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No reward for licence to preach.

Canons as to preaching. Canon 45.

Canons 46 and

47.

Canon 55.

prayer.

ordinances and rites ecclesiastical established in the Church of England, he shall be admonished by the bishop of the diocese or ordinary of the place to submit himself to the use and due exercise of the same. And if, after such admonition he do not conform himself within the space of one month, we determine and decree that the licence of every such preacher shall thereupon be utterly void and of none effect."

By 31 Eliz. c. 6, s. 9, it is in effect provided that if any person shall receive or take any money, fee, reward, or any other profit, directly or indirectly, or any promise thereof, either to himself or to any of his friends (all ordinary and lawful fees only excepted), to procure any licence to preach, he shall forfeit 407. (f).

After the preacher shall be licensed, then it is ordained as follows by the Canons of 1603

Can. 45. "Every beneficed man allowed to be a preacher, and residing on his benefice, having no lawful impediment, shall in his own cure, or in some other church or chapel, where he may conveniently, near adjoining, where no preacher is, preach one sermon every Sunday of the year; wherein he shall soberly and sincerely divide the word of truth, to the glory of God, and to the best edification of the people."

By Canons 46 and 47, already set forth (u), incumbents not preachers were to procure sermons to be preached by licensed preachers once a month, and any incumbent licensed not to reside was (except in certain cases) to have a curate" that is a sufficient and licensed preacher."

But these Canons are now nearly obsolete.

Can. 55. "Before all sermons, lectures, and homilies, the preachers and ministers shall move the people to join with them in prayer, in this form, or to this effect, as briefly as conThe bidding veniently they may; Ye shall pray for Christ's holy catholic church, that is, for the whole congregation of Christian people dispersed throughout the whole world, and especially for the churches of England, Scotland, and Ireland: and herein I require you most especially to pray for the king's most excellent majesty, our sovereign lord James, king of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, defender of the faith, and supreme governor in these his realms, and all other his dominions and countries, over all persons, in all causes, as well ecclesiastical as temporal ye shall also pray for our gracious queen Anne, the noble prince Henry, and the rest of the king and queen's royal issue: ye shall also pray for the ministers of God's holy word and sacraments, as well archbishops and bishops, as other pastors and curates: ye shall also pray for the king's most honourable council, and for all the nobility and magistrates of this realm, that all and every of these in their several callings may serve truly and painfully to the glory of God, and the

(t) Vide infra, Part IV., Chap. III., sect. 3.

(u) Vide supra, p. 423.

edifying and well governing of his people, remembering the account that they must make: also ye shall pray for the whole commons of this realm, that they may live in the true faith and fear of God, in humble obedience to the king, and brotherly charity one to another. Finally, let us praise God for all those which are departed out of this life in the faith of Christ, and pray unto God that we may have grace to direct our lives after their good example; that this life ended, we may be made partakers with them of the glorious resurrection in the life everlasting;' always concluding with the Lord's Prayer."

The like form was enjoined by the Injunctions of Queen Elizabeth in the year 1559; and a form of bidding was likewise prescribed (but of a different tenor from these two) by the Injunctions of Edw. VI.; and also before this (and before the Reformation) we find the like bidding form in English, in a festival printed in the year 1509, which is much longer than these, and is reprinted at length by Dr. Burnet in his History of the Reformation.

The occasion of this kind of bidding prayer (as it is called) was that in the ancient church silence was commanded to be kept for a time, for the people's secret prayers; and in this or such like form the minister directed the people what to pray for. A remainder of which usage is still preserved in the office of ordination of priests ().

sermon.

In the year 1661 there is an entry in the journal of the upper Form of house of convocation, that the bishops unanimously voted for prayer before one form of prayer to be used by all ministers, as well before as after sermon; and that this order was pursued in the convocation (although not brought to effect) appears from the minutes of the lower house, where on January 31st we find a committee appointed for this (among other purposes), to compile a prayer before sermon (y).

explain.

Peccham. 66 Every priest shall explain to the people, four What the times a year, the fourteen articles of faith, the Ten Command- priest shall ments, the two evangelical precepts, the seven works of mercy, the seven deadly sins, with their consequences, the seven principal virtues, and the seven sacraments of

grace (~).

The fourteen articles of faith (whereof seven belong to the mystery of the Trinity, and seven to Christ's humanity), are 1. The unity of the divine essence in the three persons of the undivided Trinity. 2. That the Father is God. 3. That the Son is God. 4. That the Holy Ghost, proceeding from the Father and the Son, is God. 5. The creation of heaven and earth by the whole and undivided Trinity. 6. The sanctification of the church by the Holy Ghost, the sacraments of grace, and all other things wherein the Christian Church communicateth. 7. The consummation of the church in eternal glory, to be truly

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Homilies.

Article 35.

Canons 46 and 49. Sermon without service.

raised again in flesh and spirit, and opposite thereunto the eternal damnation of the reprobate. 8. The incarnation of Christ. 9. His being born of the Blessed Virgin. 10. His suffering and death upon the cross. 11. His descent into hell. 12. His resurrection from the dead. 13. His ascension into heaven. 14. His future coming to judge the world (a).

The Ten Commandments are the precepts of the Old Testament. To these the gospel addeth two others, to wit, the love of God and of our neighbour (b).

Of the seven works of mercy, six are collected out of the gospel of St. Matthew; to feed the hungry, to give drink to the thirsty, to entertain the stranger, to clothe the naked, to visit the sick, and to comfort those that are in prison; and the seventh is gathered out of Tobias, to wit, to bury the dead. The seven deadly sins are pride, envy, anger, or hatred, slothfulness, covetousness, gluttony, and drunkenness, luxury. The seven principal virtues are faith, hope and charity, which respect God; prudence, temperance, justice, fortitude with regard unto men.

The seven sacraments of grace are baptism, confirmation, orders, penance, matrimony, the eucharist and extreme unction (c).

By the rubric after the Nicene Creed: "Then shall follow the sermon, or one of the homilies already set forth or hereafter to be set forth by authority."

By the form of ordaining deacons: "It appertaineth to the office of a deacon . . . . to read holy scriptures and homilies in the church."

Art. 35 of the 39 Articles. "The second book of homilies, the several titles whereof we have joined unto this article, doth contain a godly and wholesome doctrine, and necessary for these times, as doth the former book of homilies, which were set forth in the time of Edward the Sixth; and therefore we judge them to be read in churches by the ministers diligently and distinctly, that they may be understanded of the people.'

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Canons 46 and 49 of the Canons of 1603 on the subject of the homilies have been already given (d).

Sect. 6 of the Act of Uniformity Amendment Act, 1872, allows the preaching of a sermon without previous service, if preceded by the bidding prayer, and collect, with or without the Lord's Prayer or by any service authorized by that Act (e).

Publication of ecclesiastical matters in the church.

SECT. 10.-Publication of Notices in Church.

After the Nicene Creed in the Prayer Book there is this rubric: "The curate shall declare unto the people what holy-days or fasting days are in the week following to be observed. And then

(a) Lind. pp. 2–8.

(b) Ibid. pp. 54, 59.

Ibid. pp. 42, 43, 60–63.

(d) Vide supra, pp. 423, 787.
(e) Vide supra, pp. 447, 757.

also (if occasion be) shall notice be given of the communion; and briefs, citations, and excommunications read. And nothing shall be proclaimed or published in the church, during the time of divine service, but by the minister: nor by him any thing, but what is prescribed in the rules of this book, or enjoined by the queen, or by the ordinary of the place."

By 4 Geo. 4, c. 76, s. 2, Banns of matrimony shall be pub- Banns. lished "during the time of morning service, or of evening service (if there shall be no morning service in such church or chapel upon the Sunday upon which such banns shall be so published) immediately after the second lesson."

The construction of this section has been discussed in the Chapter on Marriage (ƒ).

In Elphinstone v. Purchas (g) one of the articles charged as follows:

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"That you, the said Rev. John Purchas, . publicly Elphinstone v. during the performance of divine service, that is to say, at the Purchas. conclusion of the Nicene Creed, gave notice that on the morning of the next day there would be a high celebration of the holy 'eucharist' at eleven o'clock; and that you, on the same day, after the sermon, gave or caused to be given, notice that on the next Friday, being the Feast of St. Leonard,' there would be a celebration of the holy eucharist at eleven o'clock; and that on Sunday, ... after the Nicene Creed, you gave notice that the Holy Eucharist would be celebrated on Wednesday, 'being the Feast of St. Martin;' and on Friday, 'being the Feast of 'St. Britius.' And that on Sunday morning, . after the Nicene Creed, you gave notice that on Tuesday next, being 'the Festival of our Lady, there would be a high celebration of 'the holy eucharist at eleven o'clock in the morning.' Sir Robert Phillimore observed: "The Prayer Book does not Form of givwarrant, in my opinion, this particular mode of announcing ing notice of that the eucharist will be celebrated. According to the rubric, Communion. the Holy after the Nicene Creed notice is then to be given of the communion, and according to the rubric after the church militant prayer, When the minister giveth warning for the celebration of the holy communion . . . . after the sermon or homily ́ended he shall read this exhortation following.' It appears to me that the epithet 'high' has no sanction from the rubric, and, though perhaps in itself not very material, cannot legally be used. It appears from the evidence that at different times notices were given that the feasts of St. Leonard, St. Martin, Notice not to and St. Britius would be observed. The rubric, after the be given of Nicene Creed, directs that the curate shall declare unto the 'people what holy-days or fasting days are in the week fol'lowing to be observed.' Mr. Purchas is not charged with having violated the law by omitting to give notice of these

6

6

(f) Vide supra, pp. 588-590.
(g) L. R., 3 Adm. & Eccl. p. 66.

See Newbery v. Goodwin, 1 Phillim.
p. 282; supra, p. 765.

black-letter saints' days.

Publication

of acts of parliament formerly in church.

7 Will. 4 &

holy-days or fasting days, but by having given notice of holydays which the church has not directed to be observed. I think the holy-days which are directed to be observed are those which are to be found after the preface of the Prayer Book, under the head of A Table of all the Feasts that are to be observed in the Church of England throughout the year.' The feasts of St. Leonard, St. Martin, and St. Britius are not among these; I therefore think the notices of them were improper, and I must admonish Mr. Purchas to abstain from giving such notices for the future."

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Divers acts of parliament were at one time required to be published in the churches, but the provisions requiring such publication of these statutes have been repealed.

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The act 7 Will. 4 & 1 Vict. c. 45, after reciting as follows: "Whereas by an act, 58 Geo. 3, c. 69, intituled, An Act for 1 Vict. c. 45. the Regulation of Parish Vestries,' it is enacted, that no vestry or meeting of the inhabitants in vestry of or for any parish shall be holden until public notice shall have been given of such vestry, and of the place and hour of holding the same, and the special purpose thereof, three days at the least before the day to be appointed for holding such vestry, by the publication of such notice in the parish church or chapel on some Sunday during or immediately after divine service, and by affixing the same, fairly written or printed, on the principal door of such church or chapel: And whereas by an act, 31 Eliz. c. 3, it is enacted, that before any outlawry shall be had and pronounced proclamation shall be made at the door of the church or chapel of the town or parish where the defendant shall be dwelling immediately after divine service on a Sunday: And whereas by divers acts relative to the assessing and collecting of highway and poor rates and land tax, and other matters, it is directed or required that public notice shall be given with reference to certain proceedings relating thereto respectively in the parish churches or chapels during divine service: And whereas by ancient custom notice is usually given in churches during divine service of the times appointed for holding courts leet, courts baron, and customary courts: And whereas it is expedient that such mode of giving notices should be altered:"-Enacts as follows,

Notices not to be given in churches

service, &c.

Notices here

Sect. 1. "No proclamation or other public notice for a vestry meeting or any other matter shall be made or given in any during divine church or chapel during or after divine service, or at the door of any church or chapel at the conclusion of divine service." Sect. 2. "All proclamations or notices which under or by tofore usually virtue of any law or statute, or by custom or otherwise, have given during or after divine been heretofore made or given in churches or chapels during or service, &c. to after divine service, shall be reduced into writing, and copies thereof either in writing or in print, or partly in writing and partly in print, shall previously to the commencement of divine service on the several days on which such proclamations or

be affixed to the church

doors.

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