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Towboats belonging to the sawmills on the waters tributary to the sound cruise outside if a vessel is expected to arrive, and they will come out to a vessel signaling for one. All sailing vessels bound to Darien take a towboat, and when loaded tow out over the bar. Towboats can be had at Brunswick.

Anchorages.---There is good anchorage anywhere in the channel of the sound inside the entrance, but vessels usually stand up until abreast the mouth of North River, near the red and black buoy at its entrance. Vessels subject to visitation by the health officer must wait to be boarded in the sound. There is good anchorage in about 21 feet in North River, hut the channel is too narrow for a large vessel to anchor in Darien River.

Supplies.-Provisions and gasoline can be had at Darien. Vessels can obtain fresh water from water boats. The nearest places for obtaining coal for steamers are Brunswick and Savannah. Water may be obtained from an artesian well on Doboy Island and also at Sapelo lighthouse by using small boats.

Repairs to hulls of vessels and machinery of steamers can not be made nearer than Savannah. (See also Brunswick Harbor.)

Wharves.—The depth of water alongside the wharves at Darien is 7 to 14 feet, and all vessels make fast to wharves or piling, as the river is too narrow for them to anchor near the town.

The mean rise and fall of tides is 7.3 feet at Sapelo lighthouse and 6.5 feet at Darien. The tidal currents on the bar have a velocity of about 11/2 knots on the ebb and slightly less on the flood.

DIRECTIONS.—Shoals extend nearly 5 miles from shore in places in the vicinity of Doboy Sound, and vessels should keep in a depth of 5 fathoms or more until the Sea buoy is sighted. If there is too much sea to cross Doboy bar, vessels can make an anchorage in Sapelo Sound.

The surveys of Doboy bar in recent years show it to have been in a state of change. By the survey of 1919 the buoyed channel, which leads in a northwesterly direction, crosses two bars, the outer one with depths of 11 to 12 feet and the inner one with 9 to 11 feet. It is not considered safe for a stranger to attempt to enter by following the buoys with a greater draft than 8 feet, and then only under the safest condition of a rising tide and a smooth sea.

When across the bar, the chart is a good guide in the sound to an anchorage near the red and black buoy at the entrance of North River. Sailing vessels require a towboat from this anchorage to Darien, but small powered vessels up to about 9 feet draft should have no difficulty in going up to the town. Chart 446 is the best guide.

Leaving the red and black buoy on the starboard hand, the channel follows the west bank of North River until abreast the north end of Doboy Island. Then favor the shore of Doboy Island and pass 75 to 100 yards off the south end of this island. Doboy Island is wooded, and there are several ruined buildings and an artesian well on its southwest end. Then cross Back River on a 185o true (S. 12 W. mag.) course and favor the east bank to the mouth of Darien River. Then follow the ebb-tide bends up Darien River, favor well the east bank in crossing the mouth of Rockdedundy River, and continue to follow the ebb-tide bends to Darien passing through Pico Cut. The

principal mill near Darien is at the north end of the long bend, the entrance of which is at the east end of Pico Cut. Wing dams to confine the channel are built out from the banks in places and are marked by piles which show above water.

ALTAMAHA SOUND

is 5 miles southward of Sapelo lighthouse and about 11 miles northeastward of St. Simon lighthouse. The entrance is so much obstructed by shoals and the sound itself is so full of them that it is rarely entered by anyone, and never by strangers. There is a channel through the shoals, which extend out for a distance of 4 miles from the entrance, but this channel shifts and is not marked. The vessels entering the sound pass in through Doboy or St. Simon Sounds and then through the inland passage.

Altamaha River is formed by the confluence of the Oconee and Ocmulgee Rivers, 112 miles above the town of Darien and 122 miles above its mouth, and flows in a general southeasterly direction, entering the western end of Altamaha Sound. This river is shallow and crooked, and has a least depth of about 112 feet for its entire length at ordinary summer low water. Considerable timber is rafted down these rivers for shipment from Darien and Brunswick. The influence of the tides is felt in the river for a distance of about 20 miles above Darien. Oconee River has a channel depth of about 1.0 feet at ordinary summer low water to the city of Milledgeville, about 126 miles above its junction with Altamaha River. Ocmulgee River has a channel depth of about 1.5 feet at ordinary summer low water for a distance of 178 miles to the city of Macon. The principal cities, towns, and villages on the river, with their distances above the junction with the Altamaha River, are: Lumber City, 10 miles; Abbeville, 62 miles; Hawkinsville, 114 miles; and Macon, 178 miles. Transfer of freight between the river and connecting railroads is practicable at Macon and Lumber City by means of elevating machinery; at Hawkinsville, Abbeville, Barrows Bluff, and Mosquito Bluff by means of spur tracks and highways.

Little Mud River enters Altamaha Sound from northward about 21/2 miles inside the entrance. It is important only as being part of the inland passage from Doboy Sound to Altamaha Sound.

Buttermilk Sound enters Altamaha Sound from southwestward. It has an average width of 12 mile, but is full of shoals, through which there is a narrow channel. At its head the sound connects with Frederica River and Mackay River, the latter connecting with Back River. These three rivers enter the western end of St. Simon Sound from northward, and Frederica River with Buttermilk Sound forms part of the regular inland passage, through which a depth of 7 feet may be taken at low water.

The mean rise and fall of tides in the entrance to Altamaha River is 6.4 feet.

Sailing directions of any value can not be given. It is advisable in every case where a vessel desires to enter Altamaha Sound, if coming from the northward, to pass into Doboy Sound; or, from the southward, to pass into St. Simon Sound, and then through the inland passages to Altamaha Sound. In either case a local pilot should be obtained.

COAST FROM ALTAMAHA SOUND TO ST. SIMON SOUND.

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This coast line, having a length of 1138 miles and trending about south-southwestward, is formed by the shore of Little St. Simon Island, Isle of Palms, and St. Simon Island. These are separated only by stretches of marsh traversed by small streams and appear as one body of land when seen from seaward, although from certain points of view the marshes, alternating with patches of trees, give the land an unusually broken appearance.

Of the three named, St. Simon Island forms the main body of land between the two sounds, and in a general description the other two may be considered as parts of it. The three thus taken together form a body of land 1138 miles in length and 6 miles in width at its northern end, diminishing gradually to 21/2 near its southern point. Immediately along the coast and in the central parts it is heavily wooded. Between the two wooded portions there is a stretch of marsh from a mile to 142 miles in width extending nearly the whole length of the island, and to the westward it is separated from the mainland by extensive marshes, through which flow the Frederica and Mackay Rivers, connecting Altamaha and St. Simon Sounds.

The northern portion is mainly marshy and is traversed by Hampton River, a stream of some size, which, flowing in an easterly and southeasterly direction, separates St. Simon and Little St. Simon Islands and comes out on the coast 5 miles below Altamaha Sound. There is about 8 feet of water on the bar at the entrance, but there are dangerous shoals on both sides and the channel is unmarked. Eight feet may be carried through to Buttermilk Sound at low water, Village Creek empties into Hampton River from the southward, about 142 miles above its mouth. It flows through a stretch of marsh separating Isle of Palms from St. Simon Island. After a crooked course of several miles it connects with Black Bank River, a narrow and tortuous stream flowing to the southward between the two islands named and entering the sea about 4 miles south of Hampton River.

The southern part of St. Simon Island is heavily wooded. The buildings of a summer resort and the white tower of St. Simon lighthouse are conspicuous objects from seaward. All along the coast dangerous shoals make off from 3 to 5 miles.

ST. SIMON SOUND AND BRUNSWICK HARBOR

lie 17 miles southward of Sapelo lighthouse and 27 miles northward of Amelia Island lighthouse. On the northern side of its entrance, which is 78 mile wide, is St. Simon lighthouse. This sound is one of the most important harbors on the coast of Georgia, being the approach to the city of Brunswick, which is the second seaport in commercial importance in the State.

The entrance is obstructed by dangerous shifting shoals, which make offshore to a distance of 51/2 miles, forming a bar through which there is a dredged channel 500 feet wide and 24 feet deep, project depth of 27 feet, marked by range lights and buoys. Drafts of 28 feet are taken over the bar at high water. Inside the bar and in the channel of the sound there is a good depth of water and excellent anchorage.

Brunswick light vessel is moored in a depth of 50 feet, 1414 miles 123° true (SE. by E. 1/8 E. mag.) of St. Simon lighthouse. The

vessel has a yellow hull, with “ Brunswick”).

Brunswick" on each side, and two masts with red cylindrical day marks at head of each. The light is a group flashing white, 3 flashes every 20 seconds, 66 feet above the water, and visible 13 miles. The fog signal is a steam whistle, blast 5 seconds, silent intervals 25 seconds. If the whistle is disabled the ship's bell will be struck by hand 8 strokes, silent interval 4 seconds, 4 strokes, silent interval 40 seconds. The submarine bell strikes“ 84," thus: 8 strokes in 2223 seconds, silent interval 4 seconds, 4 strokes in 1143 seconds, silent interval 8 seconds.

St. Simon lighthouse is a white conical tower attached to a brick dwelling. The light is fixed white varied by a white flash of 5 seconds duration every 60 seconds, 104 feet above the water, and visible 16 miles.

Entering the western end of the sound from northward are Frederica, Mackay, and Back Rivers. These all extend northward and connect with Buttermilk Sound, and thus afford a passage into Altamaha Sound. Frederica River is the easternmost of the three rivers and the one used by vessels passing through the inland passage.

St. Simon Mills is a village on the east bank of Frederica River, about 11/2 miles above its mouth. There are several abandoned mills here. There is 12 feet of water in the channel up to the village, and vessels formerly loaded to a draft of 18 feet at the mills.

St. Simon is a summer resort and landing at the south end of the island of St. Simon.

Prunswick River enters the sound from southward and just inside the entrance. The river for a distance of 234 miles above its mouth has an average width of 114 miles, but the deep-water channel averages only a little over 14 mile in width, and in one place is only 200 yards wide. Above Brunswick Point the river for a distance of about 212 miles has an average width of 34 mile, and above this it is divided into two branches by Buzzards Island. The southern branch is known as Turtle River, and the northern branch, on which the city of Brunswick is situated, is known as the East River, or Brunswick Harbor. The city of Brunswick is about 71/4 miles from St. Simon lighthouse; it has regular steamboat communication with Darien, Satilla River, Fernandina, and intermediate places, and a large coastwise and foreign commerce. A depth of 21 feet at low water can be taken up East River to Brunswick, and up Turtle River to the Southern Railroad wharves.

South Brunswick River enters Brunswick River from westward opposite Buzzards Island. Fancy Bluff Creek enters South Brunswick River from the southwestward 144 miles above its mouth. This creek affords a narrow channel, good for a depth of about 4 feet at low water, to Little Satilla River.

Jekyl Creek enters Brunswick River from southward about 212 miles above its mouth; with Jekyl and St. Andrews Sounds it forms part of the inland passage to Fernandina. A depth of 612 feet at low water can be taken from Brunswick River through the creek. The dredged entrance from Brunswick River is marked by range lights (white structures) and a jetty.

Plantation Creek and Clubb Creek have been improved to a depth of 6 feet. The entrance from Brunswick River is 1/2 mile above the quarantine station, and the channel then leads through a cut across

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the marsh in a northeast direction, cutting off the westerly loop of Plantation Creek. The channel is in the middle of Plantation Creek, except in the reach trending southward of east, where it favors well the north bank; then after favoring the outside of the sharp bend, the channel favors the east bank until halfway up the northward trending reach. The channel then leads through a cut to Clubb Creek, and so in mid creek to Back River.

Back River with Mackay River, is used by small steamers as a part of an inland route to Altamaha River. There is a depth of 4 feet at low water through Rock River to Mackay River. On Back River 21/4 miles above Clubb Creek there is a mill at which vessels load to a draft of about 17 feet.

Prominent features.- In clear weather St. Simon lighthouse shows well at a distance of 8 miles, and from the gas and whistling buoy Little Cumberland Island disused lighthouse can be seen southwestward. Near the beach eastward and northeastward of St. Simon lighthouse are a number of cottages and several large houses.

Pilots. Pilots are on the lookout at St. Simon lighthouse and will come out when a vessel is sighted. Pilotage is compulsory for certain vessels. For pilot rates see Appendix. Pilots for the inland passage can be obtained at Brunswick.

Towboats are usually employed by the larger and deeper draft sailing vessels. They can be had at Brunswick and by making signal outside.

Quarantine.—The national quarantine station is at Brunswick Point, on the north bank of Brunswick River, about 142 miles below the city. Vessels subject to visitation by the health officer will be boarded in the sound.

Hospital.–At Brunswick there is a relief station of the United States Public Health Service.

Harbor control. The limit of speed of steamers passing the wharves of Brunswick is 4 miles an hour, and the engine must be stopped and turned over slowly when passing where two or more vessels are moored abreast and where barges or flats are employed at any point in the harbor.

Anchorages.—There is good anchorage anywhere in the channel in St. Simon Sound or Brunswick River off the range lines. Off the city of Brunswick there is no anchorage, except for small craft westward of the Brunswick Harbor range. Small vessels can anchor in East River near the mouth of Academy Creek.

Supplies.- Provisions, ship chandler's stores, anthracite or bituminous coal, gasoline, fuel oil, ice, and fresh water can be obtained at Brunswick.

Repairs.---Light repairs can be made to the machinery of steamers, and there is a small marine railway with a capacity of about 400 tons and a draft of 7 feet forward and 12 feet aft; but Savannah and Jacksonville are the nearest places where large vessels can be hauled out for extensive repairs.

Wharves.—The facilities for loading and discharging cargoes at Brunswick are good. There is from 7 to 28 feet alongside the wharves according to locality, and 26 feet at the wharves of the Southern Railroad on Turtle River. The railroad parallels the

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