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formed unto the rule of Scripture, and unto the pattern of the primitive church.
Whether it be convenient that masses satisfactory should continue, that is to say, priests hired to sing for souls departed?
That masses satisfactory should continue to be sung for souls departed by priests hired thereunto, I think it not convenient.
Whether the gospel ought to be taught at the time of the mass to the understanding of the people being present? The Annunciation of Christ's death and passion, and the benefit of the same, that [is] the forgiveness of sins to all the true and faithful believers therein, ought evermore to be set forth in the mass to the edification of the people, which thing cannot be done according to St Paul's mind and meaning, 1 Cor. xiv. as I suppose, except it be set forth to the people's understanding.
Whether in the mass it were convenient to use such speech as the people may understand?
I think it not only convenient that such speech should be used in the mass as the people might understand, but also to speak it with such an audible voice that the people might hear it, that they be not defrauded of their own, which St Paul teacheth to belong to them, and also that they may answer, as Cyprian saith the people did in his days, "Habemus ad Dominum." Nevertheless as concerneth that part which pertaineth to the consecration, Dyonise and Basil move me to think it no inconvenience that [that] part should be spoken in silence.
When the reservation of the sacrament and the hanging of the same first began?
No answer of Ridley's to this query has been preserved.
INJUNCTIONS GIVEN IN THE VISITATION OF THE REVEREND
FATHER IN GOD, NICHOLAS BISHOP OF LONDON, FOR
FIRST, That there be no reading of such injunctions as extolleth and setteth forth the popish mass, candles, images, chauntries; neither that there be used any superaltaries, or trentals of communions.
Item. That no minister do counterfeit the popish mass, in kissing the Lord's board; washing his hands or fingers after the gospel, or the receipt of the holy communion; shifting the book from one place to another; laying down and licking the chalice after the communion; blessing his eyes with the sudarie thereof, or paten, or crossing his head with the same, holding his fore-fingers and thumbs joined together toward the temples of his head, after the receiving of the sacrament; breathing on the bread, or chalice; saying the Agnus before the communion; shewing the sacra ment openly before the distribution, or making any elevation thereof; ringing of the sacrying bell, or setting any light upon the Lord's board. And finally, that the minister, in the time of the holy communion, do use only the ceremonies and gestures appointed by the Book of Common Prayer, and none other, so that there do not appear in them any counterfeiting of the popish mass.
Item. That none be admitted to receive the holy communion, but such as will, upon request of the curate, be ready with meekness and reverence to confess the articles of the Creed.
Item. That none make a mart of the holy communion, by buying and selling the receipt thereof for money, as the popish mass in times past was wont to be.
Item. Whereas in divers places some use the Lord's board after the form of a table, and some of an altar, whereby
dissension is perceived to arise among the unlearned; therefore wishing a godly unity to be observed in all our diocese, and for that the form of a table may more move and turn the simple from the old superstitious opinions of the popish mass, and to the right use of the Lord's supper, we exhort the curates, church-wardens, and questmen here present, to erect and set up the Lord's board after the form of an honest table, decently covered, in such place of the quire or chancel, as shall be thought most meet by their discretion and agreement, so that the ministers, with the communicants, may have their place separated from the rest of the people; and to take down and abolish all other byaltars or tables.
Item. That the minister, in the time of the communion, immediately after the offertory, shall monish the communicants, saying these words, or such-like, "Now is the time, if it please you, to remember the poor men's chest with your charitable alms."
Item. That the Homilies be read orderly, without omission of any part thereof.
Item. The common prayer be had in every church upon Wednesdays and Fridays, according to the king's grace's ordinance; and that all such as conveniently may, shall diligently resort to the same.
Item. That every curate be diligent to teach the Catechism, whensoever just occasion is offered, upon the Sunday or holy-day, and at least every six weeks once shall call upon his parishioners, and present himself ready to instruct and examine the youth of the same parish, according to the book of service touching the same.
Item. That none maintain purgatory, invocation of saints, the six articles, beadrolls, images, reliques, rubrick primars, with invocation of saints, justification of man by his own works, holy bread, palms, ashes, candles, sepulchre paschal, creeping to the cross, hallowing of the fire or altar, or any other such like abuses and superstitions, now taken away by the king's grace's most godly proceedings'.
Item. That all ministers do move the people to often and worthy receiving of the holy communion.
[For Gardiner's opinion of Ridley's proceedings, see Appendix IV.]
Item. That every minister do move his parishioners to come diligently to the church; and when they come, not to talk, or walk, in the sermon, communion, or divine servicetime, but rather at the same to behave themselves reverently, godly, and devoutly in the church; and that they also monish the churchwardens to be diligent overseers in that behalf.
Item. That the churchwardens do not permit any buying, selling, gaming, outrageous noise or tumult, or any other idle occupying of youth in the church, church-porch, or church-yard, during the time of common prayer, sermon, or reading of the homily.
Item. That no persons use to minister th sacraments, or in open audience of the congregation presume to expound the holy scriptures, or to preach, before they be first lawfully called and authorised in that behalf.
God save the king.
REASONS WHY THE LORD'S BOARD SHOULD RATHER BE
("I AM not ashamed of the gospel, because it is the [Rom. i. 16.] power of God unto salvation, to every one that believeth.”
Certain reasons why the reverend father, Nicholas, bishop of London, amongst other his injunctions given in his late visitation, did exhort those churches in his diocese, where the altars, as then, did remain, to conform themselves to those other churches which had taken them down, and had set up, instead of the multitude of their altars, one decent table in every church. And that herein he did not only not any thing contrary unto the Book of Common Prayer, or to the king's majesty's proceedings, but that he was induced to do the same, partly moved by his office and duty, wherewith he is charged in the same book, and partly for the advancement and sincere setting forward of God's holy word, and the king's majesty's most godly proceedings3).
[Fox, Acts and Monuments, Edition 1563, p. 727. ED.]
The form of a table shall more move the simple from the superstitious opinions of the popish mass, unto the right use of the Lord's Supper. For the use of an altar is to make sacrifice upon it; the use of a table is to serve for men to eat upon. Now, when we come unto the Lord's board, what do we come for? to sacrifice Christ again, and to crucify him again, or to feed upon him that was once only crucified and offered up for us? If we come to feed upon him, spiritually to eat his body, and spiritually to drink his blood (which is the true use of the Lord's Supper), then no man can deny but the form of a table is more meet for the Lord's board, than the form of an altar.
Whereas it is said, The Book of Common Prayer
villers who maketh mention of an altar; wherefore it is not lawful to
take hold of
abolish that which the book alloweth:' to this it is thus
the king's answered: The Book of Common Prayer calleth the thing
whereupon the Lord's Supper is ministered indifferently a
be called an table, an altar, or the Lord's board; without prescription of
any form thereof, either of a table or of an altar: so that whether the Lord's board have the form of an altar, or of a table, the Book of Common Prayer calleth it both an altar and a table. For as it calleth it an altar, whereupon the Lord's Supper is ministered, a table, and the Lord's board, so it calleth the table, where the holy communion is distributed with lauds and thanksgiving unto the Lord, an altar, for that there is offered the same sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving. And thus it appeareth, that here is nothing either said or meant contrary to the Book of Common Prayer.
The popish opinion of mass was, that it might not be celebrated but upon an altar, or at the least upon a superaltar, to supply the fault of the altar, which must have had its prints and characters; or else it was thought that the thing was not lawfully done. But this superstitious opinion