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Channels.—South Jetty Channel parallels the South Jetty for a distance of about 112 miles to the intersection with the Middle Ground range line and is marked by range lights and buoys. The channel is about 400 feet wide and 18 feet or more deep.
Middle Ground Channel is a dredged cut about 500 feet wide with a least depth of 18 feet and is marked by range lights and buoys. It leads in a northwesterly direction from the South Jetty Channel to the deep water of the bay.
North Jetty Channel has a least depth of about 9 feet and leads south of the north jetty in a west direction to the Middle Ground range. This channel is not marked and is used only small local craft.
Western Channel leads along the western side of the bay. It is 400 feet wide and has a least depth of about 13 feet. It is marked on its southwest and west sides by lights which are 250 feet from the middle of the channel.
Pilots.—Pilotage is compulsory for certain vessels. There is no regular pilot boat, but pilots will come out upon signal. For pilot rates see Appendix.
Towboats are employed by sailing vessels and may be had from Georgetown by making the signal when outside the băr.
Anchorages. Good anchorage can be found anywhere in the bay between Georgetown lighthouse and South Island light. There is a limited anchorage in the upper part of the bay off the mouth of Sampit River. On account of the limited swinging room only small craft anchor in the Sampit River abreast Georgetown.
Quarantine.—The quarantine boarding station is on South Island on the western side of the bay, about 138 miles above Georgetown lighthouse.
Hospital.- The nearest marine hospital is at Savannah, Ga. At Georgetown there is a relief station of the United States Public Health Service.
Supplies.- Provisions, some ship-chandler's stores, and fresh water can be obtained at Georgetown.
Repairs.--The nearest place for repairs to large vessels or machinery of steamers is at Charleston. There is a marine railway at Georgetown 110 feet long and 22 feet wide. The draft that can be hauled out at high water is 5 feet forward and 7 feet aft.
Storm warnings are displayed at Georgetown lighthouse, South Island, and Georgetown.
Tides.--The mean rise and fall is 31/2 feet. High water occurs at Georgetown lighthouse 9 minutes after high water and low water 25 minutes after low water at Charleston. At Georgetown high water occurs 1 hour 2 minutes and low water 1 hour 16 minutes later than at Georgetown lighthouse.
Currents. The tidal currents in Winyah Bay vary in velocity with the state of the rivers emptying into it, as well as with the stage of the tide. Their velocity is greatest between the jetties, where, at strength, it is 212 to 312 knots. The set is diagonally across the south jetty. During freshets in the rivers, also with westerly winds, the buoys between the jetties are nearly towed under at times on the ebb. Off South Island the average velocity is from 2 to 21/2 knots, increasing somewhat with the springs. Between North and South Islands the set of the flood current is toward Mud Bay until past the north point of the latter, when the set is more westward. North
ward of Frazier Point the flood sets into the channel eastward of Hare Island and also into Waccamaw River. In the western channel the current sets generally fair with the course to be steered.
DIRECTIONS.—The tidal currents have a velocity of about 2 to 3 knots at strength and do not set fair with the channel between the jetties. In a heavy southerly, or easterly sea large vessels require careful handling and should take a pilot if one can come out to them. It is advisable for strangers to wait until daylight before entering:
From eastward.–From Frying Pan Shoals 'gas and whistling buoy make good a 258° true (W. 78 S. mag.) course for 751/2 miles to Georgetown whistling buoy.
From Frying Pan Shoals light vessel make good a 25° true (WSW. 12 W. mag.) course for 67 miles to Georgetown whistling buoy.
From Cape Fear River entrance gas and whistling buoy make good a 233o true (SW.78 W. mag.) course for 64 miles to Georgetown whistling buoy.
From southwestward. From Charleston light vessel make good a 60° true (NE. by E. 12 E, mag.) course for 37 miles to a position 42 mile southeastward of Cape Romain gas and whistling buoy and 872 miles 95° true (E. 34 S. mag.) of Cape Romain lighthouse. Then steer 3o true (N. 12 E. mag.) for 7 miles; Winyah Bay South Jetty light will then bear 324° true (NW. by N. mag.). Then steer 336° true (NNW. mag.) for 5 miles to the perpendicularly striped nun buoy off the entrance.
From Sea to Georgetown.-From Georgetown whistling buoy steer 254° true (WSW. 34 W. mag.) for 134 miles to the perpendicularly striped nun buoy. Then steer 270° (W. 18 N. mag.) on the line of the South Jetty Channel range lights (black and white day marks) passing southward of the buoys, until northward of the middle mound on the south breakwater and south of nun buoy “4”; then steer 285° true (WNW. 12 W.mag.) on the Middle Ground Channel range (white day marks) until a little over 14 mile from the front light, or at night in the red sector of the South Jetty Channel front light. Then pass 1/8 mile northeast of the front light of the Middle Ground Channel range and bring it in range astern with South Jetty Channel range rear light (both with black day marks) on a 3370 true (N. by W.78 W. mag.) course, and leave the shore of North Island about 300 yards on the starboard hand.
When about 134 miles past Georgetown lighthouse and up to the old quarantine station steer about 344o true (NW. mag.), following the western shore at a distance of about 400 yards. Pass 250 yards north ward of South Island light and steer 288° true (WNW. 14 W. mag.) into the cut, passing 100 feet southward of buoy No. 4. Then be guided by the lights which are about 12 mile apart and mark the southwest side of the dredged channel, 250 feet from its middle. From a position 250 feet eastward of light No. 15 steer 70 true (N. 34 E mag.), passing about 100 yards westward of light No. 2. When nearly up to buoy No. 10, steer 27° true (NNE. 12 E. mag.), passing 100 yards westward of 'it, with light No. 4 a little on the starboard bow and buoy No. 5 on the port bow.
When the Sampit River range lights (white structures) are in range, bring them astern on a 335o true (NNW.18 W. mag.) course,
passing through the dredged cut into the river, and then favor the eastern bank to Georgetown. Vessels should go to the wharves.
Remarks and dangers.-- There are no dangers eastward of the entrance. The dangers southward of the entrance are described with the coast from Winyah Bay to Charleston. The south jetty is covered at high water, with the exception of the three mounds on it, which are 5/8 mile apart. Winyah Bay South Jetty light, on the mound at the end of the jetty, and Georgetown lighthouse are described with the coast preceding. The Middle Ground is extending seaward, and its eastern end should be given a good berth when off the entrance.
COAST FROM WINYAH BAY TO CHARLESTON HARBOR.
Between Winyah Bay and Charleston Harbor there is an inland waterway good for vessels of 5 feet draft at high water. It is described in the Inside Route Pilot, New York to Key West.
Santee River is one of the largest rivers of South Carolina, and empties into the ocean between Winyah Bay and Cape Romain. There are two mouths, known respectively as North Santee and South Santee; both are obstructed by shifting bars, with little depth, as shown on the chart. Boats enter the river from Winyah Bay through the Estherville-Minim Creek Canal, and the inland passage to Charleston extends westward from the river through Alligator Creek. Santee River is formed by the junction of the Wateree and Congaree Rivers, 124 miles above its mouth, and is navigable throughout. Wateree River is navigable 58 miles to the town of Camden and Congaree River 44 miles to the town of Columbia. The rivers are under improvement by the removal of snags and shoals to maintain a depth of 4 feet at low water to these towns.
East Bank, with 8 feet over it, is the southeasterly end of the shoals, which extend 4 miles from shore southward of the entrance of Winyah Bay. The southeasterly end of the bank is marked by a buoy, which lies nearly 2 miles 170° true (S. 34 E. mag.) of Winyah Bay South Jetty light.
Between East Bank and Cape Romain shoals extend 2 to 3 miles from shore; spots with 15 feet over them extend 534 miles from shore in one place, the outer one lying 534 miles southward of Winyah Bay South Jetty light. Farther out is broken ground with 5 fathoms and less, which extends 1234 miles from shore. There is a wreck, marked by a buoy, on one of the shoaler places so far found, lying about 14 miles 92°'true (E. 1/4 S. mag.) of Cape Romain lighthouse and nearly that distance 159o true (S. by E. 34 E. mag.) of Georgetown lighthouse; there is a depth of 334 fathoms northwestward of and near the wreck. Another wreck (Hector) lies 134 miles southward and is marked by a nun buoy. The southeastern extremity of this broken ground is marked by Cape Romain Gas and Whistling buoy. This broken ground has not been closely examined, and deep-draft vessels should pass outside of the gas buoy, giving the coast a berth of over 12 miles.
Cape Romain Shoal extends nearly 4 miles southeastward from Cape Romain, and is marked off its end, where the depth on the shoal is 7 to 10 feet, by a buoy. There is a depth of 434 fathoms 21/4 miles
south-southeastward of the buoy, while the 6-fathom curve is 3 miles southward.
Cape Romain lighthouse is an octagonal, pyramidal tower, lower half white, upper half faces alternately black and white, and black top. The light is flashing white (light 5.0 seconds, eclipse 55.0 seconds), 154 feet above the water, and visible 19 miles.
Cape Romain Harbor is a good anchorage for small craft inside of Cape Island (Cape Romain). There are two entrances, both unmarked, one from eastward around the north end of Cape Island, with a depth of 4 feet at low water, and the other from southward, leading westward of Cape Island, with a depth of about 5 feet and not marked. Cape Romain Harbor communicates with the inland passage to Santee River and Winyah Bay eastward and to Bull Bay and Charleston westward. The harbor is used only by small local craft, and it is not safe for a stranger to attempt to make the anchorage, as the shoals at both entrances are subject to changes. A stranger seeking an anchorage should go to Winyah Bay or Bull Bay. The mean rise and fall of tides is 5 feet.
Bull Bay is broad and shallow, with numerous shoals, some bare at high water, but there is a narrow channel, which is occasionally used as an anchorage, on its southwest side. There is a depth of about 1042 feet at low water in the channel over the bar, and the anchorage is easy of access for sailing vessels in southerly and easterly winds, if the sea is not too heavy. With a smooth sea vessels of 8 feet draft at low water and 12 feet at high water can be taken in to the anchorage. The perpendicularly striped sea buoy lies 3 miles southeastward of the eastern end of Bull Island, the southwestern point at the entrance. From the sea buoy steer 314o true (NW. mag.) for 134 miles. Then steer about 342o true (N. by W. 12 W. mag.) to a position 72 mile eastward of the east end of Bull Island. A shoal on which a least depth of 2 feet has been found extends 38 mile off the point. It is close to the channel, but is generally marked by breakers. Then follow the shore of Bull Island at a distance of about 300 yards, being guided by the lead and the appearance of the shoals. Anchor in the channel when well sheltered from the sea off Jacks Creek, or smaller boats can go up Bull Creek into Wharf Creek opposite Harrison's wharf.
There is an unmarked channel, with a least depth of 7 feet at low water into Five Fathom Creek, around the western end of Raccoon Key.
Bull Breakers extend 414 miles southward from the shore on the southwest side at the entrance of Bull Bay, and are marked off the southeasterly end by a buoy which lies 542 miles 168o true (S. by E. mag.) of the eastern end of Bull Island.
Between Bull Bay and Charleston there are several shoal entrances over shifting bars that are not used except by local boats.
Price Inlet, 542 miles westward of Bull Bay, has an entrance depth of 5 feet in a narrow, unmarked channel. It is little used.
Capers Inlet, between Capers Island and Dewees Island, has about 5 feet over the bar, but the entrance is narrow and there are many shoals inside the bar which are dangerous, because the sea does not break on them.
Dewees Inlet, between Dewees Island and Isle of Palms, has a least depth of 6 feet in the channel over the bar. It is the best inlet be
tween Charleston and Bull Bay, but is little used except by local fishing boats.
Isle of Palms is a pleasure resort about 4 miles eastward of the entrance of Charleston Harbor. There is a prominent water tank here. There is communication by electric railway with Mount Pleasant, and thence by ferry to Charleston.
Breach Inlet has a little water on the bar, and is used only by small boats. The draw in the bridge across it is not operated.
Rattlesnake Shoal lies a little over 3 miles from shore southeastward of Isle of Palms, and east-northeastward of the entrance between the jetties of Charleston Harbor. It is about 2 miles long east and west, has a least depth of 9 feet, and is marked by a can buoy at its eastern end and a nun buoy at its western end.
Charleston light vessel is moored in a depth of 7 fathoms, 512 miles off the ends of the jetties at the entrance of Charleston Harbor. The vessel has a white hull, with “ Charleston ” on each side, and two masts with black cylindrical grating at each masthead. The light is a group flashing (2 flashes every 6 seconds) white, 44 feet above the water, and visible 12 miles. The fog signal is an air diaphone, blast 3 seconds, silent interval 57 seconds. If the whistle is disabled, a bell will sound 3 strokes in 3 seconds, silent interval 3 seconds, 4 strokes in 4 seconds, silent 50 seconds.
Charleston lighthouse is 4 miles southwestward of the entrance of Charleston Harbor. The structure is a black and white horizontally banded conical tower, black at top. The light is fixed white, 155 feet above the water, and visible 19 miles.
is 260 miles southwestward of Cape Hatteras and about 65 miles northeastward of Savannah entrance. The harbor is the approach to the city of Charleston and to Cooper and Ashley Rivers; it is easy of access either day or night in clear weather, and is one of the best harbors of refuge on the southern coast. The port has a large foreign and coastwise trade, the principal articles of commerce being cotton and cotton goods, lumber, petroleum products, and fertilizer material.
The entrance is between two converging jetties, which extend nearly 3 miles seaward across the bar. In 1921 there was a straight channel across the bar of 30 or more feet at low water, with a least width of 400 feet. There is a projected channel of 40 feet and 1,000 feet wide. The channel is marked by Charleston light vessel, range lights, and buoys.
Prominent features.-Eastward of the entrance, on the Isle of Palms, is a water tank, which shows prominently from seaward. On the southern side of the entrance is Charleston lighthouse and about 512 miles southeastward from the entrance between the jetties Charleston light-vessel is moored in 7 fathoms of water. On the eastern side of the entrance is the village of Moultrieville, and Fort Sumter is on the west side of the channel inside the entrance. The spires and houses of the city of Charleston will be seen from outside the bar when the entrance is fairly opened out. At night Charleston light will be seen before the light vessel is made by vessels approach