἓν αὐτοῦ τὸ αἷμα τὸ ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν ἐκχυθέν· εἷς καὶ ἄρτος τοῖς πᾶσιν ἐθρύφθη, καὶ ἓν ποτήριον τοῖς ὅλοις διενεμήθη, ἓν θυσιαστήPLOV TÁσY Tη EKKλnría. S. Ignat. Ep. ad Philad. Op. Ed. Lond. Voss. 1680, p. 176. ED.]

[3 Ὡς γὰρ ἀπὸ γῆς ἄρτος, προσλαμβανόμενος τὴν ἔκκλησιν τοῦ θεοῦ, οὐκέτι κοινὸς ἄρτος ἐστὶν, ἀλλ ̓ εὐχαριστία ἐκ δύο πραγμάτων συνεστηκυῖα, ἐπιγείου τε καὶ οὐρανίου, οὕτως καὶ τὰ σώματα ἡμῶν, μεταλαμβάνοντα τῆς εὐχαριστίας, μηκέτι εἴσιν φθαρτὰ, τὴν ἐλπίδα τῆς εἰς αἰῶνας ἀναστάσεως ἔχοντα. S. Iren. cont. Heres. lib. v. cap. 18. (ant. ord. 34.) Ed. Ben. Par. 1710, p. 251. ED.]

[Sic enim Deus in Evangelio quoque vestro revelavit, panem corpus suum appellans: ut et hinc jam eum intelligas corporis sui figuram pani dedisse. Tert. adv. Marcion. lib. 1. Op. Ed. Rigalt. Paris, 1641, p. 493-4. ED.]

Cyprian, lib. i. epist. 6.


Chrysostom writing to Cæsarius the monk, albeit he be not received of divers, yet will I read the place to fasten it more deeply in your minds: for it seemeth to shew plainly the substance of bread to remain. The words are these:

"Before the bread is sanctified, we name it bread: but by the grace of God sanctifying the same through the ministry of the priest, it is delivered from the name of bread, and is counted worthy to bear the name of the Lord's body, although the very substance of bread notwithstanding do still remain therein, and now is taken not to be two bodies, one body of the Son, &c.""

Cyprian saith: "Bread is made of many grains. And is that natural bread, and made of wheat? Yea, it is so in deed"."

The book of Theodoret, in Greek, was lately printed at Rome, which if it had not been his, it should not have been set forth there, especially seeing it is directly against transubstantiation: for he saith plainly, that bread still remaineth after the sanctification3.

"The sa

Gelasius in
Epist. de

Gelasius also is very plain in this manner.

duabus na- crament (saith he) which we receive of the body and blood

turis in Christo.

of Christ, is a divine matter: by reason whereof we are made partakers by the same of the divine nature, and yet it ceaseth not still to be the substance of bread and wine. And certes, the representation and similitude of the body and blood of Christ be celebrated in the action of the

After this he mysteries, &c.“"

recited cer

Hesychius also confesseth that it is bread".

tain places out of Augustine and Cyril, which

were not

[134 See Treatise on Transubstantiation. ED.]



[ Quo et ipso sacramento populus noster ostenditur adunatus, ut in Levit. lib. quemadmodum grana multa in unum collecta et commolita et commixta


ii. cap. 8.

panem unum faciunt, sic in Christo qui est panis cœlestis unum sciamus esse corpus, cui conjunctus sit noster numerus et adunatus. S. Cyp. Epist. ad Cæcil. Ordo novus LXII. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1726, p. 108. ED.]

[Quomodo ergo in his non admiranda sit sapientia Spiritûs? nullam quippe dubietatem hujusmodi intellectui dereliquit; propterea carnes cum panibus comedi præcipiens, ut nos intelligeremus, illud ab eo mysterium dici quod simul panis et caro est, sicut corpus Christi, panis vivi qui de cœlo descendit. Hesychius, Comment. in Levit. lib. 1. cap. & Op. Ed. Basil. 1527, p. 49. c. ED.]

Also the judgment of Bertram in this matter is very Bertram. plain and manifest. And thus much for the second ground.

The Third Ground.


The third ground is the nature of the sacrament, which The Third consisteth in three things, that is, Unity, Nutrition, and Three Conversion.

things in a sacrament. 1. Unity.

As touching unity, Cyprian thus writeth: "Even as of 2. Nutrition. many grains is made one bread, so are we one mystical body of Christ." Wherefore bread must needs still remain, or else we destroy the nature of a sacrament.

3. Conversion. Cyprian.

Also they that take away nutrition, which cometh by bread, do take away likewise the nature of the sacrament. For as the body of Christ nourisheth the soul, even so doth bread likewise nourish the body of man.

Therefore they that take away the grains or the union of the grains in the bread, and deny the nutrition or substance thereof, in my judgment are Sacramentaries: for they take away the similitude between the bread and the body of Christ. For they which affirm transubstantiation are indeed right Sacramentaries and Capernaites.

As touching conversion (that like as the bread which Conversion. we receive, is turned into our substance, so are we turned into Christ's body), Rabanus and Chrysostom' are witnesses Rabanus. sufficient.



The Fourth Ground,

They which say that Christ is carnally present in the The Fourth Eucharist, do take from him the verity of man's nature. The real

presence in the sacra

ment stand

eth not with the truth of


[Rabanus Maurus de Sermonis Proprietate. The work itself is lost, and is not noticed by Cave; but Gesner in his "Bibliotheca" mentions two persons who had it in their possession in MS. Flacius Illyricus Christ's must have had access to it, for he quotes the very passage to which Ridley most probably refers; the words of Rabanus are, “Sacramentum in alimentum corporis redigitur: sicut ergo illud [sacramentum] in nos convertitur cum id manducamus et bibimus, sic et nos in corpus Christi convertimur cum obedienter et pie vivimus." Flacius Illyricus refers this to the fifth book and second chapter of the above-mentioned work. Rabanus Maurus was Abbot of Fulda, and died A.D. 856. ED.]

[See notes to Disputations, infra. ED.]

The Fifth ground.

August. super Ioan. Tract. 30.

Tract. 50.

Matth. xxviii.

Eutyches granted the divine nature in Christ, but his human nature he denied. So they that defend transubstantiation ascribe that to the human nature, which only belongeth to the divine nature.

The Fifth Ground.

The fifth ground is the certain persuasion of this article of faith, "He ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand, &c."

Augustine saith: "The Lord is above, even to the end of the world; but yet the verity of the Lord is here also. For his body wherein he rose again, must needs be in one place, but his verity is spread abroad every where1."

Also, in another place he saith: "Let the godly receive also that sacrament, but let them not be careful (speaking there of the presence of his body2.) For as touching his majesty, his providence, his invisible and unspeakable grace, these words are fulfilled which he spake, 'I am with you unto the end of the world.' But according to the flesh which he took upon him, according to that which was born of the Virgin, was apprehended of the Jews, was fastened to a tree, taken down again from the cross, lapped in linen clothes, was buried and rose again, and appeared after his resurrection, so you shall not have me always with you. And why? because that as concerning his flesh he was conversant with his disciples forty days, and they accompanying him, seeing him, but not following him, he went up into heaven, and is not here, for he sitteth at the right hand of his Father, and yet he is here, because he is not departed hence, as concerning the presence of his divine majesty."

Mark and consider well what St Augustine saith: "He is ascended into heaven, and is not here," saith he. Believe

[Sursum est Dominus: sed etiam hic est veritas Domini. Corpus enim Domini in quo resurrexit, uno loco esse potest: veritas ejus ubique diffusa est. S. Aug. in Johan. Evan. Tract xxx. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1685, tom. iii. col. 517. ED.]

[Accipiunt hoc et boni, sed non sint soliciti: loquebatur enim de præsentia corporis sui. S. Aug. in Johan. Evan. Tract. L. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1685, tom. iii. col. 633-4. ED.]

[See Treatise on Transubstantiation. ED.]

not them therefore which say, that he is here still in the earth.

Epist. 57.

Moreover, "Doubt not (saith the same Augustine) but August that Jesus Christ, as concerning the nature of his manhood, is there from whence he shall come. And remember well and believe the profession of a Christian man, that he rose from death, ascended into heaven, and sitteth at the right hand of his Father, and from that place and none other (not from the altars) shall he come to judge the quick and the dead, and he shall come, as the angel said, as he was seen to go into heaven; that is to say, in the same form and substance, unto the which he gave immortality, but changed not nature. After this form (meaning his human nature) we may not think that it is every where'."


And in the same epistle he saith: "Take away from the August. bodies limitation of places, and they shall be no where and because they are no where, they shall not be at all.”

contra Eutychen.

Vigilius saith: "If the word and the flesh be both of Vigilius one nature, seeing that the word is every where, why then b is not the flesh also every where? For when it was in earth, then verily it was not in heaven and now when it is in heaven, it is not surely in earth. And it is so certain, that it is not in earth, that as concerning the same we look for him from heaven, whom, as concerning the word, we believe to be with us in earth"."


[Noli itaque dubitare ibi nunc esse hominem Christum Jesum, unde venturus est, memoriterque recole et fideliter tene Christianam confessionem, quoniam resurrexit a mortuis, adscendit in cœlum, sedet ad dexteram Patris, nec aliunde quam inde venturus est ad vivos mortuosque judicandos. Et sic venturus est, illa angelica voce testante, quemadmodum ire visus est in cœlum, id est, in eadem carnis forma atque substantia; cui profecto immortalitatem dedit, naturam non abstulit. S. Aug. Ep. ad Dard. (Ordo novus CLXXXVII.) Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1685, tom. ii. col. 681, ED.]

[ Nam spatia locorum tolle corporibus, nusquam erunt; et quia nusquam erunt, nec erunt. Ib. col. 683. ED.]

[ Deinde si verbi et carnis una natura est, do cum verbum ubique sit, non ubique inveniatur et caro? namque quando in terrâ fuit, non erat utique in cœlo, et nunc quia in cœlo est, non est utique in terrà ; et in tantum non est, ut secundum ipsam Christum spectemus venturum de cœlo, quem secundum verbum nobiscum esse credimus in terra. Vigil. cont. Eutych. Tiguri, 1539, p. 73. ED.]



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