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course can be shaped to pass as much as 3 miles inside. Vessels should expect an inshore set with the tide flooding.

From sea to Tybee Roads.-From Savannah light vessel steer 297° true (NW. by W.58 W. mag.) for 634 miles with Tybee range lights (white skeleton structure in range with Tybee lighthouse) in line ahead leaving Tybee gas and whistling buoy close to on either side, until up with gas and bell buoy, No. 2. Leave the buoy 100 yards on the starboard hand and steer 321o true (NW. 12 N. mag.) for 234 miles with Bloody Point range lights (white structures) in line ahead until up with gas and bell buoy No. 13. To anchor in Tybee Roads, anchor just eastward of the dredged channel, with Tybee lighthouse bearing about 270° true (W. mag.). In addition to the ranges these channels are well marked by buoys.

To enter by the North Slue Channel, for vessels of 11 feet draft, in the daytime with a smooth sea.-From Martins Industry gas and whistling buoy make good a 257o true (WSW.78 W. mag.) course for 1642 miles to a perpendicularly striped can buoy, from which Tybee lighthouse bears 262o true (W. 34 S. mag.) distant 342 miles. On this course care must be taken to pass at least 1/2 mile southward of the black can buoy off the southeasterly end of Gaskin Banks, and Tybee lighthouse should be made and kept on the starboard bow. From the perpendicularly striped can buoy steer for Tybee lighthouse, pass about 250 yards southward of nun buoy No. 2, and then head up for gas and bell buoy No. 13.

From Tybee Roads to Quarantine.-Leave gas and bell buoy No. 13 about 100 yards on the port hand and steer 284o true (WNW. 34 W. mag.) for 134 miles with Jones Island range light (white structures) in line ahead. Pass about 200 yards northward of gas buoy No. 3A and steer 263o true (W.12 S. mag.) for 21/2 miles with Tybee Knoll Cut range lights (tower on white house in range with high skeleton structure) in line ahead. Three water tanks at the quarantine station are almost on the range line and may be confusing in daytime to a stranger when picking up this range. When nun buoy No. 6 is abeam, steer 280° true (W. by N. mag.) for about 12 mile, with News Channel range lights (skeleton structures) in line ahead, and the Quarantine station will be abeam.

From Quarantine to The Bight.-From abreast the quarantine station continue the 280o true (W. by N. mag.) for 1 mile with New Channel range lights in line ahead. When Long Island Crossing range front light is abaft the beam, turn with an easy port helm and steer 319° true (NW. 38 N. mag.) for 214 miles with Long Island Crossing range lights (pyramidal structures, north half red, south half white) in line astern until up with the old mooring wharf at Venus Point. Then follow the north bank of the river, keeping about 250 feet from the piling along the bank.

Then steer 280° true (W.78 N. mag.) with Lower Flats range lights (pryamidal structures, north half red, south half white) in line astern until approaching Elba Island light (black post on outer end of wharf. Then follow the south bank, keeping about 200 feet from the ends of the piling, until abreast Upper Flats front light. Then turn with an easy port helm and steer 329° true (NNW. 37 W. mag.) with Upper Flats range lights (pyramidal structures, northeast half red, southwest half white) in line astern and Barnwell Place light



(brown-slatted skeleton tower) ahead until up with the old mooring wharf in The Bight. Then follow the north bank at a distance of about 100 yards.

From The Bight to Savannah. Follow the north bank in The Bight and the piling eastward of Proctor Place light at a distance of about 100 yards and pass about 125 yards off Proctor Place light (red structure at northeast end of training wall). Then steer about 236° true (SW. by W. mag.) for a little over 1/4 mile until the lights of Fort Jackson range (brown slatted tripods) are in line, and then stand on the range ahead, course 212o true (SSW.78 W. mag.).

When abreast the training wall at Mackey Point, steer 244° true (SW. by W. 94 W. mag.) with Oglethorpe range front light (white square day mark on unpainted pile structure inside of training wall) in line with Barnwell Place light (brown, slatted skeleton tower) astern, giving the south bank of the river a berth of a little over 125 yards and passing 75 to 100 yards northward of Fort Jackson (Oglethorpe).

Continue on the range until up to Fig Island jetty light (red square day mark on unpainted pile structure), then slowly port, following midchannel, steadying on a 277o true (W.5/N. mag.) course until approaching the wharves on the south bank. Then follow the wharves on the south bank at a distance of 250 to 300 feet.


is about 672 miles in extent and is formed by the shore of Tybee Island, which lies in a northeasterly and southwesterly direction.

This island has a breadth at its widest part of 314 miles, is mostly low and marshy, but has many wooded hummocks with numerous creeks winding among them. On the eastern shore several large creeks come into the sea, but they are of little importance, as their mouths are obstruated by shoals, with crooked channels of 2 or 3 feet at low water through them. Tybee Beach is a summer resort south of Tybee lighthouse and the houses show up well from seaward.

Tybee Creek, with Lazaretto Creek, is used by small boats as an inside approach to Tybee Beach. The southeast part of the island, separated from the main body by

of marsh, is called Petit Chou Island, and is distinguishable by a large and heavily wooded hummock, which marks the northern point of the entrance to Wassaw Sound. Dangerous shoals make off from the short of Tybee Island to a distance of 412 miles.


The entrance to this sound lies 8 miles southwestward of Tybee lighthouse. Shoals extend offshore a distance of 31/2 to 4 miles from the entrance, forming a shifting bar, through which there is a channel with a depth of about 11 feet. After crossing the bar there is a good channel with 3 to 7 fathoms, which leads along the southern and western part of the sound and for a distance of 6 miles up Wilmington River. The sound is for the most part shallow, but the channels into its principal tributaries will permit any draft that can be taken over the bar. Fishing boats are practically the only vessels using the sound.

Tybee River empties into the sound from northward; it is about 7 miles in length to its junction with St. Augustine and Turner Creeks; by the former it is connected with. Savannah River about 5 miles below the city of Savannah; a depth of 9 feet can be taken through to Savannah River. The entrance to Tybee River is obstructed by a shoal in Wassaw Sound, over which a depth of 8 feet can be taken into the river. About 2 miles above the mouth of Tybee River it is entered from southeastward by Lazaretto Creek; this creek connects the river with Savannah River near its mouth and forms an inlet passage with a depth of about 7 feet. Turner Creek connects Tybee River with Wilmington River and has a depth of 7 feet.

Wilmington River empties into Wassaw Sound from northwestward. It has a northwesterly direction for 8 miles to the village of

. Thunderbolt, and then turns northward for about 4 miles and, joining St. Augustine Creek, connects with Savannah River. The river is important only as being a part of the inland passage from Savannah to Fernandina. A depth of 9 feet can be taken through to Savannah River.

Skidaway River empties into Wilmington River from southwestward about 2 miles southeastward of Thunderbolt and 534 miles above Wassaw Sound, and with Skidaway Narrows and Burnside River is a part of the principal inland passage between Savannah and Fernandina; the least depth in this passage is 8 feet. Isle of Hope is a village on the west bank of Skidaway River about 314 miles above its mouth.

Romerly Marsh Creek enters the western end of Wassaw Sound at the mouth of Wilmington River, and with Romerly Marshes and Adams Creek forms an inland passage to Vernon River. This paspasage is only good for shallow-draft boats and is practically abandoned. There is another passage, used to some extent, through Old Romerly Marsh Channel, Parsons Cut, Wassaw Creek, Odingsell River, and Adams Creek to Vernon River. This passage has shoaled to less than 3 feet and is practically abandoned as a through route. Savannah pilots will take vessels into Wassaw Sound. The mean rise and fall of tides is 6.8 feet.

Currents.—The tidal currents in Wassaw Sound have considerable velocity and must be allowed for. Advantage may be taken of them

. on the flood to beat in or on the ebb to beat out; but no vessel, however smart working, should attempt to beat against them.

DIRECTIONS.—There are no prominent landmarks that can be readily recognized by a stranger when approaching the entrance. Wassa w Island, which forms the southern side of the entrance, is heavily wooded along its seaward side and presents a level, unbroken appearance, while Tybee Island, on the northern side of the sound, shows lower with scattered wooded hammocks. Tybee lighthouse, 8 miles northward of Wassaw Sound, shows well from off the bar and is a good mark. Approaching the entrance vessels should keep over 5 miles from shore in a depth of over 6 fathoms until the sea buoy is sighted. There are no buoys on the bar, and vessels not having loca] knowledge, should not attempt crossing without a pilot.


This is formed by the shore of Wassaw Island, which lies in a northeasterly and south westerly direction between the two sounds. It is triangular in shape, having a length of side of 434 miles and an ex


treme breadth of 33 miles in a northwesterly and southeasterly direction. It is for the most part low and marshy, the strip of firm land forming the coastline being only from one-fourth to threefourths mile in width. This is heavily wooded and has a broad sand beach backed by sand hills. From this beach dangerous shoals make off to a distance of 4 miles. The marshy portion of the island inside this strip is cut up by numerous creeks, with numberless branches winding among heavily wooded hummocks. The island is separated from the land to the westward by Romerly Marsh Creek and the Odingsell River.


is a broad opening in the coast 15 miles southwestward of Tybee lighthouse. The greater part of the sound is shallow, but the channels to the two river entrances have a depth sufficient for any vessel that can cross the bar. Shifting shoals extend seaward off the entrance for a distance of 312 to 5 miles, through which two channels, the northern, with a depth of about 7 feet, and the southern, with a depth of about 9 feet, lead into the sound. There are no aids and the entrance is not used; strangers should not attempt it without a pilot.

Vernon River enters Ossabaw Sound from northwestward. Burnside River enters Vernon River from northward about 312 miles above its entrance, and with Skidaway Narrows and River is a part of the principal inland passage. Montgomery is a post village on Vernon River, 142 miles above Burnside River; it is connected by electric road with s vannah. Little Ogeechee River enters Vernon River from westward about 2 miles above its mouth.

Adams Creek enters Ossabaw Sound from northward about 23/4 miles above its entrance, and with Odingsell River, Wassaw Creek, Parsons Cut, and Old Romerly Marsh Channel forms an inland route to Wassaw Sound with a depth of less than 3 feet. Odingsell River enters Ossabaw Sound from northward at the entrance to the sound.

Ogeechee River enters the western part of the sound, and is the second largest river on the coast of Georgia. It is navigable for a distance of

about 15 miles above Florida Passage, to the railroad bridge, for small vessels of 8 feet draft. The principal inland passage leads up this river a distance of 234 miles, and thence through Florida Passage and Bear River to St. Catherines Sound. It has a least depth of about 7 feet.

There are no regular pilots for Ossabaw Sound or its tributaries. Persons competent to pilot vessels can be found at Savannah or Thunderbolt. The mean rise and fall of tides is 6.6 feet.

The tidal currents in the sound have considerable velocity, and allowance must be made for them. The ebb setting out of Ogeechee River is particularly strong.

COAST FROM OSSABAW SOUND TO ST. CATHERINES SOUND. The coast line between these sounds is formed by the eastern shore of Ossabaw Island. This island lies in a northeasterly and southwesterly direction, having a length of 738 miles and a width of 51/2 miles. "The eastern half of the island is heavily wooded. The


western half is almost entirely marshy, and is cut up by numerous creeks that afford access to the higher ground to the eastward. The north end of the island forms the south shore of Ossabaw Sound, into which flows a small stream called Bradleys River, that penetrates to the center of the island. The seaward side of the island is unbroken by streams of any

size and presents to the view only a white sand beach backed by heavy woods. Dangerous shoals make off from this shore to a distance of nearly 5 miles.

The southwestern point of the island borders on St. Catherines Sound and is well wooded. On the west the island is separated from the marshes of the mainland by Bear River and Florida Passage, connecting streams which afford an inside passage from one sound to the other. From these streams Queens Bess Creek, Can Patch Creek, Buck Head Creek, Big Tom Creek, and Newell Creek run through the marshes to the wooded portions of the island.


is about 24 miles southwestward of Tybee lighthouse and 21 miles northeastward of Sapelo lighthouse. The entrance to the sound is over a shifting bar which extends 5 miles offshore and in 1921 had a least depth of about 11 feet in the channel as marked by the buoys. The sound is for the most part shallow, but channels with depths of 3 to 5 fathoms lead from inside the bar into the entrances of its tributaries.

Bear River enters St. Catherines Sound from northwestward just inside the entrance. About 8 miles above its mouth the river joins Florida Passage, and this affords an inside passage, with a depth of about 7 feet to Ossabaw Sound. A depth of 10 feet can be taken up Bear River and about 3 miles up Kilkenny Creek, its principal tributary. A wharf and sawmill are at Kilkenny, 134 miles above the mouth of the creek. Schooners load to 15 and 16 feet here and tow out over St. Catherines bar at high water. A depth between 1 and 2 feet at low water can be taken from Kilkenny Creek through Skippers Narrows to Florida Passage.

Medway River enters the sound from westward. With the aid of the chart the channel is not difficult to the entrance of Belfast River, but 6 feet at low water is about the best depth that can be taken to Belfast in the absence of local knowledge. À depth of about 14 feet can be taken 61,2 miles above the mouth of the river to the entrance of Belfast River and 12 feet up Belfast River for 3 miles to the mill at Belfast. Vessels load lumber to a draft of 17 feet at Belfast and are towed up and down the river. Belfast is a post office and has telephone and railroad communication; water, gasoline, and provisions can be obtained.

Walburg Creek enters the sound from south ward just inside its entrance, and with North Newport River, Johnson Creek, and South Newport River form the principal inland passage to Sapelo Sound. A least depth of 7 feet can be taken through this

passage. North Newport River enters the sound from southward just west of Walburg Creek. It is of little commercial importance, except that a small part of it is used as one of the connecting links in the inland

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