Imágenes de páginas

Tertullian, lib. i. cap. 14, contra Marcion.

St Augustine.

Gardiner to wearieth me to think on it.

the 16th objection.

"Tertullian writeth here (say

they) as none hath done hitherto before him, neither yet
any other catholic man after him."


This saying is too manifestly false for Origen, Hilary, Ambrose, Basil, Gregory Nazianzen, St Augustine, and other old authors likewise, do call the sacrament a figure of Christ's body. And where they say, that Tertullian wrote this when he was in a heat of disputation with an heretic, coveting by all means to overthrow his adversary; as who should say, he would not take heed what he did say, and specially what he would write in so high a matter, so that he might have the better hand of his adversary; is this credible to be true in any godly wise man? How much less then is it worthy to be thought or credited in a man of so great a wit, learning, and excellency, as Tertullian is worthily esteemed ever to have been?

Likewise this author in his first book against the same heretic Marcion writeth thus: "God did not reject bread, which is his creature; for by it he hath made a representation of his body." Now I pray you, what is this to say, that Christ hath made a representation (by bread) of his body, but that Christ had instituted and ordained bread to be a sacrament, for to represent unto us his body? Now, whether the representation of one thing by another requireth the corporeal presence of the thing which is so represented or no, every man that hath understanding is able in this point (the matter is so clear of itself), to be a sufficient judge.

The second doctor and writer of the Latin church, whose saying I promised to set forth, is St Augustine, of whose learning and estimation I need not to speak. For all the church of Christ both hath and ever hath had him for a man of most singular learning, wit, and diligence, both in setting forth the true doctrine of Christ's religion, and also in defence of the same against heretics.

This author, as he hath written most plenteously in other

[Sed ille quidem usque nunc nec aquam reprobavit creatoris quâ suos abluit, nec oleum quo suos unguit, nec mellis et lactis societatem quâ suos infantat, nec panem quo ipsum corpus suum repræsentat. Tertul. Cont. Mar. lib. I. c. 14. Op. Ed. Par. 1641, pp. 439, 440. ED.]

[ocr errors][ocr errors]

matters of our faith, so likewise on this argument he hath written at large in many of his works so plainly against this error of transubstantiation, that the Papists love least to hear of him of all other writers; partly for his authority, and partly because he openeth the matter more fully than any other doth. Therefore I will rehearse more places of him, than heretofore I have done of the other.

And first, what can be more plain, than that which he writeth upon the 98th Psalm, speaking of the sacrament of August, in the Lord's body and blood; and rehearsing (as it were) Christ's words to his disciples, after this manner? "It is not this body, which ye do see, that ye shall eat, neither shall ye drink this blood, which the soldiers that crucified me shall spill or shed: I do commend unto you a mystery, or a sacrament, which spiritually understood shall give you life.” Now, if Christ had no more natural and corporal bodies, but that one which they then presently both heard and saw, nor other natural blood, but that which was in the same body, and the which the soldiers did afterward cruelly shed upon the cross; and neither this body nor this blood was (by this declaration of St Augustine) either to be eaten or drunken, but the mystery thereof spiritually to be understanded; then I conclude (if this saying and exposition of St Augustine be true), that the mystery, which the disciples should eat, was not the natural body of Christ, but a mystery of the same, spiritually to be understanded.



For as St Augustine saith, in his 20th book, "Christ's Aug. contra flesh and blood was in the Old Testament promised by simili- lib. xx. cap. tudes and signs of their sacrifices, and was exhibited in deed and in truth upon the cross: but the same is celebrated by a sacrament of remembrance upon the altar."

[Non hoc corpus, quod videtis, manducaturi estis; et bibituri illum sanguinem, quem fusuri sunt qui me crucifigent. Sacramentum aliquod vobis commendavi; quod, spiritaliter intellectum, vivificabit vos. S. Aug. in Psal. xcviii. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. vol. iv. col. 1066. Basil Edit. vol. viii. col. 1105. ED.]

[Hujus sacrificii caro et sanguis ante adventum Christi per victimarum similitudinem promittebatur, in passione Christi per ipsam veritatem reddebatur, post adscensum Christi per sacramentum memoriæ celebratur. S. Aug. cont. Faust. lib. xx. c. 98. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. tom. viii. col. 348. ED.]



De Fide, ad And in his book De Fide ad Petrum, cap. 19, he saith, that "In these sacrifices, (meaning of the old law,) it is figuratively signified what was then to be given: but in this sacrifice it is evidently signified, what is already given (understanding in the sacrifice upon the altar), the remembrance and thanksgiving for the flesh, which he offered for us upon cross:" as in the same place evidently there it may appear.


Ep. 23.

Another evident and clear place, wherein it appeareth, that by the sacramental bread, which Christ called his body, he meant "a figure of his body," is upon the third Psalm, Augustine where St Augustine speaketh thus in plain terms: "Christ did admit Judas unto the feast, in the which he commended unto his disciples the figure of his body"." This was Christ's last supper before his passion, wherein he did ordain the sacrament of his body, as all learned men do agree.

St Augustine also in his 23rd Epistle to Bonifacius teacheth how sacraments do bear the names of the things whereof they be sacraments, both in baptism and in the Lord's table; even as we call every Good Friday the day of Christ's passion, and every Easter Day the day of Christ's resurrection; when, in very deed, there was but one day wherein he suffered, and but one day wherein he rose. And why do we then call them so, which are not so indeed, but because they are in like time and course of the year, as those days were wherein those things were done?"Was Christ

[In illis enim carnalibus victimis figuratio fuit carnis Christi, quam pro peccatis nostris ipse sine peccato fuerat oblaturus, et sanguinis quem erat effusurus in remissionem peccatorum nostrorum; in isto autem sacrificio gratiarum actio atque commemoratio est carnis Christi quam pro nobis obtulit et sanguinis quem pro nobis idem Deus effudit. Fulgentius, Edit. Lug. 1633.

The Liber ad Petrum de Fide is a work not of Augustine, but of Fulgentius. In the Benedictine Edition of St Augustine, printed at Paris, 1679, the book is prefaced with an Admonitio commencing thus: Liber "de fide ad Petrum" inter Augustini opera olim impressus est, veterum aliquot manuscriptorum auctoritate, verum non esse Augustini probe monstravit Erasmus ex ipsâ phrasi, aliisque argumentis quæ hîc referre superfluum putamus. Nam indubitatus ejus auctor a nemine jam ignoratur Fulgentius. ED.]

[ Cum adhibuit ad convivium in quo corporis et sanguinis sui figuram discipulis commendavit et tradidit. S. Aug. in Psal. iii. Op. Ben. Ed. Par. vol. iv. col. 7. ED.]


(saith St Augustine) offered any more but once? And he offered himself. And yet in a sacrament or representation, not only every solemn feast of Easter, but also every day to the people he is offered. So that he doth not lie, that saith, He is every day offered.' For if sacraments had not some similitude or likeness of those things, whereof they be sacraments, they could in no wise be sacraments: and, for their similitudes and likeness, commonly they have the names of the things whereof they be sacraments. Therefore, as after a certain manner of speech the sacrament of Christ's body is Christ's body, the sacrament of Christ's blood is Christ's blood; likewise the sacrament of faith is faith"."

lib. iii.

After this manner of speech, St Augustine teacheth in Quest. his question, Super Leviticum et cont. Adamantum, it is said in Scripture, that seven ears of corn be seven years;



and the rock was Christ;' and 'blood is the soul: the

12, § 3.

which last saying (saith St Augustine in his book cont. Ad- Ep. 102, cap. amant.") is understanded to be spoken in a sign or figure; for the Lord himself did not stick to say, 'This is my body,'

[Nonne semel immolatus est Christus in seipso? et tamen in sacramento non solum per omnes Pascha solemnitates, sed omni die populis immolatur, nec utique mentitur qui interrogatus eum responderit immolari. Si enim sacramenta quamdam similitudinem earum rerum quarum sacramenta sunt, non haberent, omnino sacramenta non essent; ex hâc autem similitudine plerumque etiam ipsarum rerum nomina accipiunt. Sicut ergo, secundum quemdam modum, sacramentum corporis Christi corpus Christi est, sacramentum sanguinis Christi sanguis Christi est; ita sacramentum fidei fides est. S. Aug. Epist. xx. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1679. vol. ii. col. 267. F. ED.]

[Solet autem res quæ significat ejus rei nomine quam significat nuncupari, sicut scriptum est, septem spicæ septem anni sunt; non enim dixit, septem annos significant. Septem boves septem anni sunt, et multa hujusmodi. Hinc est quod dictum est, Petra erat Christus; non enim dixit, Petra significat Christum, sed tanquam hoc esset quod utique per substantiam non hoc erat, sed per significationem. Sic et sanguis quoniam propter vitalem corpulentiam animam significat in sacramentis, anima dictus est. S. Aug. Quæst. 57. lib. 111. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. vol. iii. col. 516. ED.]

[ Nam ex eo quod scriptum est sanguinem pecoris animam ejus esse, præter id quod supra dixi, non ad me pertinere quid agatur de pecoris animâ, possum etiam interpretari præceptum illud, in signo esse positum; non enim Dominus dubitavit dicere, "Hoc est corpus meum," cum signum daret corporis sui. S. Aug. Epist. c. c. 12. sect. 3. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. vol. iii. col. 124. ED.]

when he gave the sign of his body." "For we must not consider in sacraments (saith St Augustine in another place) what they be, but what they do signify. For they be signs of things, being one thing in themselves, and yet signifying another thing1." "For the heavenly bread (saith he), speaknum, lib. ii. ing of the sacramental bread, by some manner of speech is called Christ's body, when in very deed it is the sacrament of his body, &c."



cap. 22.

Evan. cap.


What can be more plain or more clearly spoken, than are these places of St Augustine before rehearsed, if men were not obstinately bent to maintain an untruth, and to receive nothing, whatsoever doth set it forth? Yet one place more of St Augustine will I allege, which is very clear to this purpose, that Christ's natural body is in heaven, and not here corporally in the sacrament, and so let him depart. Aug. Tract. In his 51st Treatise, which he writeth upon John, he teacheth plainly and clearly, how Christ, being both God and man, is both here after a certain manner, and yet in heaven, and not here in his natural body and substance which he took of the blessed Virgin Mary, speaking thus of Christ, and saying, "By his divine majesty, by his provi

51, in Johan.

[ Hæc enim sacramenta sunt, in quibus non quid sint, sed quid ostendant semper adtenditur, quoniam signa sunt rerum, aliud existentia, aliud significantia. S. Aug. cont. Max. lib. 1. c. 22. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. vol. viii. col. 725. ED.]

[Accipiant hoc et boni, sed non sint soliciti; loquebatur enim de præsentiâ corporis sui. Nam secundum majestatem suam, secundum providentiam, secundum ineffabilem et invisibilem gratiam, impletur quod ab eo dictum est, "Ecce ego vobiscum sum usque in consummationem sæculi." Secundum carnem vero quam Verbum assumsit, secundum id quod de virgine natus est, secundum id quod a Judæis prehensus est, quod ligno confixus, quod de cruce depositus, quod linteis involutus, quod in sepulchro conditus, quod in resurrectione manifestatus, non semper habebitis vobiscum. Quare? Quoniam conversatus est secundum corporis præsentiam quadraginta diebus cum discipulis suis, et, eis deducentibus videndo, non sequendo, adscendit in cœlum, et non est hic. Ibi est enim et sedet ad dexteram Patris, et hic est: non enim recessit præsentia majestatis. Aliter, secundum præsentiam majestatis, semper habemus Christum: secundum præsentiam carnis, rectè dictum est discipulis, "me autem non semper habebitis." Habuit enim illum Ecclesia secundum præsentiam carnis paucis diebus; modo fide tenet, oculis non videt. S. Aug. Tract LI. in Johan. Ev. c. 12. Op. Ed. Ben. Par. 1679, tom. iii. pars iii. col. 634. ED.]

[ocr errors]
« AnteriorContinuar »