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lights. The channel for a distance of 11 miles above the entrance is marked by buoys and lighted beacons, has a depth of 9 feet or more, and can be readily followed. Above this point the channel is a dredged cut 150 feet wide and 9 feet deep to a point 5/8 mile below Stonewall, and thence 100 feet wide and 9 feet deep to Bayboro, which is practically the head of navigation; the dredged cuts are marked by range beacons, but some local knowledge is needed to follow them. Vandemere is a village and railroad terminal, 8 miles above the entrance of Bay River; there is a depth of 8 feet at the end of the railroad wharf. Stonewall and Bayboro are villages, with railroad communication, on the river 13 and 14 miles above the entrance; lumber is shipped from the sawmills at these places, and there is a fertilizer factory at Bayboro.

DIRECTIONSFrom eastward.— With a smooth sea a depth of 6 feet can be taken across Brant Island Shoal by passing about 250 yards southward of Brant Island Slue light on a southwesterly course. From a position 12 mile southwestward of this light steer 266° true (W. mag.) for 6 miles; or, from a position 1/4 mile southwestward of Brant Island Shoal lighthouse, make good a 281° true (WNW.578 W. mag.) course for 1034 miles. Either course should lead to a position 14 mile southward of Bay Point light. Then steer 291° true (NW. by W.34 W. mag.) for 21/2 miles, and pass about 100 yards northward of Pine Tree Shoal light (black structure).

From a position 14 mile northwestward of the lighted beacon steer 266° true (W. mag.) for 1 mile, giving the southern shore a berth of about 12 mile, and then keep near the middle of the river, giving the buoys a berth of over 100 yards until westward of buoy No. 6. (If bound for Vandemere, after passing Petty Point and 1/4 mile northeastward of Bell Point lighted beacon steer 318° true (NW. 5, N. mag.) for the railroad wharf.) Then give the northern shore of Mason Bay a berth of 14 mile, and follow the buoys at a distance of 75 to 100 yards. Anchorage can be selected in the channel of the river up to the entrance of the dredged cuts about 150 yards northwestward of buoy No. 11, but above this point there is not room for anchorage except for small craft.

From westward.-Pass 12 mile eastward and northeastward of Maw Point Shoal light, and steer 322° true (NW. by N. mag.) for 112 miles to a position about 300 yards northeastward of buoy No. 3. Then steer 304o true (NW.58 W. mag.) for 134 miles and pass about 100 yards northeastward of buoy No. 5. Then follow the directions in the preceding paragraph.

Neuse River empties into the western end of Pamlico Sound and is one of the important rivers of North Carolina. For a distance of 25 miles above its mouth the river has a width varying from 5 to 134 miles and a channel depth of over 13 feet; above this the channel has a depth of 11 feet to Newbern. From the entrance of the river to Newbern the channel is marked by lights and buoys.

Newbern is a city on the west bank of Neuse River, 34 miles above the entrance. It ships lumber in barges and fish and farm produce by railroad. There is a marine railway 110 feet long, with a capacity of 500 tons, and anthracite and bituminous coal, gasoline, water, and ice can be obtained. There is a relief station of the United States Public Health Service, and storm warnings are displayed. The river

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water is slightly brackish at Newbern except during freshets. The quarantine officer is at Newbern; the quarantine station and anchorage is about 2 miles below.

Turnagain Bay is on the south side of Neuse River, south-southeastward of Neuse River lighthouse. It has a depth of 9 feet or more in a narrow channel for a distance of 3 miles above the entrance; the entrance is marked by private buoys. The old canal to Long Bay is closed.

Broad Creek entrance is on the north side of Neuse River, 134 miles westward of Neuse River lighthouse. Lower Broad Creek light (black slatted structure) marks the west side of the channel at the entrance. Pamlico is a post office and sawmill on the south side of Broad Creek, 242 miles above the entrance. Vessels load to a depth of 6 feet on the eastern side of the slab wharf at the sawmill and anchor off the mouth of Tar Creek to load to 8 feet. To enter Broad Creek, pass 100 yards eastward and northward of Lower Broad Creek light, and steer 266° true (W. mag.) until past the point of the shoal, which shows by discolored water, on the starboard hand; then steer northwestward, slightly favoring the western bank until abreast the turning point on that side, and then keep in mid-creek.

South River is on the south side of Neuse River, 6 miles south-southwestward of Neuse River lighthouse. The channel at the entrance is marked by buoys, and on its west side by South River light. The channel has a depth of 10 feet or more for 51/2 miles, and 8 feet for 7 miles, above the entrance. To enter South River, steer 153° true (SSE. mag.) for South River light in range with the southernmost point that shows on the east side of the creek until up with buoy No. 1, and then change the course so as to pass 100 yards eastward of the light. When 100 yards past the light, change the course gradually to 193° true (S. by W. 12. W. mag.), giving the edge of the bank, which shows by discolored water and is steep-to, on the west side of the channel a berth of 75 to 100 yards, and pass 100 yards westward of buoy No. 3. Then keep in mid-river. There is a sawmill at Coffee Creek, a small bight on the east side of the river about 21,2 miles from the entrance beacon. The depth in the creek is 4 feet and there are a few old wharves on the south side.

Oriental is a post village and railroad terminus on the eastern side of Smith Creek, north side of Neuse River, 81/2 miles westward of Neuse River lighthouse. Supplies, gasoline, ice, and water can be obtained here, and repairs to gasoline engines made. There is a depth of 8 feet in the channel and about 8 feet at the principal wharves. A sand spit of dredged material extends southwestward to the channel from the eastern point at the entrance, and the cove northward of it has been dredged to a depth of 10 feet. The best anchorage is in this cove, but vessels of 7 feet draft can anchor westward of the sawmill wharf toward the entrance of Green Creek. There is a marine railway capable of hauling vessels to 50 feet in length.

A depth of about 71/2 feet can be taken into Green Creek to the wharves of Oriental by steering about 308° true. (NW. 14 W. mag.) for Chadwicks Point Shoal light. Pass 100 feet westward of the light and steer 341° true (N. by W. 1/2 W. mag.) for the end of the sawmill wharf. Avoid the shoal making out from the sand spit at the

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entrance to the harbor. After passing this spit the cove may be entered for an anchorage. There are two small wharves on the north side of this bight. Gasoline can be obtained in the cove. If going to the railroad wharf continue the course to avoid a shoal, with little water over it, which extends over halfway across from the old mill on the western side, the end of the shoal lying 100 yards southwestward of the southeast end of the railroad wharf.

Adams Creek entrance is on the south side of Neuse River, 10 miles above Neuse River lighthouse, and southward of the town of Oriental, on the opposite side of the river. It is a part of the principal route between Pamlico Sound and Beaufort Harbor. A channel with a present depth of 12 feet has been dredged through Adams Creek, and thence through a canal and dredged

channels in Core Creek and Newport River to Beaufort Harbor. This channel is well marked and easily followed in the daytime and is good for vessels of 10 feet draft. The distances through the channel are as follows: Adams Creek entrance to north end of canal 5 miles, to south end of canal 101/2 miles, to Morehead City bridge 17 miles. Two drawbridges cross the channel, one with a clear opening 60 feet wide over the canal 1 mile from its south end, and Morehead City bridge with a clear opening 50 feet wide. For directions, see page 167.

Clubfoot Creek empties into Neuse River from southward about 14 miles above Neuse River lighthouse. Clubfoot Creek light is located in a depth of 6 feet, on the eastern side of the entrance. The channel in the entrance, southward of the light, is narrow, with shoals which rise abruptly on both sides. There is a depth of 9 feet through the entrance, 7 feet for 212 miles, and 5 feet for 342 miles above Clubfoot Creek light. North Harlowe is a post office on the west side of the creek, and there are two sawmills on the east side. From the creek there is a passage, good for a depth of 342 feet at high water, through the Clubfoot Canal and Harlowe Creek to Beaufort Harbor. To enter Clubfoot Creek, pass 200 yards westward and south westward of Clubfoot Creek light, steer about 143° true (SE. by S. mag.), slightly favor the east bank until approaching the old mill wharves on the west side northward of Nitchell Creek, and then keep in midcreek.

Hancock Creek is on the south side of Neuse River, nearly 3 miles west-southwestward of Wilkinson Point Shoal light. A depth of about 4 feet can be taken into the creek.

Slocum Creek is on the south side of Neuse River, 412 miles westward of Wilkinson Point Shoal light. A draft of 612 feet is loaded at the old sawmill just inside the entrance. There is a depth of 41/2 feet in the channel of the creek to the forks, a distance of 412 miles, and up the west branch for 212 miles farther to Havelock, a post office on the railroad. There is a light (red slatted pile structure) at the entrance, and otherwise the chart is the guide.

Beard Creek is on the northeast side of Neuse River, 4 miles northwestward of Wilkinson Point Shoal light. A depth of 5 feet can be taken about 41/2 miles up the creek to the county bridge.

Goose Creek is on the northeast side of Neuse River, 6 miles below Newbern. A depth of 7 feet can be taken about 412 miles up the creek.

Upper Broad Creek is on the northeast side of Neuse River, 5 miles below Newbern. A depth of 742 feet can be taken about 10 miles

up the creek to Tuly Landing, and 5 feet about 1 mile farther to the head of navigation at the county bridge.

Neuse River above Newbern has a low-water depth of 312 feet to Village Creek, 22 miles; 21/2 feet to the mouth of Contentnia Creek, 28 miles; and 1 foot to Seven Springs, 64 miles. The river above Maple Cypress is navigable only during freshet stages of more than 3 or 4 feet. Kinston is reached by light-draft steamers only during freshet stages of variable duration, extending over 6 or 8 months of the year.

Waynesboro Landing (Goldsboro), 85 miles above Newbern, is practically the head of navigation, the river being occasionally cleared of obstructions to that point. Boats have gone up as far as Smithfield, 130 miles above Newbern.

Swift Creek, a branch of Neuse River 7 miles above Newbern, has been cleared of obstructions for a distance of 12 miles to the village of Vanceboro, the head of navigation, and has minimum width of 50 feet and a depth of 5 feet or more.

Contentnia Creek, a branch of Neuse River, 28 miles above Newbern, is navigable for light-draft steamers during freshet stages for 28 miles to Snow Hill, which is practically the head of navigation. Boats occasionally go up as far as Fools Bridge, 9 miles above Snow Hill, and have gone up as far as Speights Bridge (closed), 16 miles above Snow Hill.

Trent River empties into the Neuse at the southern end of the city of Newbern. Its least channel depth for a distance of 16 .miles to Polloksville is 9 feet; to Quaker Bridge, 24 miles above Newbern, 6 feet; and to Trenton, 33 miles above Newbern, 4 feet. At Newbern the river is crossed by two bridges with draws about 35 feet wide.

Tides.—There are practically no tides, the variations in water level being due principally to winds. Easterly winds cause high water, and westerly winds low water, the maximum variations with heavy gales amounting to about 2 feet above or below the normal in the lower part of the river and about 3 or 4 feet at Newbern. Freshets of 10 to 20 feet occur in the upper reaches of the river above Newbern, but have little effect at and below the town.

DIRECTIONS (Neuse River and Adams Creek).-Directions through Pamlico Sound to Neuse River are given on page 151. The following directions are good for a depth of 9 feet to Newbern:

Having come to a position 1 mile westward of Point of March light, as directed on page 151, make good a 236o true (SW. by W. 38 W. mag.) course for 9 miles, passing 34 mile southward of Neuse River lighthouse, 14 mile southward of the red nun buoy marking Gum Thicket Shoal, and to a position 14 mile northward of Garbacon Shoal light (black slatted pile structure).

From a position 1/4 mile northward of Garbacon Shoal light steer 238° true (SW. by W. 12 W. mag.) for 5 miles, giving the north shore a berth of about 1 mile, and then steer 255o true (W. by S. mag.) for 212 miles to a position 14 mile southward of Wilkinson Point Shoal light (red slatted pile structure). Then steer 290° true (NW. by W. 78 W. mag.) for 8 miles to Otter Creek light (black slatted pile structure).

Pass 50 yards westward of Otter Creek light and steer 319° true (NW. 34 Ñ. mag.) for 178 miles, passing 14 mile eastward of spar buoys, marking the dredged cut and to a position 50 yards eastward of Hampton Shoal light (black structure). Then_steer_332° true (NNW. 38 W. mag.) for 334 miles, heading for Fort Point Channel light (red structure), passing 150 yards eastward of Johnston Point light (black structure). Pass 150 yards southwestward of this light and steer 277o true (W. by N. mag.) for Lower Green Spring light to a position 100 feet south westward of buoy No. 12. Then steer 304o true (NW.58 W. mag.) for an iron stack at the fertilizer factory in range with a brick stack in the western part of Newbern until up with Upper Green Spring light (red structure), Pass 50 yards westward of this light and steer 332° true (NNW. 18 W. mag.) for a square brick stack at the southeasterly end of Newbern. A buoyed channel 300 feet wide leads northward in Neuse River close to the wharves on the eastern side of the city until above the second drawbridge. Anchorage can be had on the south side of the city, in the mouth of Trent River, below the first bridge, in 10 to 18 feet.

Adams Creek to Beaufort Harbor.–From a position 14 mile northwestward of Garbacon Shoal light steer 212o true (SW. 34 S. mag.) for 21,2 miles, heading for the point on the south side of the river westward of Adams Creek. When Adams Creek light (red slatted pile structure) bears 154o true (SSE. mag:) distant 34 miles, steer this course and pass 75 feet eastward of the light.

The dredged cuts are 250 feet wide in Adams Creek to Isaacs Creek light, thence 125 feet wide to North Entrance Canal light, 90 feet wide in the canal to Core Creek, 125 feet wide in Core Creek, and thence 250 feet wide to Beaufort Harbor.

Passing 75 feet eastward of Adams Creek light, steer 168° true (S. 34 E. mag.). Leave the black buoy 125 feet on the port hand and slowly change the course to 133o true (SE. 1/4 S. mag.) for 138 miles with Dumpling Creek range lights (white daymarks) in line ahead.

Leave Dumpling Creek range front light on the port hand and steer about 147° true (SSE. 12 E. mag.) for 5 mile to a position close westward of Cedar Creek range front light.

Then bring Cedar Creek range lights in line astern on a 206° true (SSW. 34 W. mag.) course for 134 miles to a position close westward of Isaacs Creek light; a single light serves as the rear range for both Dumpling Creek and Cedar Creek ranges.

Leave Isaacs Creek light on the port hand and steer 241° true (SW. by W. 34 W.mag.) for North Entrance Canal light (white daymark). This course should lead about 125 feet off the notice board on the north bank and then near mid-creek. Leave North Entrance Canal light about 60 feet on the starboard hand, steer 216° true (SW. 12 S. mag.) and keep in mid-creek or favor the west bank slightly in rounding the next point on the east side.

Keep in mid-channel through the canal, the limit of speed being 514 miles (6 statute miles) per hour for vessels without tows and of less than 100 feet in length. A highway drawbridge crosses the canal 11/8 miles northward of the southern end. Take east draw.

Core Creek and Beaufort Harbor.-From the south end of the canal steer 184o true (S. 34 W.mag.) for 3/8 mile in the first section of the dredged cut to a position 75 yards eastward of Core Creek upper light; the grass marks the east side of this dredged cut, but on the west side is a flat bare at low water. Then steer 178° true (S. 18 W.

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