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passage. Vessels formerly loaded to a draft of 16 feet at Carrs Neck, about 12 miles above the mouth of the river, and a draft of 6 feet can be taken nearly up to the railroad bridge (closed).

There are no towns on the sound, and Belfast and Kilkenny are the only shipping points on its tributaries. Strangers seldom enter the sound except to load at Belfast or Kilkenny. There are no regular local pilots, but Savannah pilots will take vessels in over the bar. On a clear day the entrance may be recognized, showing the break between the wooded points on its northern and southern sides.

The mean rise and fall of tides is 7.4 feet. The tidal currents have considerable velocity at the entrance and in the sounds.

DIRECTIONS.—Approaching the entrance vessels should keep over 6 miles from shore in a depth of over 6 fathoms until the Sea buoy is sighted. The surveys made of the bar in 1867 and 1904 showed that during that time the shoal on the south side of the channel for a distance of 3 miles inside the bar had extended northward, and thence to the south point of Ossabaw Island the shoal on the north side of the channel had extended southward; the south point of Ossabaw Island had extended southward nearly 1/4 mile. With the aid of the chart vessels of about 9 feet or less draft, on a rising tide with a smooth sea should have no difficulty in crossing the bar by following the buoys.

After crossing the bar the channel to Medway River leads northward of the horizontally striped buoy in the middle of the entrance, then 261o true (W.34 S. mag.) for a horizontally striped buoy on the south side of the channel southward of Medway Spit, and then westward along the south bank to the crossing, 1 mile above the entrance of the river, passing southward of nun buoy No. 2. This crossing is marked by can buoy No. 1, and by small range beacons, maintained by local pilots on both the south and north banks, course 335o true (NNW. 1/4 W. mag.).

The crossing 214 miles above buoy No. 1 is sometimes marked by small range beacons, maintained by local pilots on the north bank, which are in range astern on a 255o true (WSW.5/8 W. mag.) course. The channel then follows the south bank to abreast Dickinson Creek, then through the East Channel past the long island at Sunbury, and follows the east bank into Belfast River until across the mouth of Tivoli River; a shoal extends halfway across from the west bank abreast Tivoli River. The channel then follows the south bank until abreast the point northwestward of a small island.

For a distance of 14 mile northward of this point the channel follows the east bank past a mid-channel shoal with 3 feet over it, above which 6 feet at low water is about the best depth that can be carried in the absence of local knowledge; a channel 125 feet wide and 12 feet deep has been dredged here. When about 12 mile above the point the channel crosses to the west bank, which it follows until approaching the sharp bend below Belfast. Round this bend in mid-channel, and pass northward of a ballast pile, bare at low water, which lies near mid river abreast the lower end of Belfast, and is marked by piles. The tidal currents have an estimated velocity of 3 knots or more in the river at Belfast.

To go up Bear River and Kilkenny Creek.—When 14 mile eastnortheastward of the horizontally striped buoy in the middle of the

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entrance (see first paragraph), steer 132o true (SE. 14 E. mag.), heading between the south point of Ossabaw Island and a horizontally striped buoy off Medway Spit. When by the buoy, steer 329° true (NNW.34 W. mag.), heading for the point of marsh on the east side of the river. When abreast the hummock at the mouth of Newall Creek, favor the west side of the river until it turns northward, after which keep in the middle until up to the mouth of Kilkenny Creek. Enter the creek favoring the north shore. Just after passing the mouth of Cabbage Creek keep well over to starboard to avoid a spit with little water on it making off the southern shore. Then the best water is in the middle of the creek to the dock at Kilkenny.

COAST FROM ST. CATHERINE SOUND TO SAPELO SOUND.

The coast line from St. Catherine Sound to Sapelo Sound is formed by St. Catherine Island. This lies nearly in a north and south line, having a length of 91,2 miles and a breadth at its widest part of about 3 miles. The whole island is flat, and extensive portions of it are marshy. Its higher parts are heavily wooded. Seen from seaward at a distance it presents no prominent distinguishing features, showing only dense woods in level outline. It has a white sand beach, and near its center there are sand hills 20 feet high, which show

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from some directions. The 1sland is separated from the marshes lying between it and the main land by Walburg Creek, Johnson Creek, and the South Newport River.

McQueen Inlet is the only break on the seaward side of the island. It is unimportant, as it is blocked by shoals at low water. Dangerous shoals make off from the eastern shore to a distance of 5 miles Between the south point of this island and the north point of Blackbeard Island lies the entrance to Sapelo Sound.

SAPELO SOUND

is 10 miles northeastward of Sapelo lighthouse and 34 miles southwestward of Tybee lighthouse. The entrance is obstructed by shifting shoals, which extend nearly 5 miles seaward, through which there is a channel with a least depth of about 17 feet in 1921. The sound affords excellent anchorage for any vessel that can cross the bar. Vessels of too deep draft for Doboy Sound enter Sapelo Sound to Front River to load lumber, which is brought to them in rafts. The deepest draft that can cross the bar is about 22 feet at high water with a smooth sea. There are no towns or villages of any importance on the sound or its tributaries.

South Newport River enters the sound from northward just inside the entrance; the river has a channel depth of 11 feet for a distance of 11 miles to its junction with North Newport River, and at high water 8 feet can be taken about 5 miles farther up the river. Entering the sound from northwestward is Barbour Island River, through which a draft of 8 feet at high water can be taken to South Newport River, in its northern part the channel leads southward and eastward around the large island to South Newport River.

Sapelo River, which enters the sound from westward, is navigable for vessels of about 8 feet draft at high water a distance of about 10 miles to the closed county bridge at Eulonia post office. A channel

150 feet wide and 17 feet deep with a present controlling depth of 14 feet is dredged from deeper water in Sapelo River into the mouth of Front River. On the western side just inside the entrance of Front River are loading berths at which vessels load lumber; this is the principal shipping point for Darien.

At the head of Front River a canal 6 feet deep has been dredged to Old Teakettle Creek, and this forms a part of the inland route to Doboy Sound.

Mud River enters the head of Sapelo Sound from southward; it is a broad, shallow body of water with a channel depth of 6 feet marked by range beacons, and is important only as a part of the inland passage between Savannah and Fernandina. No further dredging will be done to maintain this depth, as the present inland route leads through Front River.

Pilots for Sapelo Sound can be obtained by writing or wiring to Darien. Pilotage is not compulsory unless the vessel is spoken by a pilot. (For pilot rates see Appendix.)

Anchorages.—There is good anchorage anywhere in the channel of the sound, but vessels entering for shelter usually anchor in South Newport River or on either side of Dog Hammock Spit.

The mean rise and fall of tides is 7.3 feet.

DIRECTIONS.-Shoals extend about 5 miles from shore, and vessels should keep in a depth of over 5 fathoms until the Sea buoy is sighted. The break in the shore at the entrance to the sound can be seen a distance of about 8 miles on a clear day, and the old quarantine station can be seen from the Sea buoy. Sapelo lighthouse, 10 miles southward of Sapelo Sound, can also be seen from off the bar, and is a good mark.

With the aid of the chart vessels of 15 feet or less draft, on a rising tide with a smooth sea, should have no difficulty in entering during daylight by following the buoys. A comparison of the surveys made in 1859 and 1902 shows practically no change in the bar during that time, except in the vicinity of the shoalest part of Experiment Shoal, which has moved southward about mile; the slue between that shoal and St. Catherines Island has also deepened and extended.

When in the sound pass about 1/4 mile northward of the old quarantine structure in the water and stand westward in the buoyed channel to an anchorage northward of Dog Hammock Spit. The channel into Front River should be taken by a stranger on a rising tide.

COAST FROM SAPELO SOUND TO DOBOY SOUND.

The coast line from Sapelo Sound to Doboy Sound is formed by the shores of Blackbeard and Sapelo Islands. These are separated only by a strip of marsh and a narrow inlet blocked by shoals at low water. From all points of view they appear as a single island, and may be described as one. Taken together they have a length of 101/2 miles in a north-northerly direction and with a width of about 4 miles. Large portions of both islands are heavily wooded, but the western part of Sapelo Island consists almost entirely of broad marshes through which wind numerous creeks. The most important of these is the Duplin River, which has deep water for several miles

and affords means of communication to the island. Sapelo Island is separated from the marshes lying between it and the mainland by Mud River and New Teakettle Creek. Seen from seaward these islands present no well-marked distinguishing features, nothing being visible other than the usual sand beach backed by the dense woods in level outline, with the exception of the lighthouse and old tower near the south point of Sapelo Island.

DOBOY SOUND AND DARIEN

is 46 miles southwestward of Tybee Roads and 16 miles northeastward of St. Simon lighthouse. It is marked on its northern side by Sapelo lighthouse and a disused lighthouse, and on its southern side by a disused lighthouse (two-story building). The entrance is about 1 mile wide, and is obstructed by shifting shoals, which extend about 41/2 miles offshore. In 1919 a survey showed a least depth of 11 feet on the outer bar and 10 feet on the inner bar.

The deepest draft crossing the bar is 16 feet at high water. A swash channel with a least depth of 8 feet makes into the sound close under the south point of Sapelo Island. It is not marked. Another channel seems to be forming north of the buoyed channel between what is now called North Breakers and Chimney Spit. The sound extends northwestward for a distance of about 5 miles and has an average width of 34 mile. It is the commercial outlet of numerous tributaries, the town of Darien, and also of the Altamaha River. Lumber is the principal commodity.

Sapelo lighthouse is a white, square, pyramidal skeleton tower, upper part black. The light shows 6 flashes every 30 seconds (flashes 0.5 second, 5 eclipses of 2.0 seconds, and 1 eclipse of 17.0 seconds), 100 feet above the water, and visible 16 miles. Nearly 300 yards southwestward of it is a disused light tower, with red and white bands.

Duplin River enters Doboy Sound from northward about 112 miles inside of Sapelo lighthouse; it is a small stream about 5 miles long and good for a depth of 9 feet until near its head. Sapelo is a post office near the southern end of Sapelo Island. It is reached by boat by going up Duplin River 2 miles to a small creek on the eastern shore; thence up this creek to the first starboard hand creek; thence to the landing

New Teakettle Creek enters the sound from northward about 1 mile northwestward of Duplin River. This creek connects with Mud River and forms part of the inland passage; a depth of 6 feet can be taken through this passage.

Old Teakettle Creek branches from New Teakettle Creek and joins Mud River farther westward. See the description of Front River under Sapelo Sound, preceding.

Atwood River and Hudson Creek are small streams emptying into the head of the sound from northwestward. About 7 feet can be taken up the former for a distance of 21/2 miles, and 9 feet about 3 miles up the latter.

Connegan River enters the head of the sound from southwestward. It joins North River by a branch known as Buzzards Roost Creek, through which 8 feet may be taken.

North River enters Doboy Sound west of Doboy Island. It extends westward 6 miles to the post village of Ridgeville to which a draft of 14 feet can be taken. Here it joins May Hall Creek, which, running southward, connects with Darien River 5 miles above its mouth. There is a depth of about 13 feet in May Hall Creek, except where it enters Darien River the depth is only 4 feet; a draft of 8 feet can be taken through at high water.

Back River is on the southern side of Doboy and Commodore Islands and forms another entrance from the sound to North and Darien Rivers. It is little used.

Darien River extends southwestward for a distance of 1112 miles, where it joins the Altamaha River. The town of Darien is 842 miles above Doboy Island on the north bank of the river. Darien has steamboat communication with Brunswick; it also has telephone communication. A least depth of 9.3 feet can be taken to Darien at low water, and vessels can load to 15 feet at the sawmills and be towed to sea over Doboy bar at high water. Large rafts of timber are sometimes secured to the banks of the river at and below Darien, and sunken logs are sometimes bad near the town. Lumber is also towed to Front River. (See Sapelo Sound, preceding.) The water is fresh in the river after the ebb has been running about 3 hours. There is a depth of about 3 feet at ordinary low tides into Altamaha River; only light-draft steamers are engaged in the carrying trade on the river.

Light-draft vessels running between Darien and Brunswick use the route through Three Mile Cut, which has a least depth of 6 feet at its south end. In the absence of local knowledge, this passage is recommended only for boats of less than 5-feet draft. The route follows the channel of Darien River to the point on the north bank northeastward of Three Mile Cut, then crosses to the south bank eastward of the mouth of a small slue, and then follows the south bank into Three Mile Cut. At the south entrance of Three Mile Cut the channel follows closely the east side of the cut, then leads through a dredged cut marked by range beacons, to the south bank of the Altamaha River. The course through the cut is 33° true (NNE. 78 E.mag.). It then leads eastward along the south bank through One Mile Cut to Buttermilk Sound, where it joins the regular inside route.

A branch of Darien River known as Rockdedundy River connects with Little Mud River from Altamaha Sound, and forms part of an inland passage with a depth of about 6 feet.

South River enters Doboy Sound from southwestward about 34 mile inside the entrance. It extends in a general westerly direction for 3 miles, where it joins Little Mud River; it is little used.

Pilots for Doboy Bar can be had by writing or wiring to Darien, and if pilots are desired for the inland passage they can generally be obtained at either Darien or Brunswick. Pilots for Doboy Sound will also take vessels into St. Catherines or Sapelo Sounds. Bar pilotage is compulsory for certain vessels. (For pilot rates, see Appendix.)

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