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King and the Parliament was now manifested in various ways: amongst others, in loyal petitions addressed to the King, most of them praying for some accommodation between the King and Parliament. The first of these petitions was from Hertford, bearing date June 7th; the next was a Cornish petition, signed by forty-three gentlemen at Lostwithiel, and 7000 more esquires, gentlemen, &c.; then a petition, July 5th, from the counties of Cumberland and Westmoreland, signed by 4774 knights and gentlemen; a petition from Holdernesse, complaining of Sir John Hotham taking into Hull part of the train-bands, drowning their lands, &c.; a petition from Kent, August 1st; and a petition from Flint, August 4th. To all these were returned answers bearing Lord Falkland's signature; these were admirably adapted to their purpose, dignified, clear, and forcible; but though Lord Falkland's name is appended to each, and in some his style of writing may be recognised, it would be impossible to quote any of these documents as wholly of his composition. The various declarations that issued from the Court in Yorkshire are too numerous and too long to be here recapitulated. There is no certain evidence of what portion in each may have been approved of or suggested by the subject of this memoir; nor could they convey a just estimate of the due allowance to be made for the conduct of each of the conflicting parties without the insertion of the replies and rejoinders of the Parliament.

See Appendix N.



Preparations for War — The King's Standard erected at Nottingham Overtures for a Reconciliation made by the King on the advice of his Ministers — Rejected by the Parliament — Lord Falkland is excluded from the House of Commons — Reproof of Prince Rupert by Lord Falkland — Battle of Edgehill — Gallant and humane Behaviour of Lord Falkland — The King advances to Colnbrook, where he receives a pacific Message from the Parliament — Prince Rupert frustrates the Negotiation - The King retires to Oxford for the Winter — Wager of the King and Lord Falkland about Mr. Hyde's Style of Writing.

Each side declared for peace, whilst each now prepared for war. On the 22nd of June forty-three lords and gentlemen at York voluntarily engaged to assist the King in defence of his "royal person,” “ the two Houses of Parliament,” “ the Protestant religion,” &c. &c., by the paying, according to their respective means, for so many horses for three months.' Lord Falkland

1“A CATALOGUE of the Names of the Lords that subscribed to levie

“ Horse to assist His Majesty in defence of His Royall Person, the “ two Houses of Parliament, and the Protestant Religion.

“ Yorke, the 22nd of June, 1642. “ Whereas it may be collected by severall Declarations printed in the “ name of both Houses of Parliament, That the King's sacred person, the “ Houses of Parliament, the Protestant Religion, the lawes of the land, “ the liberty and propriety of the subject, and priviledges of Parliament “ are all in danger:

“ We whose names are under-written doe voluntarily offer and severally “ ingage ourselves, according to the following subscriptions, to assist His “ Majestie in defence of His Royall Person, the two Houses of Parliament, “ the Protestant Religion, the lawes of the land, the liberty and pro“ priety of the subject, and priviledges of Parliament; when His Majestie “ shall have given Commission under the Great Seale for levying of

contributed twenty horses. Lord Lindsay was appointed General of the King's forces on the 12th of July; Lord Essex was appointed Lord General by the Parliament."

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“ forces for those purposes, against all power, levies, and forces what“ soever, or to be raysed upon any pretence whatsoever :

“ To pay horses for three months, thirty dayes to the month, at

“ two shillings sixpence per diem, still advancing a month's “ pay, the first payment to begin so soone as the King shall " call for it after the Commissions shall be issued under the “ Great Seale. In this number are not to be reckoned the “ horses of the subscribers, or those that shall attend them :Horse.

“ The Prince . . . . . 200 | Earl of Newport . . . .
The Duke of York . . . . 120 Lord Mowbray . . . . . 50
Lord Keeper .

. . .
. .

. .

40 Lord Willoughby . .
40 |

. . Duke of Richmond . . . 100 Lord Grey of Ruthin ... Lo. Marquesse Hartford . 60 Lord Lovelace . . . . . 40

Lord Paget . . . . .
Earl of Cumberland . .
Earl of Huntingdon . . Lord Rich . . . . . .
Earl of Bath . . . . . 50 Lord Pawlet . . . .
Earl of Southampton . .

Lord Newark . . .
Earl of Dorset . . . .

60 Lord Montague . . . . . Earl of Northampton . . . 40 | Lord Coventrey . . . . Earl of Devonshire . .

Lord Savill. . . . . . Earl of Dover . . . .

Lord Mohun . . . Earl of Cambridge . . . . 60 Lord Dunsmore . . . . Earl of Bristoll . . . . 60 | Lord Seymour . . . . . 20 Earl of Westmorland . . . 20 | Lord Capell . . . . . 100 Earl of Barkshire and L. An

dover . . . . . . 30 | Lord Faulkland . . . . 20 Earl of Monmouth. . . . 30 Master Comptroller . . . 20 Earl Rivers . . . . . . 30 Master Secretary Nicholas . 20 Earl of Carnarvan . . . . 20 | Lord Chief-Justice Bankes : 20

“ * The Lord Thanet is not here, but one hath undertaken for 100 for him.

Sum total . . . . . . 1695." – Vide vol. iii. of bound pamphlets, from 1640 to 1642, in the possession of the Earl of Essex.

On the Speaker of the House of Lords acquainting the Earl of Essex that the Lords consented to the wishes of the Commons in his appointment, the Earl gave their Lordships thanks.



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On the 11th of August a letter was addressed from the King to the Lords, with a proclamation for suppressing the rebellion under the command of Robert Earl of Essex, with offer of free pardon to him and his adherents should they lay down their arms within six days. The offer of pardon was scornfully rejected, and the proclamation defied. A counter declaration and proclamation followed, requiring the King to disband his army, and to abandon and leave to condign punishment his evil counsellors.

On the 18th the Parliament declared all such as assisted the King to be traitors. On the 22nd the King's standard was erected at Nottingham. This decisive step on the Royalist side did not, however, diminish the ardent desire for peace on the part of his wisest and most faithful counsellors. It was urged upon the King that he should “send a message to the Par“ liament, with some overture to incline them to a “ treaty." The King was indignant even at the proposal, declared he never would yield to it, and broke up the council. The next day, however, the same advice was still more earnestly renewed, and the King was at last prevailed on to consent, but rather from the belief that the offer would be rejected than with any desire it should be accepted. The Earl of Southampton, who had been strongly in favour of this step, was appointed to be the bearer of this message of peace to the Lords, whilst Sir John Culpepper was to be the messenger to the Commons. The Lords refused to allow Lord Southampton to deliver the message in person, and, after an ineffectual resistance on his part against the surrender of his commission into other hands, it

'Lord Clarendon gives the 25th of August as the day on which the standard was erected. This does not correspond with the date given by Rushworth and Whitelocke; but Lord Clarendon afterwards speaks of the first message of peace (dated the 25th of August) as being three days after the erection of the standard. It is probable, therefore, that the 25th is a mere clerical error.- Vide Hist, of the Rebellion, vol. iii. pp. 206, 211,

* Ibid., vol. iii. p. 203. a “ The King was so exceedingly afflicted after he had given his consent,

sage by Mr. Maxwell. Sir John Culpepper asked leave

an order of the House existing that prevented his appearing there without leave. The Commons showed more respect on this occasion to the messenger of the King than the Lords had done, and he was admitted in person to deliver the King's message of peace. A conference with the Lords followed its delivery, the result of which was its total rejection, accompanied

" that he broke out into tears; and the Lord Southampton, who lay in " the bedchamber that night, told Mr. Hyde the next morning that the “ King had been in so great an agony that whole night that he believed “ he had not slept two hours in the whole night, which was a discom" posure his constitution was rarely liable to in the greatest misfortunes of “ his life." The King determined he would send no message but what Mr. Hyde prepared, and he “confessed himself better pleased with the “ message itself than the thought of sending it to them.” Mr. Hyde succeeded in some degree in soothing the King's distress; and on his “earnestly “ desiring his Majesty would compose his own countenance, and abolish that “ infectious sadness in his own looks, which made the greatest impression “ upon men, and made them think that he found his condition to be more “ desperate than anybody else believed it to be, the King was very well “ pleased with the discourse, and told him he was a very good comforter,"&c. – Vide Appendix F, Clarendon's • Hist, of the Rebellion,' vol. iii. pp. 621-4.

An order had passed that all the members who “ were not present on " a certain day should not presume to sit there till they had paid 1001., “ and given the House satisfaction in the cause of their absence.”—Ibid., p. 209.

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