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Currituck Beach lighthouse, nearly 34 miles southward of Cape Henry lighthouse, is a red, conical tower. The light is fixed white with a red flash of 1.5 seconds every 45 seconds.

Bodie Island lighthouse, 36 miles southward of Currituck Beach lighthouse, is a conical tower, alternate white and black horizontal bands above granite base. The light is fixed white, 156 feet above the water, and visible 19 miles.

Oregon Inlet, about 2 miles southward of Bodie Islaad lighthouse, is entered over a shifting bar, the surveyed depth on which has varied from about 6 to 10 feet or more. When inside the bar anchorage can be found under the lee of the south entrance point. The tidal currents have considerable velocity, sometimes from 3 to 4 knots, and even 5 knots on the ebb with strong westerly winds. About 4 feet at high water can be taken from the inlet over the bulkhead into Pamlico Sound through a difficult, shifting channel. There are no aids.

Platt Shoals are a number of spots with 41/2 to 6 fathoms over them, lying from 214 to 334 miles from the beach, and from 6 to 9 miles southeastward of Bodie Island lighthouse. There is a good channel with a depth of 8 to 14 fathoms inside this shoal and about 138 miles from the beach. The shoals are about 372 miles long in a southsoutheast direction and are about 11/2 miles wide. In easterly gales the shoaler spots are marked by breakers.

New Inlet, the opening in the beach nearly 10 miles southward of Bodie Island lighthouse, is used only by small boats. The sea breaks across the mouth in all but very calm weather.

Wimble Shoals are a number of ridges extending out from and lying off the shore to a distance of 4 miles with depths ranging from 342 to 6 fathoms. The northern end of these shoals is about 15 miles southward of Bodie Island lighthouse and eastward of the northern end of Chicamacomico Woods. The spot with 31/2 fathoms over it lies about 25/8 miles from shore, and there are several spots with 4 fathoms over them inshore of it. In easterly gales the shoaler parts are marked by breakers. A gas and whistling buoy moored 414 miles offshore marks the outer limit of the shoals.

Cape Hatteras, where the coast makes a sharp bend westward, is low and sandy, and is marked by Cape Hatteras lighthouse. One mile northward of the lighthouse is a radio station. Westward of the lighthouse it is thickly wooded. There is a life-saving station about 1 mile southward of the lighthouse and just southward is a radio compass station.

Cape Hatteras lighthouse is a black and white, spirally banded tower with a red brick base. The light is flashing white (light 1.4 seconds, eclipse 4.6 seconds), 191 feet above the water, and visible 20 miles.

Hatteras Shoals extend nearly 10 miles in a southeasterly direction from Cape Hatteras, and consist of a number of irregular shoals, some of which have 4 and 5 feet on their shoaler parts. The three principal shoals have distinctive names. The Spit extends about 2 miles southeastward from the cape.

Diamond Shoal lies 3 miles southeastward of the cape, has little water over it, and is usually marked by breakers. Outer Shoal is at the southeast extremity of Hatteras Shoals, and consists of irregular patches with least depths of 5 and 11 feet over them, which are usually marked by breakers and a wreck or two. Outer Slue Channel, the

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passage between Outer and Diamond Shoals, has a depth of about 342 fathoms, but as there are several spots with only 14 and 16 feet over them, and as the channel is not marked, it is not safe to pass north of the Outer Shoal. During strong winds the currents set across the shoals with great velocity.

Wrecks on the Outer Shoal usually occur in the case of vessels approaching from southward in thick weather. The difficulty of making a proper allowance for the set of the Gulf Stream, and also the strong currents near the shore and the shoals, may cause considerable error in the reckoning. The lead and Diamond Shoal light vessel are the guides for clearing the shoals. When approaching and uncertain of the position, the greatest care should be observed, thei lead kept going at frequent intervals until bottom is found, and care should then be taken not to get into less than 20, or preferably 30, fathoms. Sailing vessels are cantioned against rounding Hatteras Shoals inside of the light vessel, as in case the wind should fail the strong currents are liable to set them on the shoals.

Diamond Shoal light vessel is moored in a depth of 30 fathoms 1358 miles 137° true (SE. 5/8 S. mag.) of Cape Hatteras lighthouse. The vessel has a red hull, with “ Diamond on each side, two masts, and a circular gallery under the lens lantern at each masthead. The lighting characteristic is an occulting white light every 20 seconds, light 12 seconds, eclipse 8 seconds; visible 13 miles; if light on foremast can not be shown a similar light will be shown from the main mast. The fog signal is a steam chime whistle, blasts 5 seconds, silent interval 55 seconds. If the whistle is disabled the ship's bell will be struck by hand rapidly 5 seconds, silent interval 55 seconds. The submarine bell strikes 5," thus: 5 strokes in 9 seconds, silent interval 3 seconds. Radio fog signal transmits signals on a 1,000 meter wave, a series of double dashes for 20 seconds, silent 30 seconds. Signals are transmitted continuously during thick or foggy weather and 9 to 9.30 a. m. and 3 to 3.30 p. m. each day. Wireless messages will be received and transmitted. Storm warnings are displayed during daytime only.

From Cape Hatteras to Cape Lookout the coast trends generally southwestward for 62 miles and is broken by two inlets. From Cape Hatteras southwestward for 6 miles it is thickly wooded near the beach; between the woods and the beach is a range of sand hills from 10 to 40 feet high, and for the remainder of the distance the coast is a narrow sand beach, with numerous sand hills, separating the ocean from the extensive interior waters of North Carolina. Cape Hatteras, Ocracoke, and Cape Lookout lighthouses, Diamond Shoal and Cape Lookout Shoals light vessels, and the life-saving stations are the principal aids.

The coast between Cape Hatteras and Cape Lookout is fairly bold and 4 to 7 fathoms will be found as close as 1/2 mile from the shore, except off Hatteras Inlet, where shoals extend out 11/4 miles, and off Ocracoke Inlet, where they make out nearly 134 miles.

Hatteras Inlet, 11 miles westward of Cape Hatteras lighthouse, is entered over a shifting bar, the depth over which varies from about 7 to 12 feet. It is used as a harbor of refuge by small local coasting vessels, there being fair anchorage inside the bar in depths of 2 to 3 fathoms. Strangers should not enter without a pilot, as the

buoys may not always mark the best water. Pilots are on the lookout for vessels and will cross the bar when the sea permits.

The channel over the bulkhead from the inlet to Pamlico sound is subject to change both in position and depth. In 1921, it was said to have a least depth of 5 feet. The channel is used chiefly by local fishermen.

On the west side of the inlet the shore is a bare sand beach; Hatteras Inlet life-saving station is 112 miles westward of the inlet and the most prominent object in that direction. About 214 miles eastward of the entrance is a clump of woods and a storm warning display station; on the beach in front of the woods is Durants life-saving station. A white church spire in the village of Hatteras is prominent.

T'ides.—The range of the tide is about 2 feet on the bar. In the channels over the bulkhead the height of the water depends upon the direction and force of the wind.

Currents.-The tidal currents in the inlet and the channels through The Swash are much influenced by the winds and attain a velocity at times of 2 to 21/2 knots. The flood current commences nearly 31/2 hours after low water and the ebb current about 3 hours after high water.

Ocracoke Inlet, about 26 miles west-southwestward of Cape Hatteras lighthouse and 15 miles from Hatteras Inlet, is entered over a shifting bar, the depth over which varies, according to the records of the surveys for many years back, from 10 to 12 feet. Strangers should not enter without a pilot, as the buoys may not always mark the best water. Pilots are on the lookout and will board vessels if the sea will permit them to cross the bar.

Inside the entrance there are several channels or slues which lead into the shoals lying northward of the inlet; Teaches Hole Channel is marked by buoys and lights, and leads northeastward along the western side of Ocracoke Island and then northwestward over the bulkhead into Pamlico Sound; a survey in 1916 found a least depth of 6 feet in the channel. Wallace Channel is marked by beacons, and leads north westward from the inlet and through a former dredged channel over the bulkhead into Pamlico Sound; a least depth of 412 feet is in this channel.

Ocracoke lighthouse and the village of Ocracoke are near a clump of woods on the eastern side of the entrance. Ocracoke lighthouse is a white tower. The light is fixed white, 75 feet above the water, and visible 14 miles. On the western side of the entrance is the village of Portsmouth; the life-saving station is the largest building and is nearest the inlet.

The best anchorage is in the channel off the village of Ocracoke, from just below the lower wharf to abreast the life-saving station; the depths range from 8 to 18 feet. Small boats go into Silver Lake, a circular basin with an entrance depth of 2 feet.

Tides.—The range of tide is about 2 feet over the bar and about 1 foot at Ocracoke. In the channels over the bulkhead the height of the water depends upon the direction and force of the wind.

Currents. The currents in the inlet and the channels over the bulkhead are much influenced by the winds. The ebb current usually has a greater velocity than the flood, sometimes attaining a velocity of 2 to 21/2 knots. The flood current commences nearly 31/2 hours after low water and the ebb current about 3 hours after high water.

Cape Lookout is the extremity of a long and very narrow strip of sand beach projecting into the sea from the sharp angle of the coast which forms the point of division between Raleigh and Onslow Bays. The land near the cape is low, with sand hills from 10 to 40 feet high; the cape is, however, readily identified by Cape Lookout lighthouse, which can be seen at a distance of about 13 miles on a clear day.

Cape Lookout lighthouse is a black and white, diagonally checkered tower. The light is a white group occulting light every 10 seconds, 156 feet above the water, and visible 19 miles.

Cape Lookout Shoals extend 814 miles south-southeastward from the cape, their outer end, with a depth of less than 18 feet, lying 10 miles 165o true (S. by E. mag.) of Cape Lookout lighthouse. The greatest width of the shoals is about 134 miles, and the depth over them ranges from 2 to 18 feet. Lookout Breakers is the name given to a ridge on the shoals which has depths of 2 to 6 feet and lies about 8 miles from the lighthouse and 3 miles from the red buoy which marks the southern end of the shoals. Outside of Lookout Shoals proper and the buoy are two irregular shoals with 434 fathoms over them, which will be avoided by passing near the light vessel. In thick weather always use the lead, and if uncertain of the position do not go into a less depth than 14 fathoms. Cape Lookout slough is a channel across Cape Lookout shoals, 334 miles south of the lighthouse. Its eastern and western ends are marked by buoys.

Cape Lookout Shoals light vessel is moored in 15 fathoms about 20 miles 163o true (S. by E. 1/8 E. mag.) of Cape Lookout lighthouse and 914 miles 158o true (S. by E. 5/8 E. mag.) of the buoy marking the south end of the shoals. It has a red hull from bow to pilot house and from mainmast aft, midship section yellow, with “Lookout” on each side; two masts and brown, oval, cage-work daymark at head of each. A group flashing white light, 3 flashes every 12 seconds, is exhibited from an elevation of 50 feet and is visible 12 miles. The fog signal is a steam chime whistle, blast 3 seconds, silent interval 27 seconds. If the whistle be disabled a bell will be struck by hand rapidly 3 seconds, silent interval 17 seconds. The submarine bell strikes a group of 2 strokes every 10 seconds.

Lookout Bight is on the west side of Cape Lookout and affords good anchorage for large vessels except with winds from south through west to north west.

A breakwater is being constructed at Cape Lookout, 306° true (NW. 12 W. mag.) from Cape Lookout Coast Guard station. In 1920 it was visible above low water for a distance of 4,800 feet. Vessels are advised to use care in the vicinity, as the temporary lights maintained on the structure may be extinguished by storms. A gas and bell buoy marks the outer end of the breakwater about 178 miles 262° true from Cape Lookout lighthouse. When completed the breakwater will form a harbor of refuge behind it, with protection from all winds.

The anchorage is northward or northeastward of Wreck Point, with Cape Lookout lighthouse bearing between 86o true (E. mag.) and 109° true (ESE. mag.), in 5 to 6 fathoms. A limited number of small vessels of about 9 feet or less draft can anchor, with shelter

from all winds, inside the hook on which there are a number of huts; but the width of the anchorage, with depths of 10 to 18 feet, is only about 200 yards. To anchor inside the hook, pass 75 yards eastward and southward of the east end of the spit, 100 yards eastward of the huts, and anchor in the cove 200 yards southeastward of the huts.

When eastward of Cape Lookout Shoals, the greatest difficulty in making the anchorage in Lookout Bight is in the distance which must be run southward of the cape to clear the shoals. In easterly gales the shoals are marked by breakers, and when westward of them the sea will be somewhat broken. When westward of Cape Lookout Shoals, do not shoal the water to less than 8 fathoms until Cape Lookout lighthouse bears eastward of 41° true (NE. mag.). Then give the western side of the cape a berth of over 1 mile, passing well westward of the gas and bell buoy marking the end of the unfinished breakwater. When northward of the gas and bell buoy and Cape Lookout lighthouse bears 105o true (ESE. 14 E. mag.) steer for and anchor as recommended above.

BEAUFORT HARBOR

is the southern entrance to the inland waterway between Beaufort and Norfolk Harbors and is the most important harbor on the coast between Cape Henry and Cape Fear. The most prominent and easily recognized objects are the standpipe near the large hotel at the eastern end of Morehead City, the large yellow Marine Biological Station, on Pivers Island, near Beaufort, and the water tank in Beaufort.

Core Creek is a part of the inland waterway between Beaufort Harbor and Pamlico Sound and is described on pages 167 and 168.

Newport River, the approach to the Clubfoot Canal, is a broad shallow stream emptying into the head of the harbor. The canal is good for a depth of 31/2 feet at high water.

The entrance to Beaufort Harbor is about 71/2 miles west-northwestward of Cape Lookout lighthouse; it is obstructed by a shifting bar which extends nearly 11/2 miles seaward. Dredging is occasionally done to obtain a channel 300 feet wide and 20 feet deep acros the bar; shoaling is liable to occur soon after dredging. In 1921 the controlling depth was 14 feet. Ample depth for the class of vessels using the inland passage can be expected at all times. The channel is marked by range lights and buoys. Inside the bar there is a depth of 3 to 512 fathoms in the channel and secure anchorage for vessels.

Beaufort, a town on the eastern side of the harbor, is the terminus of a railroad and has communication by telegraph and telephone. There is no anchorage near the town, but there are several small wharves to which a draft of 6 feet can be taken at low water. A small supply of coal is kept on hand, and larger quantities can be had by giving notice well in advance.

Beaufort is reached from southward through a dredged channel 100 feet wide and 7 feet deep, the entrance to which is marked on its west side by Shark Shoal light (horizontally striped structure off the south end of a stone jetty on Shark Shoal). From the entrance the channel leads northward along the jetty, then to pass eastward of Reids Creek light (black structure), then curves northeastward to the

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