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24 feet can be taken up the Chechessee to the mouth of the Colleton River, and 20 feet up the latter for a distance of 5 miles. These rivers are of no commercial importance.
Skull Creek enters Port Royal Sound from southwestward about 4 miles above Hilton Head. The creek forms part of the inland passage to Savannah and is well marked. There is an oyster factory and wharf 1 mile from its western end.
Anchorages. The usual and best anchorage is in the mouth of Beaufort River, abreast the mouth of Station Creek; southward of Bay Point the holding ground is poor. There is good anchorage, with a depth of about 4 fathoms, in the channel of Beaufort River from a short distance below the Quarantine Station to a short distance above the Naval Station. Vessels should not anchor on the Paris Island range. The sound is sometimes used as a harbor of refuge in winter.
Quarantine.-The national quarantine station is on the west bank of Beaufort River 5 miles above Bay Point.
Pilots.—Licensed pilots may be had by engaging one in advance from Beaufort. There are none cruising off the bar excepting when a vessel is expected. Pilotage is compulsory for certain vessels. For pilot rates see Appendix.
Towboats.-Sailing vessels seldom employ towboats either over the bar or in Beaufort River. Towboats can be had at Charleston or Savannah.
Supplies.- Water and coal can be had alongside the wharves at Port Royal, and provisions, water, and gasoline at Beaufort.
Repairs.-The nearest place where a vessel can be hauled out is Savannah.
Storm warnings.-Storm warnings are displayed from a signal station at Port Royal.
Tides.—The mean rise and fall of tides on the bar is 6.4 feet, and at Beaufort, 7.3 feet.
Currents.— The currents on the bar have an estimated velocity of 112 knots, and set fair with the channel. The currents in the sound have a velocity of possibly 2 knots or more at times, and the tide rips on Fishing Rip and Middle Shoal have the appearance of breakers at times.
DIRECTIONS.-The channel between the shoals from the entrance of Port Royal Sound out to the bar has maintained its position practically without change since the first survey was made in 1856, the only change noted having occurred on the bar or in its vicinity. On the bar, Northeast Breakers and Southeast Channel have moved bodily southward nearly 1 mile since that date, the succeeding surveys showing a fairly uniform rate of movement of 100 feet per year. The depths on the bar range from 18 to 22 feet. As the depths on the crest of the bar are subject to frequent change, local knowledge is required to carry the best water, which was 21 feet in 1921. With the aid of the chart vessels of about 15 feet draft, with a rising tide and a smooth sea, should have no difficulty in entering during daylight by following the buoys. Martins Industry gas and whistling buoy, the ranges, and buoys are the guides. The boiler of a wreck, shown on the chart nearly 5 miles southeastward of Bay Point, is a permanent mark and can be used for cross bearings.
Approaching from any direction, shape the course for Martins Industry gas and whistling buoy, and from it steer 286o true (WNW. 12 W. mag.) on the Hilton Head range until up with the outer buoys off the bar. Follow the buoyed channel across the bar, giving the red gas and bell buoy at the southwest end of Northeast Breakers a berth of over 100 yards in rounding it. When past the black buoy, lying 1 mile north-northwestward of the gas and bell buoy and up to the midchannel gas and bell buoy, steer 335o true (NNW. 14 W. mag.) and keep on or a little eastward of the line of the Paris Ísland range beacons until past Fishing Rip gas and bell buoy, and then follow the range or keep a little westward of it until past Bay Point.
To go up Beaufort River, when about 1 mile past Bay Point steer 8° true (N. 34 E. mag.) and pass about 150 yards eastward of buoys Nos. 7 and 9. When the old wharf (marked by Fort Fremont Wharf light, white post at shore end) on the eastern bank is abeam steer 346o true (N. by W. 14 W. mag.) to a position about 100 yards westward of buoy No. 6. Then steer 333° true (NNW. 38 W. mag.) for the turning point on the eastern bank until abreast the naval station, and then steer 324° true (NW.78 N. mag.). Round the point on the eastern bank at a distance of about 300 yards and steer 70 true (N. 58 E. mag.) for the low grassy point on the eastern bank. Give the first point on the west bank above Battery Creek a berth of about 300 yards, and then keep in midriver until past buoy No. 13. Then follow the west bank at a distance of about 200 yards, pass about 100 yards westward of buoy No. 10, pass 200 yards off the next point on the south bank, and anchor in midstream, keeping the easternmost wharves at Beaufort bearing eastward of 0° true (N. mag.).
Boats drawing less than 6 feet, with local knowledge go through a cut-off channel after leaving buoy No. 13 by following the eastern bank of the river and entering á slough through the marsh. The northern end is narrow and the least water is found just before coming out into the main stream. The best water here is close to the eastern grass
The entrance to this sound lies 11 miles southwestward of Port Royal Sound entrance and 5 miles northward of Tybee lighthouse; it is obstructed by shifting shoals through which there are several unmarked crooked channels. From sea the best way of entering the sound is from Tybee Roads, and the depth that can be taken over the bar at low water is about 10 feet. Above the bar the depths are ample. These waters are a part of the inland passage from Charleston to Savannah, and otherwise are of little importance.
May River, which empties into the sound from westward about 542 miles above the entrance, is the approach to the village of Bluffton, situated about 7 miles above its mouth. There is a depth of 10 feet at low water to the town by entering May River through Tybee Roads and Calibogue Sound, 12 feet or more by way of Port Royal Sound and Skull Creek, and 7 feet from Savannah through the passage by way of Mud River and Ramshorn Creek.
Cooper River empties into the sound from westward about 214 miles above the entrance. This river is only important as a part of the inland passage to Savannah which leads through Ramsħorn Creek from Cooper River.
Mackays Creek enters the sound from northward at its junction with Skull Creek; the latter connects with Port Royal Sound and forms part of the inland passage.
On the south side of the entrance to Cooper River are the Daufuskie Island range lights (white structures) for entering the sound from Tybee Roads.
DIRECTIONS.—From Tybee Roads steer 321° true (NW. 1/2 N. mag.) on the Bloody Point range for about 78 mile past gas and bell buoy No. 13; or, coming down Savannah River, pass about 14 mile southward and eastward of Bloody Point Spit buoy (can, No. 1). Then steer 3o true (N. 14 E. mag.) to a position close westward of bell buoy No. 2. Then steer 355° true (N. 1/2 W. mag.), with Daufuskie Island range lights (white structures) in line ahead, into the sound. Keep somewhat east of the range until up to can buoy No. 3.
TYBEE ROADS AND SAVANNAH RIVER.
Tybee Roads is the name applied to an anchorage surrounded by the shoals which lie off the entrance to Calibogue Sound and Savannah River, eastward of the northeastern end of Tybee Island. This anchorage can be entered either in the daytime or at night; its general depth is 19 to 24 feet, and the shoals assist to break the sea from any direction. There are two good channels leading across the bar off the roads—the North Slue Channel with 15 feet and the Main Channel with 24 feet; both of these channels are marked by buoys, and the Main Channel by a number of ranges which are easily followed. The main channel over the bar is being improved by dredging.
Savannah light vessel is moored in about 51 feet of water, about 101/2 miles 11714 ° from Tybee lighthouse on the prolongation of the Tybee Range line. The vessel has a red hull, with * Savannah” on each side, and two masts with lanterns and circular cagework daymarks at head of each. A fixed white light is shown from the foremast and a fixed red light from the mainmast, each 44 feet above the water. The white light is visible 12 miles and the red 11 miles. The fog signal is an air siren, blast 2 seconds, silent interval 18 seconds. If the whistle is disabled a bell will be struck by hand a double blow every 20 seconds. The submarine bell strikes “2," thus: 2 strokes in 2 seconds, silent 20 seconds.
Tybee lighthouse, on the north end of Tybee Island, is an octagonal brick tower, lower 50 feet black, middle part white, upper part black. The light is fixed white, 144 feet above the water, and visible 18 miles.
Savannah River forms the boundary between the States of South Carolina and Georgia, and is navigable during the greater part of the year for steamers of 5 feet draft to the city of Augusta, a distance of about 176 miles above Savannah; flatboats can be taken up the river about 3 miles farther. There is a dam 8 miles above Augusta; pole boats go from Augusta to the river above the dam through a canal, and the river is navigable for this class of boats from the dam to Petersburg, a distance of 43 miles. Between Savannah and Augusta there are numerous landings, but no towns or villages of importance; several bridges, with draws about 60 feet wide, cross the river below Augusta.
From its entrance to the quarantine station the river is being improved to obtain a depth of 30 feet with a general width of 500 feet, thence 26 feet deep with a general width of 400 feet to the S. A. L. Railroad bridge; and thence 21 feet deep and 300 feet wide to Kings Island, a total distance of 24 miles. At present (1921) it has a least depth of 23 feet at low water from sea to the city; it is marked by buoys and range lights, but strangers of over 15' feet draft and sailing vessels should always employ a pilot when entering the river. The deepest draft taken out of the river and over the bar is 291/2 feet.
Savannah is on the south bank of the river about 15 miles above the entrance; it is the chief port of the State of Georgia and one of the important southern ports for the shipment of cotton, lumber, and naval stores. There is sufficient water at the wharves for vessels that are brought to the city. Many of the present wharves are equipped with mechanical unloading devices for handling bulk cargo; all have direct connection with the railways, and all but those on Hutchinsons Island have street or highway connections.
Anchorages. The usual anchorage for vessels waiting for a favorable tide to go up the river is in Tybee Roads, about 2 miles eastward of Tybee lighthouse, or outside the bar near Tybee gas and whistling buoy. The holding ground is good at both anchorages, but 22 feet is about the greatest depth available in the roads. Vessels rarely anchor in the river as there is no room for large vessels to swing; in case of necessity there is a small anchorage off Fort Jackson, about 2 miles below the city.
A Branch Hydrographic Office of the Navy Department is located at the customhouse; this office is supplied with the latest information and publications affecting navigation for the consultation of mariners.
Quarantine.—The national quarantine station and boarding station is on the south side of the channel west of Cockspur Island.
U. S. Public Health Service.—At Savannah there is a marine hospital.
Pilots.—A pilot boat will be found outside the bar. Pilotage is compulsory for certain vessels. For pilot rates see Appendix.
The Harbor Master has charge of the berthing of vessels. The limit of speed of steamers passing the wharves is 4 miles an hour, and the engines must be stopped when passing where two or more vessels are moored abreast. Steamers must be slowed, and where necessary engine stopped in passing dredges at work in the river. For laws and regulations see Appendix.
Towboats will come out over the bar to vessels making signal. With a fair wind sailing vessels usually sail into the roads, but a towboat is necessary for large sailing vessels between the roads and Savannah.
Supplies.-Coal, either anthracite or bituminous, in large quantities, or fuel oil can be had at the wharves at Savannah or from lighters towed down to vessels at the roads. Fresh water is usually brought to shipping by tugs; the river water at Savannah is fresh at any stage of the tide. Provisions and ship chandler's stores can be had in the city or are sent down to the roads in tugs.
Repairs. The facilities for repairs to the machinery of steamers are good. There are several marine railways; the largest has a dead weight lifting capacity of 2,500 tons and will dock a vessel 300 feet long
Storm warnings are displayed at Savannah and from a signal tower near Tybee lighthouse.
Tides. For tidal data at Savannah River entrance (Tybee lighthouse) see the tide tables for the Atlantic coast of the United States, published annually in advance by the Coast and Geodetic Survey, in which the tides are predicted for every day of the current year. On the bar high and low waters occur about 30 minutes before high and low waters, respectively, at Tybee lighthouse. At Savannah high water occurs 1 hour 15 minutes and low water 1 hour 51 minutes after high and low water, respectively, at Tybee lighthouse. The mean durations of rise and fall of the tide are 6 hours 5 minutes and 6 hours 20 minutes at Tybee lighthouse, and 5 hours 30 minutes and 6 hours 55 minutes at Savannah.
The mean rise and fall of tides at Tybee lighthouse is 6.8 feet, and at Savannah 6.5 feet. At Purysburg, 20 miles above Savannah, the mean rise and fall of tides is a little less than 1 foot; when the river is low the tides are felt possibly 7 miles above Purysburg, while during heavy freshets the rise and fall at Cross Tides, 312 miles above Savannah, is 2 feet or less.
Currents. The mean velocity at the strength of the ebb current is 2.75 knots between the training walls at the entrance, 2.4 knots below Venus Point, 1.75 knots at The Bight, and 1.1 knots (estimated) at Savannah; the flood current has a velocity about one-fourth less than the ebb current in the lower part of the river, and about onehalf less at Savannah. From the entrance nearly to Savannah slack water occurs about 1 hour after high and low water stand; in the vicinity of the entrance near Tybee lighthouse, therefore, slack water occurs about 1 hour after high and low water at the lighthouse, and at Savannah slack water occurs about 172 hours and 212 hours after high and low water, respectively, at Tybee lighthouse. The time of slack water is considerably influenced by the wind and freshets. For the time of slack water at the entrance to Savannah River see the Current Tables, published annually in advance by the Coast and Geodetic Survey.
The currents set in the direction of the channel except at the entrance near Tybee lighthouse, where the flood sets northwestward across the channel.
Freshets occasionally occur in the spring, but do not endanger the shipping at the wharves at Savannah.
Directions. The channel from sea to Savannah is a dredged cut from 400 to 600 feet wide, the tidal currents have considerable velocity, and strangers are advised to take a pilot. The ranges mentioned in the following directions mark the axis of the cut; in addition to the ranges, the channel is buoyed. Vessels waiting for the tide when in the river formerly made fast to the old mooring wharves at Venus Point and The Bight, but the depth in the channel is now sufficient to make it unnecessary; in 1921 these wharves were in bad repair.
From northward shape the course for Savannah light vessel.
From southward deep-draft vessels should not shoal the water to less than 6 to 7 fathoms. From Brunswick light vessel make good a 24o true (NNE. 18 E. mag.) course for 6112 miles for Savannah light vessel. Or, in clear weather when the light vessel is sighted the