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ing the entrance from southward, and will be sighted at about the same time as the light vessel when approaching from northward or eastward.

Cooper River enters Charleston Harbor from northward and on the eastern side of the city of Charleston; the navy yard is on its west bank about 6 miles above the customhouse in the city. There are no towns or villages of importance, the principal landings being at lumber mills and phosphate works. The river is navigable for vessels of 30 feet draft_to the navy yard and to the port terminal 3 miles above it. It is marked by range lights, beacons, and buoys. The channel westward of Drum Island through Town Creek is marked by lights and is used by vessels going alongside piers westward of the island. The channel of Cooper River is good for a distance of about 22 miles above the navy yard to where the river forks at what is called the Tee. Vessels have loaded to 15 feet at Strawberry, on the western branch just above the Tee; a draft of 7 feet can be taken about 15 miles above the Tee to Springfield Landing and 5 feet about 20 miles farther to Wadboo Bridge, the head of navigation. A draft of 7 feet can be taken up the eastern branch about 4 miles above the Tee to the chapel, and launches can go about 13 miles farther. Distances given above the Tee are approximate only.

Wando River empties into Cooper River eastward of Drum Island; a draft of 7 feet can be taken to Wando, about 12 miles from the cusmomhouse wharf at Charleston, but in places the channel is very narrow; 5 feet can be taken 8 miles farther to Garon Bridge (closed), the head of navigation.

Shipyard Creek empties on the west side of Cooper River above Drum Island. There are a number of manufactories on the creek, where vessels load phosphate and lumber.

A fixed white light, on a white slatted structure is on the north point of the entrance to the creek. A channel with a depth of 14 feet leads into the creek.

Ashley River empties into Charleston Harbor from northwestward on the southwest side of Charleston. There are no towns or villages of importance; the principal landings are at numerous phosphate works, all of which have wharves extending to the channel. There is an available depth of 20 feet at low water in a channel of 100 feet or better up to Standard Wharf, the upper phosphate plant near Duck Island. Above Standard Wharf a least depth of about 7 feet at low water or 13 feet at high water can be taken a distance of about 8 miles to Lambs. Above Lambs there is a depth of 7 feet in the channel for a distance of 5 miles and thence 3 feet for a distance of 112 miles to Greggs. Bacons Bridge (closed), which is usually considered the head of navigation, is 51/2 miles above Greggs. The tides have a range of 5 to 6 feet to Greggs. Four drawbridges with openings 78 to 80 feet wide cross the river; the first is at Charleston about 2 miles above the Battery; the second is the S. A. L. Railway bridge about 3 miles above the Battery; the third is the A. C. L. Railroad bridge at Bees Ferry; and the fourth is at Magnolia Garden, 1 mile below Lambs. The bridge at Bees Ferry requires caution when passing up the river on the ebb current, which sets across the end of the draw; vessels can pass on either side of the draw pier.

page 174.

Wappoo Creek, on the west side of Ashley River 114 miles above the Battery, is the entrance to the inland passage leading southward. The entrance is marked by a light and range beacons.

Charleston is situated at the head of the harbor at the confluence of the Cooper and Ashley Rivers. The principal wharves are on the eastern water front of the city extending along the west bank of Cooper River. The distance from the ends of the jetties to the city wharves is between 7 and 8 miles.

Anchorages.-On account of submarine cables vessels are cautioned not to anchor northeastward of Fort Sumter, between it and Sullivan Island. Areas of prohibited anchorages are described in the Appendix, page 178.

Lower anchorage has good holding ground, but is somewhat exposed to southeast winds; this also applies to the anchorage southeastward of the city. The best anchorage is in the mouth of Cooper River about 1 mile above the city. The quarantine anchorage is on the south side of South Channel abreast Fort Johnson and is marked by two yellow buoys. The anchorage and berthing of vessels is under the control and supervision of the harbor master, and masters are required to report to him within 24 hours after arrival. See

Quarantine.—Vessels subject to visitation by the health officer will be boarded when off the quarantine anchorage at Fort Johnson.

Pilots will be found cruising outside the bar; the limit of their cruising ground is 30 miles from the entrance. Pilotage is compulsory for certain vessels. For pilot rates see Appendix, page 177. Vessels desiring a pilot and not having obtained one, can anchor about 2 miles northwestward of the light vessel until boarded by one. Pilots for the Inland Passage can be obtained in Charleston.

Towboats will sometimes be found cruising outside the bar; the deeper draft sailing vessels tow in and out. All seagoing sailing vessels bound into Cooper and Ashley_Rivers employ towboats either outside the bar or at Charleston. Towboats can always be had by making signal while outside the bar, at the wharves, or may be ordered from the towboat offices in the city.

Wharves. At some of the wharves deep-draft vessels lie aground in the soft mud at low water. The Southern Railway coal pier is west of the northern end of Drum Island. There is a cotton compress and warehouse company 6 miles up the Cooper River which has a marginal wharf 700 feet long: About 9 miles up the Cooper River from Charleston are the Charleston port terminals. They consist of marginal wharves 2,030 feet long, extensive warehouse and railroad connections, and some facilities for rapid interchange of freight between ships and railroads. A 30-foot channel leads to them. There are no publicly owned wharves in the city, but there is a movement to estabÎish city terminals at foot of Columbus Street (west of Drum Island). The regulations in regard to fires on board vessels lying at the cotton wharves are very strict. For harbor fees, see Appendix, page 177.

Supplies.—Coal, either anthracite or bituminous, in large quantities for steamers, can be had alongside the wharves or from lighters in the stream. Fuel oil may be had. Water can be had alongside the wharves or from water boats. Provisions and ship chandler's stores can be obtained in the city.

Repairs to machinery of steamers and to hulls of vessels can be made; there are marine railways here capable of hauling out a vessel up to 1,500 tons. There is a floating dry dock of 8,000 gross tons' capacity, and will take a vessel 450 feet long and 22 feet draft.

Storm warnings are made from the customhouse at Charleston and at Moultrieville.

United States Public Health Service.-Medical attendance is furnished by a medical officer of the service. Seamen requiring longcontinued hospital treatment are sent to the marine hospital at Savannah, Ga.; for short terms of hospital treatment they are sent to one of the hospitals in the city.

Tides. See the tide tables for the Atlantic coast of the United States, in which the tides are predicted for every day at Charleston. At Fort Sumter the tides occur approximately 15 minutes earlier than at Charleston. The mean range at Fort Sumter is 5.2 feet.

The tidal currents off the entrance are revolving (see the results of observations at Charleston light vessel on p. 33).

The tidal currents between the jetties and in Charleston Harbor generally set fair with the channel near its axis. At a point about 1 mile outside Fort Sumter, branches from the main ebb current set through the openings between the jetties and the shore with a velocity of about 2 knots at strength. The maximum observed velocities at the strength of the ebb are about 2.6 knots between the jetties, 3 knots between Fort Sumter and Fort Moultrie, and 2 knots in the South Channel and off the eastern front of Charleston; the velocity of the flood current is less than the ebb, depending on the freshet flow from the rivers. Slack water occurs between the jetties about 1 hour after high or low water at Charleston, and between Fort Sumter and Fort Moultrie 1 hour and 30 minutes, and South Channel 2 hours after high and low water at Charleston.

DIRECTIONS.From northward.—The safer course, and the one generally used by large, deep-draft vessels, is to pass outside of Frying Pan Shoals gas and bell buoy. From Cape Lookout Shoals light vessel a 230° true (SW. 34 W. mag.) course for 78 miles will lead to Frying Pan Shoals gas and whistle buoy, or a 237° true (SW. by W. 38 W. mag.) course made good for 84 miles will lead to Frying Pan Shoals light vessel.

From Frying Pan Shoals gas and whistle buoy make good a 242° true (SW. by W. 34 W. mag.) course for 90 miles; or, from Frying Pan Shoals light vessel make good a 236° true (SW. by 4 W. mag.) course for 83 miles. Either course should lead in a least depth of about 12 fathoms to a position with Cape Romain lighthouse bearing 326° true (NW. by N. mag.) distant 17 miles. The only danger is the broken ground extending off between Winyah Bay and Cape Romain, on which there is a depth of 334 fathoms near the wreck lying 11 miles from shore, which is marked by Cape Romain gas and whistling buoy.

From this position a 255o true (WSW. 7. W. mag.) course made good for 25 miles should lead to a position 2 miles east-southeastward of Charleston light vessel. If uncertain of the position keep in a depth of over 8 fathoms until the light vessel is sighted. The dangers between Winyah Bay and Charleston are described with the coast preceding.

108136°—22

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From southward. From a position 2 miles southeastward of Martins Industry gas and whistling buoy a 48° true (NE. 38 E.mag.) course made good for 51 miles will lead in a least depth of about 7 fathoms to a position 2 miles southeastward of Charleston light vessel.

From Charleston light vessel steer 299o true (NW. by W. 38 W. mag.) on the Main Channel range (Fort Sumter lighthouse in line with St. Philips Church spire), and pass midway between the buoys which mark the sides of the dredged channel until nearly 2 miles inside the ends of the jetties and up to the intersection with the Mount Pleasant range line. Fort Sumter light (fixed white) is on a skeleton structure close to the north side of Fort Sumter; the latter is a stone structure. At night a flashing white light every 2 seconds exhibited from a white pyramidal square tower, 1,350 yards 119° from Fort Sumter light, serves as the front range object.

Leave can buoy No. 17 about 200 feet on the port hand and steer 317° true (NW. 14 N. mag.) with the Mount Pleasant range lights (pyramidal, black, slatted structures) in line ahead, until abreast Fort Sumter and up to the intersection with the South Channel range line. The Mount Pleasant range is hard to pick up in the daytime, except in clear weather. After leaving the Main Channel range the channel widens and so continues to Charleston, the principal dangers being marked by buoys.

Steer 270° true (W.Y N. mag.) with South Channel range lights (black structures with daymarks) in line ahead until about 14 mile past Fort Ripley Shoal (Middle Ground) lighthouse. Then haul northwestward, leave gas buoy No. 12 about 100 yards on the starboard hand, steer 337o true (NNW. mag.), and then follow the wharves at a distance of 1/4 mile or less. See Anchorages in the description preceding.

1f going to the navy yard or port terminals.-After rounding the gas and bell buoy No. 12 steer a 337o true (NNW. mag.) course until abeam of nun buoy No. 16, distant 300 yards, leaving Potts Shoal buoy No. 14, 200 yards to starboard. Then haul northward to course 2o true (N. 14. E. mag.), holding it to a position 400 yards westward of Shutes Folly Island Spit light No. 3. Then steer 11° true (N. by E. 1/8 E. mag.) for 15/8 miles, passing westward of Drum Island When abeam of Drum Island Channel rear light (white daymark, black round center on white skeleton structure on piles) starboard to meet the Drum Island Channel range, bringing it on astern, course 299o true (NW. by W. 38 W. mag.). Steer this course passing between the red and black buoys marking the channel north of Drum Island until northeastward of Drum Island North Spit light No. 8 (red square daymark on pile structure). Then steer 0° true (N. mag.) with Cooper River Lower range on ahead. When 500 yards from the front range light and Marsh Point light No. 9 is on range with Upper Marsh light No. 11 (seen over the marsh) starboard to meet the Cooper River Upper range. Bring it on astern, course 278° true (W.78 W. mag.) and continue on this range

until northward of light No. 11. Then haul northward to bring on the Navy Yard Channel range astern (front object, light No. 11; rear object, light No. 7. seen over the marsh), course 317° true (NW. 14 N. mag.). Keep somewhat east of the range in passing the navy yard wharves, if not going alongside, and when by the northern radio

tower haul northward and follow the western bank of the river. Keep close to buoy No. 32 in passing, then the western bank should be kept at a distance of not more than 150 yards off until up to the port terminals.

STONO INLET

is about 7 miles southwestward of Charleston lighthouse. The entrance of the inlet is obstructed by a shifting bar which extends 21/4 miles seaward and had 10 feet in the channel across it in 1921. A sea buoy marks the entrance. From this buoy the channel in 1921 had a west-northwesterly direction to within about 13 of a mile from the western point of the inlet. A private range was in place at that time. Inside the bar the depth in the inlet ranges from 3 to 7. fathoms.

Stono River empties into the inlet from northward, about 134 miles above the entrance. On the west bank of the river, 314 miles above the entrance of the inlet, is the village of Legareville. The river is of little commercial importance. Its upper reach, above Elliott Cut, forms part of the inland passage from Charleston to Savannah. Vessels enter the river by the inside route from Charleston.

NORTH EDISTO RIVER.

The entrance to this river is 17 miles southwestward of Charleston lighthouse and 17 miles northeastward of Hunting Island lighthouse. There is a prominent water tank on the eastern point of the entrance. The river is of little commercial importance and rarely used. Shoals extend offshore nearly 3 miles at the entrance of the river, forming a shifting bar, over which there is a channel depth of about 10 feet. This channel is marked by buoys which are moved, when practicable, to indicate the best water. It is well defined by breakers. Pilots can be obtained at Charleston. Two of the tributaries of North Edisto River, Wadmelaw River from eastward and Dawho River from westward, are part of the inland passage from Charleston to Savannah. Rockville is a village on Bohicket Creek, 2 miles above the entrance of North Edisto River.

The mean rise and fall of tides is 5.8 feet. On the bar the direction of the current is generally across the channel. The flood current sets about southwestward and the ebb east-northeastward, and both have considerable velocity. Inside the bar, in the channel between the breakers, the ebb current is to be guarded against, particularly as it sets across the north breakers.

SOUTH EDISTO RIVER

empties into the Atlantic about 8 miles northeastward of Hunting Island lighthouse and just eastward of St. Helena Sound entrance. The river is of little commercial importance, but it is navigable for flatboats and rafts for a distance of about 220 miles above its mouth. From the entrance to Dawho River it is known as South Edisto and above Dawho River it is known as Edisto River. The stretch of the river between Fenwick Island Cut and Dawho River forms part of the inland passage from Charleston to Savannah. Near the junction of Dawho and Edisto Rivers the water is generally fresh and

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