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northwest end of Town Marsh, then along the southeast side of the marshy islet northward of Town Marsh, and then northward for the passage between Pivers Island (marked by several large yellow buildings) and Beaufort until up to the small wharf at the western end of the town. Here a channel 200 feet wide and 10 feet deep runs southeastward along the wharves, and another channel leads northward past the railroad wharf.

A dredged channel 60 feet wide and 9 feet deep leads northward from Beaufort through Gallant Channel to the main channel of the inland waterway between Beaufort Harbor and Pamlico Sound. The channel is crossed at Beaufort by a drawbridge (opening 60 feet wide), from which it trends northward for 38 mile, to the fish factory wharf, then northwestward for 1/2 mile toward Newport Marshes upper light to a lighted beacon, then 34o true (NE. 5/8 N. mag.) for nearly 5, mile to lighted beacon 2, and then 348° true (N. 34 W. mag.) for 7 mile, to Russells Creek light, on the west side of the main channel of the inland waterway. The channel is not difficult at low water, the sides of the cut then showing by a difference in the color of the water.

A channel has been dredged 5 feet deep from the wharves at Beaufort eastward through Taylors Creek to Core Sound at Lenoxville Point. It is marked

by beacons at the western entrance and a light at the eastern entrance.

Morehead City, on the western side of the harbor, has communication by railroad, telegraph, and telephone, and is a shipping point for oysters, fish, and clams. The railroad wharf extends to deep water of the channel on the west side of the harbor near the drawbridge, and both are prominent. A channel 10 feet deep, with a least width of 100 feet, leads from Beaufort Harbor to the wharves of the town. From near buoy No. 3 in Bogue Sound the channel trends about 320° true (NW. 34 N. mag.) for the cupola of the hotel until abreast a spindle on the port hand, then 293° true (NW. by W. 5s W. mag.) close to the end of the hotel wharf, and then along the wharves.

Anchorage can be had in the channel of Beaufort Harbor from Fort Macon to the railroad bridge, and vessels of 8 feet or less draft can anchor, convenient to Morehead City, in the channel of Bogue Sound westward of buoy No. 3.

Pilots will come out to a vessel if the sea will permit them to cross the bar. They can also be obtained here to take vessels along the coast and into the inlets between Beaufort and Cape Fear.

Supplies.-Coal, gasoline, ice, fresh water, provisions, and some ship chandlery can be obtained at Morehead City or Beaufort. Repairs can be made to small craft, which can be hauled out at both places.

Hospital.—The nearest marine hospital is at Norfolk, Va. At Beaufort there is a relief station of the United States Public Health Service.

Storm warnings are displayed at Beaufort and Morehead City.

Currents.—The tidal currents in the entrance run with considerable velocity, especially during spring tides. They generally follow the direction of the channel, but on the last quarter of the flood and first of the ebb they are apt to set across the shoals in the entrance.

DIRECTIONS.—From Cape Lookout Shoals light vessel a 327° true (NNW.5/8 W. mag.) course made good for 2572 miles will lead 134 miles westward of the red buoy on the end of Cape Lookout Shoals, and to Entrance gas buoy.

From Frying Pan Shoals light vessel a 40° true (NE. 18 N. mag.) course made good for 86 miles will lead to Entrance gas buoy.

A good lookout for Entrance gas buoy should be kept as soon as Cape Lookout lighthouse bears southward of 97° true (E. by S. mag.). The prominent standpipe in Morehead City bearing 338° true (N. by W. 5/8 W. mag.), or the large yellow building of the Biological Station near Beaufort bearing 6o true (N. 78 E. mag.), will lead to the gas buoy.

From the Entrance gas buoy steer 0° true (N. 38 E. mag.) with Fort Macon range lights in line ahead (fixed white), until up to black can buoy “3,” which is at the turning point from Fort Macon range to Bird Island range. The rear beacon in daytime will be seen against the sky, on top of Fort Macon. In the afternoon the front object is not easily picked up. From this buoy steer 32o true (NE. 34 N. mag.) with Bird Island range lights in line ahead (fixed red, front object three pile red beacon, rear object skeleton tower), pass 100 yards northwestward of nun buoy " 2" and to a position about 300 yards southward of Fort Macon Spit bell buoy. Then gradually haul northward, to pass about midway between the bell buoy and a red and black nun buoy northeastward of it.

From this position steer 323° true (NNW.78 W. mag.) to a position about 100 yards westward of nun buoy No. 4. Then steer 287° true (WNW. 18 W. mag.), and give the shore above Fort Macon a berth of 150 yards. Leave buoy No. 6 on the starboard hand, and follow the marsh at a distance of 125 yards. When the outer end of the railroad wharf bears 338° true (N. by W. 5/8 W. mag.), steer for it, which will lead eastward of the horizontally striped buoy on the north side at the entrance of the channel leading to Bogue Sound. There is a middle ground of 11 feet 400 yards south-southeastward of the buoy, which narrows the channel at this point and vessels of greater draft must exercise care in passing here.

For directions and descriptions of the inland waters to Pamlico Sound see page 167.

COAST FROM CAPE LOOKOUT TO CAPE FEAR. The coast extends about 8 miles in a northwesterly direction from Cape Lookout and then curves gradually westward and southward to Cape Fear. This coast, nearly 100 miles in length, is similar to that between Cape Hatteras and Cape Lookout, but the strips of land forming it are separated from the mainland by much narrower bodies of water, and consequently the thick woods of the mainland can be seen from much farther seaward. That part of the Atlantic Ocean bordering on this curved coast is known as Onslow Bay.

The depths along this stretch of coast are very regular; 4 to 6 fathoms can be taken to within 1 mile of the beach; the 10-fathom curve extends nearly parallel to, and at an average distance of about 8 miles from, the shore until eastward of Cape Fear, where it bends southward and eastward around Frying Pan Shoals. The 20-fathom curve is from 20 to 45 miles offshore.

Inside passages.-Westward of Beaufort Harbor there is an inside passage as far as Bear Inlet for boats of 4 feet draft, high water, and as far as New River Inlet for 3 feet draft at high water; a draft of 142 feet can be carried at high tide as far as Wrightsville Inlet, but this section is never used by strangers. There are several inlets between Beaufort Harbor and Cape Fear through which 6 or 7 feet at high tide can be taken to sheltered anchorage, but all are obstructed by shifting bars on which the sea breaks when at all rough.

With local knowledge, a smooth sea, and high water, boats of 5 feet or less draft can enter Cape Fear River through Corncake Inlet, and boats of about 8 feet or less draft can cross Frying Pan Shoals by the swash channel. Otherwise all vessels must pass outside Frying Pan Shoals, by which route the distance from Entrance gas buoy off Beaufort Harbor to smooth water in Cape Fear River, is 112 miles. Pilots for the inlets, inland passages, and open waters between Beaufort and Charleston can be had at Beaufort.

Bogue Sound is shallow, extends 21 miles westward along the coast from Beaufort Inlet to Bogue Inlet, and is separated from the ocean by Bogue Banks, a wooded beach 1/8 to 34 mile wide. The sound has a width of about 2 miles near its middle, but narrows at each end; its western end is partly closed by marshy islets. A channel, partly dredged, extends through Bogue Sound from Beaufort Harbor to Bogue Inlet, and is navigable for a draft of 3 feet at low water and 4 feet at high water.

The channel is buoyed from Beaufort Harbor nearly to Carolina City (marked by fish factory and several mills and farther west by radio towers), a distance of 142 miles. Westward of Carolina City the channel follows the north shore at a distance of 1/8 to 14 mile for 9 miles to the mouth of Broad Creek, and is marked by lighted beacons. About 112 miles westward of Carolina City there is a light which marks the north side of a short dredged cut through a shoal; there are spoil banks on the south side of this cut. After passing through cut head west-southwestward for 1 mile to a position 12 mile southward of a lone tree on the north shore and enter a dredged cut, marked by a spoil bank on the south side. Follow through this cut in a general westerly course for 2 miles, and continue the same heading until up to a dredged cut west of Gales Creek and marked by a spoil bank on the south side. There is a prominent house with a red roof with a dock in front just east of the mouth of the creek. Go through the cut toward lighted beacon 1 (black slatted day mark on pile) south of the mouth of Broad Creek. (The creek is crossed by an arched bridge 14 mile above its mouth.) Pass northward of the lighted beacon 1 and follow the dredged cut marked by the aids, south to beacon 2, north of beacon 3, south of beacon 4, and north of beacon 5. Between beacons 5 and 7 the spoil bank is visible in some places on both sides of the channel and between 7 and 8 they are out of water practically continuously on both sides.

From Guthries Point the waterway follows the natural channel, and is well marked by lighted beacons for 142 miles to Hunting Island. From the light on the south end of 'Hunting Island the waterway leads westward to the marshy islets, and then between them and the wooded north shore for 1/2 mile, then leaves a small and a large island to starboard, and follows the well-defined channel be

tween the islands for 34 mile to the mouth of the channel leading westward to Swansboro, marked on the east side by a red day mark.

Boats bound to Bogue Inlet should continue past this beacon and follow the main channel southward for 58 mile, then westward for 12 mile, passing northward of two islets, to the marsh on the west side, then southward to the inlet. The shoals in the vicinity of the inlet are subject to change, and no directions can be given. The buoys and the appearance of the water are the best guides.

Boats bound to Swansboro, to Bear Inlet, or the inland waterways beyond Swansboro should enter the channel southward of the red day mark mentioned above, and follow it westward to its outlet in Main Channel, then continue westward, past a broad opening leading toward Swansboro, and into the opening leading westward toward a house on Huggins Island. Continue in mid-channel westward to the island, follow this northwestward, and then steer northward in a dredged channel, marked by spoil banks, to the waterfront of Swansboro.

Provisions and gasoline are obtainable at Swansboro, and there is a railway for hauling out boats 60 feet long and 4 feet draft, and machine shops for ordinary repairs to motors.

Tides in Bogue Sound vary from about 312 feet average rise and fall at each end, near the inlets, to about 1 foot where the tides meet near the middle. Strong south or southwest winds may raise the tide a foot or even more and north to northwest winds lower it a corresponding amount. From Swansboro to New River Inlet there is an inside


which has been improved in places by dredging to a minimum width of 40 feet in the cuts and a minimum depth of 4 feet at a mean high tide; it is used by boats of 3 feet draft. Some deterioration has taken place, especially near Browns Inlet, where the channel is almost closed by a shoal. The passage is not marked, and although there are evidences of dredging in places, a stranger may encounter some difficulty in following the channel.

Tides in this passage vary from an average rise and fall of about 31/2 feet at the inlets to 14/2 feet at points remote from the inlets; the latter may be increased to 2 feet by strong southerly winds.

From Swansboro the waterway leads southwestward between an islet marked by a shanty, and the mainland keeps well in the bight westward of the islet and follows the shore southward and westward to the mouth of Queens Creek. It leads south westward across the mouth of Queens Creek and then follows a dredged channel, well marked by spoil banks, for 6 miles until close to Brown Inlet.

It follows the beach closely across Brown Inlet and then follows a very crooked natural waterway at a distance of 1/8 to 3/8 mile from the beach for about 3 miles. There are many branches, but the waterway follows the main stream, which is usually well defined. From this point to New River the waterway runs approximately parallel to the coast and is well

defined by the

evidences of dredging. In the wider passages, favor the side upon which the dredged material is deposited. The waterway crosses two open bodies of water, but is well defined by the spoil banks.

Bogue Inlet is 22 miles westward of Beaufort Harbor and 3 miles southward of the town of Swansboro, which can be seen from outside. The inlet is between a high wooded ridge on the west and a

long, low spit on the east; on the inside of the spit, 1 mile eastward of the inlet is a Coast Guard station, which can be seen from the outside. The entrance is obstructed by a shifting bar, extending about 1/2 mile seaward, through which the channel depth varies from a minimum of 3 feet at low tide in some years to a maximum of 14 feet at high tide in other years; in October, 1921, there was a depth of 3 feet on the bar. The tides have a range of about 31/2 feet on the bar, and high water occurs 2 hours earlier on the bar than at the head of the marshes inside. The channel is marked by a sea buoy, 42 mile outside the bar, and by small buoys on the bar and in the entrance. There are no regular pilots; some one familiar with the channel may sometimes be had from the Coast Guard station. Fishermen are sometimes present outside and can be followed in. A stranger should wait for a rising tide and should never attempt to enter when the bar is breaking; the bar buoys can not be seen when there is any sea on.

The channels inside the inlet are subject to considerable change and no directions for navigating them can be given. A depth of about 3 feet at low water and 4 feet at high water, can be brought to the inlet from eastward, as described under Bogue Sound preceding.

From the inlet to Swansboro, a distance of 4 miles, the channel has a depth of about 3 feet at low water. The channel is obstructed by shoals, and at high tide the marshes on each side are covered, rendering it difficult for a stranger to follow.

White Oak River, for a distance of 4 miles above Swansboro, has a width of 1 mile or more, through which there is a narrow, tortuous channel between flats and oyster rocks; farther up the river is narrow and leads between marshes. The channel is marked by red and black stakes Stella is a post office about 7 miles above Swansboro. sliding drawbridge crosses the river at the town. Boats of about 4 feet draft have towed logs on the river as far up as 6 miles above Stella. Lumber is towed through Bogue Sound to Morehead City.

Bear Inlet, 31/2 miles westward of Bogue Inlet, is used considerably as a harbor by local boats and to some extent by pleasure craft bound to and from the inside waters. The entrance is about 1/4 mile wide between high sand dunes. It has a broad, straight channel, and is marked by buoys; in 1921, there was about 7 feet on the bar at high water. There is good anchorage close to the beach on the eastern side, just inside the inlet.

Boats bound to Bear Inlet inside can carry the best water (3 feet at low water and 6 feet at high water) by following the inland waterway as described on page 56 to Swansboro. From here the best water leads westward, between an islet marked by a shanty and the mainland, and then southward, following the main channel leading westward of Higgins and Dudley Island, to the beach 12 mile westward of Bogue Inlet,

then follows a narrow channel westward, parallel to the beach, to Bear Inlet. Boats of 3 feet draft can go direct from Bogue Inlet to Bear Inlet, just inside the beach, at high water only.

Brown Inlet, 3 miles westward of Bear Inlet, had a depth of 3 or 4 feet in 1916; it is little used. The entrance is similar in appearance to Bear Inlet.

New River Inlet, 35 miles westward of Beaufort Harbor, is not marked, is considered dangerous by local pilots, and should not be

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