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collected, that make for the purpose; the which, and such other as you shall think meet to be set forth to persuade the weak to embrace our proceedings in this part, we pray you cause to be declared to the people by some discreet preachers, in such places as you shall think meet, before the taking down of the said altars; so as both the weak consciences of others may be instructed and satisfied as much as may be, and this our pleasurce the more quietly executed. For the better doing whereof, we require you to open the aforesaid considerations in that our cathedral church in your own person, if you conveniently may, or otherwise, by your chancellor, or some other grave preacher, both there and in such other market towns, and most notable places of your diocese, as you may think most requisite.

Given under our signet, at our palace of Westminster, the 24th day of November, the fourth year of our reign.

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Scorus in lib. v. sent. dist. 2. quest. 3. (as quoted by Du Plessy, in his "Four books on the Institution, use, and doctrine of the Eucharist," p. 472, Lond. 1660,) says: "Innocent III., a great promoter of this monster, moveth this monstrous and brutish question (lib. iv. c. 19.) 'What eateth the mouse when she gnaweth the Sacrament?' Lombard (lib. iv. dist. 13.) has answered, 'God knoweth.' And notwithstanding towards the end he remarks, 'It may be safely said, that the body of Christ is not taken by beasts.' But the school of Sorbonne hath noted, 'Hic magister non tenetur ;' others follow not the judgment of the Master of the Sentences on this point. John de Burgo (de custod. Euch. c. 10.) very grossly: 'The mouse does take the body of Christ.' Innocent more subtilely: "The bread passes away miraculously when the body cometh, and the body passeth and getteth itself away when the mouse draweth near, and the bread cometh into his place again'." Du Plessy, p. 470.


It may be necessary to observe that the genuineness of the two passages of Saint Chrysostom quoted in this treatise has been suspected. Archbishop Usher (in the preface of his answer to the Jesuit's Challenge) remarks that the words, "in quibus non est verum corpus Christi, sed mysterium corporis ejus continetur," were wholly omitted in the Antwerp Edition of 1537, the Paris Edition of 1543, and in that of Audoenus Parvus, printed also at Paris in 1557: in the more ancient copies, that for instance of 1487, Usher found the words, and that without any note of suspicion. The Paris Edition of 1536 (apud Claud. Chevallonium) has them, and thus it would appear that the earliest edition which omits the passage in question is that (apud Johan. Steelsium) of Antwerp, anno 1537.

The "Epistola ad Cæsarium Monachum" was first published by Peter Martyr, and immediately declared by his opponents to be a forgery of his own; but Bigotius, who had transcribed it from a MS. in the library of St Mark's Monastery at Florence, and prepared it for the press in his edition of Palladius, asserted and proved to the satisfaction of the learned that it was the work of Chrysostom. The sheets were however cancelled, and the publication of them prohibited.

In the Benedictine Edition, the first volume of which was published by Montfaucon at Paris in 1717, the letter is printed, and a

satisfactory epitome of its history given-the Editors have however, though it would appear on insufficient grounds, decided that it is not genuine. Neither the "Opus Imperfectum," nor the "Epistola ad Cæsarium," are extant in the Greek, save a few fragments of the latter.


There were various services of the Roman Church.

Scala Cœli-was an indulgence granted to those who visited certain privileged places, whereby those who resorted to them were promised the same benefits as though they had ascended the holy steps at Rome.

Trentals (Trentale, Fr.) an office for the dead that continued thirty days, or consisted of thirty masses; from the Italian Trenta, i.e. Triginta. Stat. I. Ed. VI. cap. xiv. Jacob's Law Dictionary in voce. London, 1756.

Placebo. An antiphone in the office for the dead. The words are "Placebo Domino in Regione vivorum." Rituale Romanum, Antverp. 1617, p. 157.

Dirige. Another antiphone in the office for the dead. The words are "Dirige Domine Deus meus in conspectu tuo viam meam." Rituale Romanum, Antverp. 1617, p. 172.

Tot. quots. "An abbreviation of 'totiens quotiens,' occurring in Papal Documents and Grants. Thomas Aquinas, as quoted in Serrani "de Septem urbis Romæ ecclesiis," (Coloniæ, 1600,) p. 134, will explain the meaning of this item. "Quicunque vadit ad ecclesiam talem, usque ad tale tempus habeat tantum de indulgentia, intelligitur semel tantum: sed si in aliqua ecclesia sit indulgentia perennis, sicut in Ecclesia B. Petri XL. dierum, tunc quoties vadit aliquis, toties indulgentiam consequitur." Thom. Aquin. Summa Theol. Supplem. 3 part, quæst. 25. art. 2. sect. ad quæst. Bishop Jewel also mentions tot. quots. amongst a variety of other expedients for raising money." Fox, Acts and Monuments, Ed. 1836, note of the Editor in loco.

Pardons, Purgatory, Pilgrimages, Masses, Immunities, Pluralities, Unions, &c. will require no explanation.


The Book Mistress Missa.

This book Fox, who was personally acquainted with Dr Turner, attributes to him; but no work bearing this title is to be found among the lists of his works given by Wood, Bale, or later bibliographers. The book most probably referred to, is one entitled "A New Dialogue wherein is contained the examination of the mass, and of that kind of priesthood which is ordained to say mass, and to offer up for remission of sin the body and blood of Christ again.— London, by John Day, and W. Seres." Turner is spoken of very

contemptuously by Anthony a Wood, but commended by Fox and


There was a book published anonymously, but which may have been written by Dr Turner, called "a newe dialogue called the endightment agaynste Mother Messe. Imprinted by William Hill and William Seres, 1548."


A Mass of the Holy Ghost.

A Mass of the Holy Ghost was a mass sung with great solemnity at the opening of any council, synod, or convocation. Strype (Ecc. Mem. vol. iii. par. 1. p. 181) speaks of Mary's first parliament having been thus opened. Dr Wordsworth cites an author of that period who calls it "an unholy mass of the Holy Ghost, rolled up with descant, prick-song, and organs, whereby men's hearts are ravished wholly from God, and from the cogitations of all such things as they ought to pray for." Wordsworth's Ecc. Biog. vol. iii. p. 36.




Dr Wordsworth in his Ecclesiastical Biography has the following note on Ridley's attributing the "Bishops' Book" to the Bishop of Winchester:-"I own this statement surprises me; and yet it may well seem presumptuous to call in question the authority of Ridley on a point like the present. The Bishops' Book' unquestionably is that whose proper title is the Institution of a Christian Man,' &c. (A.D. 1537). Now of this, I confess, I have long been much more inclined to attribute the main authorship to Cranmer, and others of his party, especially perhaps to Fox bishop of Hereford, than to Gardiner; while again, Gardiner no doubt did exert a great and mischievous influence on the preparation and contents of that other book, often styled 'the King's Book,' that is, 'A Necessary Doctrine and Erudition for any Christen Man set furth by the Kynges Majesty of Englande,' &c. (A.D. 1543), curious and valuable as that work still undeniably is. I venture to conjecture therefore, that Ridley here inadvertently wrote the 'Bishops' Booke' instead of the King's Book:' a conjecture, which probably may be considered well-grounded, when I mention, that in the latter, there is a sharp reproof' of the Florentine Council, (see p. 205 of a useful volume, the Formularies of Faith put forth by authority during the reign of Henry VIII. published at Oxford, A.D. 1825, and superintended by bishop Lloyd, then Regius Professor of Divinity in that university ;) while I do not find any such 'reproof' in the other work, the Institution; or indeed any mention of the council at all. Of this book, some account may be found in the present collection in a note to the Life of Cromwell, vol. ii. p. 258."



The book de vera differentia.

The book here referred to is the treatise by Edward Fox, bishop of Hereford, and Almoner to King Henry VIII. "He was reputed,” says Burnet" to be one of the best divines in England." The title of the book is, "de vera differentia Regiæ Potestatis at Ecclesiasticæ, et quæ sit ipsa veritas et virtus utriusque." It was published first in 1534, and another edition appeared in 1538, in which year the bishop died. It was translated into English by Henry Lord Stafford. There was a treatise under the same title published by bishop Gardiner, and one or two more by different authors.

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