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not reverencing the renounced authority contrary to God's word, but also in gesture, in behaviour, and all my doings express the same, I have put on my cap; and for this consideration only, and not for any contumacy to your lordships, neither contempt of this worshipful audience, neither derogation of any honour due to the cardinal his grace, both for his noble parentage, and also his excellent qualities, I have kept on my cap."

White bishop of

Lincoln:-" Master Ridley, you excuse yourself of that Lincoln re- with the which we pressed you not, in that you protest

plieth.

you keep on your cap, neither for any contumacy towards us (which look for no such honour of you), neither for any contempt of this audience, which, although justly they may, yet (as I suppose) in this case do not require any such obeisance of you; neither in derogation of any honour due to my lord cardinal's grace, for his regal descent [at which word Master Ridley moved his cap] and excellent qualities; for although in all the premises honour be due, yet in these respects we require none of you, but only in that my lord cardinal's grace is, here in England, deputy of the pope's holiness [at which word the lords and others put off their caps, naming of and Master Ridley put on his]; and therefore we say unto

Putting off caps at the

pope.

you the second time, that except you take the pains yourself to put your hand to your head and put off your cap, you shall put us to the pain to cause some man to take it from you, except you allege some infirmity and sickness, or other more reasonable cause, upon the consideration whereof we may do as we think good."

Ridley: :-"The premises I said only for this end, that it might as well appear to your lordships, as to this worshipful audience, why and for what consideration I used such kind of behaviour, in not humbling myself to your lordships with cap and knee and as for my sickness, I thank my Lord God, that I am as well at ease as I was this long season; and therefore I do not pretend that which is not, but only this, that it might appear by this my behaviour, that I

The usurped acknowledge in no point that usurped supremacy of Rome,

supremacy

of Rome de- and therefore contemn and utterly despise all authority coming

fied.

from him. In taking off my cap, do as it shall please your lordships, and I shall be content."

Then the bishop of Lincoln, after the third admonition, Ridley's cap plucked off commanded one of the beadles (that is an officer of the by force. University) to pluck his cap from his head. Master Ridley, bowing his head to the officer, gently permitted him to take away his cap. After this the bishop of Lincoln in a long oration exhorted Master Ridley to recant, and submit himself to the universal faith of Christ in this manner:

Lincoln:-" Master Ridley, I am sure you have sufficiently pondered with yourself the effect of this our commission with good advisement, considering both points thereof, how that authority is given to us, if you shall receive the true doctrine of the church (which first was founded by Peter at immediately after the death of Christ, and from him by succession hath been brought to this our time), if you be content to renounce your former errors, recant your retical and seditious opinions, content to yield yourself the undoubted faith and truth of the gospel, received and always taught of the catholic and apostolic church, the which the king and queen, all the nobles of this realm, and commons of the same, all christian people have and do confess, you only standing alone by yourself; you understand and perceive, I am sure, that authority is given us to receive you, to reconcile you, aud upon due penance to adjoin and associate you again into the number of the catholics and Christ's church, from the which you have so long strayed, without the which no man can be saved, the which thing I and my lords here, yea and all, as well nobles and commons of this realm, most heartily desire, and I for my part [wherewith he put off his cap] most earnestly exhort you to do.

country of

Rome be not strange, yet the doctrine of Rome is

"Remember, Master Ridley, it is no strange country Though the whither I exhort you to return. You were once one of us; you have taken degrees in the school. You were made a priest, and became a preacher, setting forth the same doctrine strange. which we do now. You were made bishop according to our laws; and, to be short, it is not so long agone, since you separated yourself from us, and in the time of heresy became a setter forth of that devilish and seditious doctrine which in these latter days was preached amongst us. For at what time the new doctrine of "only faith" began to spring, the

Rome Nay, the

faith of

lineal Christ may

Rome in Ti

will bave been at
he- berius's
to Peter came

time, before

there.

truth in bishop White, for

is no new

Another un- council, willing to win my lord chancellor, sent you to him (I then being in my lord's house, unknown as I suppose to "only faith" you); and after you had talked with my lord secretly, and doctrine. were departed, immediately my lord declared certain points of your talk and means of your persuasion; and amongst others this was one, that you should say, 'Tush, my lord, are falsely this matter of justification is but a trifle, let us not stick

These words of Ridley

reported.

to condescend herein to them; but for God's love, my lord, stand stoutly in the verity of the sacrament: for I see they will assault that also.' If this be true (as my lord is a man credible enough in such a matter), hereby it is declared of what mind you were then, as touching the truth of the most blessed sacrament.

"Also in a sermon of yours at Paul's Cross you as effectually and as catholicly spake of that blessed sacrament, the pope's as any man might have done; whereby it appeareth that

The bishop of Lincoln persuadeth Ridley to return to

church.

it is no strange thing, nor unknown place whereunto I exhort you. I wish you to return thither from whence you came; that is, together with us to acknowledge the church of God, wherein no man may err, to acknowledge the supremacy of our most reverend father in God the pope's holiness, which (as I said) lineally taketh his descent from Peter, upon whom Christ promised, before his death, to build his church; the which supremacy or prerogative the most ancient fathers in all ages, in all times, did acknowledge [and here he brought a place or two out of the doctors, but especially stayed upon a saying of St Augustine', who writeth in this manner: All the christian countries beyond the sea are subject to the church of Rome.] Here you see, Master Ridley, that all Christendom is subject to the church of Rome.

C

1 "Dubitatur utrum forma verborum hæc sit Augustini." [Some doubt may well be expressed, as the tendency of the language contradicts the 22nd canon of the Council of Milevis, to which Augustine had himself subscribed: "Ad transmarina autem qui putaverit appellandum, a nullo intra Africam in communionem suscipiatur." See Concilia, Studio Labbei, tom. ii. col. 1543; but the passage intended for citation is, no doubt, that in Augustine's treatise Co tra Epist. Parmen.” lib. 1. cap. iii. sec. 5, and its application to the bishop of Rome is here aided by the addition of Romanæ Ecclesiæ. ED.]

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2 "Totus orbis Christianus in transmarinis et longe remotis terris Romanæ Ecclesiæ subjectus est."

What should stay you therefore to confess the same with
St Augustine and the other fathers?"

Then Master Ridley desired his patience, to suffer him to speak somewhat of the premises, lest the multitude of things might confound his memory; and having grant thereunto, he said in this manner:

Ridley.

noted the

Ridley:-"My Lord, I most heartily thank your lord-Answer of ship, as well for your gentleness, as also for your sobriety in talk, and for your good and favourable zeal in this learned exhortation; in the which I have marked especially three points which you used, to persuade me to leave my doctrine Three points and religion, which I perfectly know and am thoroughly per- bishop of suaded to be grounded not upon man's imagination and de- oration. crees, but upon the infallible truth of Christ's gospel, and not to look back, and to return to the Romish see, contrary to mine oath, contrary to the prerogative and crown of this realm, and especially (which moveth me most) contrary to the expressed word of God.

Rome

"First, The first point is this, that the see of Rome taking The see of its beginning from Peter, upon whom you say Christ hath founded builded his church, hath in all ages lineally, from bishop to. bishop, been brought to this time.

upon Peter.

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Secondly, That even the holy fathers from time to time Confirmed have in their writings confessed the same.

by old doc

tors.

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Thirdly, That in that I was once of the same opinion, Ridley once and, together with you, I did acknowledge the same.

of the same

see.

not builded

"First, as touching the saying of Christ, from whence The church your lordship gathereth the foundation of the church upon upon Peter. Peter, truly the place is not so to be understood as you take it, as the circumstance of the place will declare. For after that Christ had asked his disciples whom men judged him to be, and they had answered, that some had said he was a prophet, some Elias, some one thing, some another, then he said, 'Whom say ye that I am? Then Peter said, I say, That thou art Christ, the Son of God.' To whom Christ answered, 'I say, thou art Peter, and upon this stone I will build my church; that is to say, upon this stone

[3 "Tu es Petrus, et super hanc petram ædificabo ecclesiam meam." "Upon this stone." Compare Tindal's Works, p. 357. Nowell's Con

not meaning Peter himself, as though he would have constituted a mortal man, so frail and brickle, a foundation of his stable and infallible church; but upon this rock-stone

builded

not upon

The church that is, this confession of thine, that I am the Son of God, upon faith, I will build my church. For this is the foundation and any person. beginning of all Christianity, with word, heart, and mind to confess that Christ is the Son of God. Whosoever believeth not this, Christ is not in him; and he cannot have the mark of Christ printed on his forehead, which confesseth The words not that Christ is the Son of God. Therefore Christ said

of Christ to Peter expounded.

unto Peter, that upon this rock, that is, upon this his confession, that he was Christ the Son of God, he would build his church; to declare, that without this faith no man can come to Christ: so that this belief, that Christ is the Son foundation of God, is the foundation of our Christianity, and the foun

Faith the

of the

church.

dation of our church. Here you see upon what foundation Christ's church is built, not upon the frailty of man, but upon the stable and infallible word of God.

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Lineal de

Now, as touching the lineal descent of the bishops scent of the in the see of Rome, true it is, that the patriarchs of Rome

bishop Rome.

in the apostles' time, and long after, were great maintainers and setters forth of Christ's glory, in the which above all other countries and regions there especially was preached the true gospel, the sacraments were most duly ministered: and as before Christ's coming it was a city so valiant in prowess and martial affairs, that all the world was in a manner subject to it, and after Christ's passion divers of the apostles there suffered persecution for the gospel's sake; Rome have SO, after that the emperors, their hearts being illuminated,

Why the bishops of

been more esteemed than other bishops.

received the gospel and became Christians, the gospel there, as well for the great power and dominion, as for the fame of the place, flourished most, whereby the bishops of that place were had in more reverence and honour, most esteemed in all councils and assemblies, not because they acknowledged them to be their head, but because the place was most reverenced and spoken of for the great power and strength of the same. As now here in England the bishop

futation of Dorman, p. 445, &c. Jewell's Answer to Harding, p. 165, 184. Fox's Acts, p. 1637, &c. all (with others which might be cited) concurring in this interpretation. ED.]

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