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INTRODUCTORY.

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE,
U.S. COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY,

Washington, D. C., July 1, 1922. This publication covers the coast from Cape Henry to Key West, including Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and is based mainly upon the work of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, including the results of a special examination during 1921.

This volume covers the same territory as the first edition of Section D, excepting that the inland waterway from Beaufort, N. C., to Key West, Fla., has been omitted, as this route is fully described in the Inside Route Pilot, New York to Key West. The present (second) edition has been prepared by Commander Paul C. Whitney, hydrographic and geodetic engineer, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey.

Great courtesy has been shown by the United States Engineers, the Lighthouse Service, and local authorities in furnishing information for use in this volume.

The aids to navigation are corrected to November 1, 1922.

Navigators are requested to notify the Director of the Coast and Geodetic Survey of any errors or omissions that they may find in this publication or of additional matter which they think should be inserted for the information of mariners.

E. LESTER JONES, Director.

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NOTE.

The courses and bearings given in degrees are true, reading clockwise from 0° at north to 360°, and are followed by the equivalent magnetic value in points in parentheses. General directions, such as northeastward, west-southwestward, etc., are magnetic.

Distances are in nautical miles, and may be converted approximately to statute miles by adding 15 per cent to the distances given.

Currents are expressed in knots, which are nautical miles per hour. Except where otherwise stated, all depths are at mean low water.

Supplements and other corrections for this volume are issued from time to time and will be furnished free of charge on application to the Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, D. C., provided the volume itself has not been superseded by a subsequent edition.

VI

NAVIGATIONAL AIDS AND THE USE OF CHARTS.

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The Coast and Geodetic Survey is charged with the survey of the coasts, harbors, and tidal estuaries of the United States and its insular possessions and issues the following publications relating to these waters as guides to navigation: Charts, Coast Pilots, Tide Tables, a catalogue of these publications, and Notice to Mariners, the last named published weekly by the Bureau of Lighthouses and Coast and Geodetic Survey.

CHARTS bear three dates, which should be understood by persons using them: (1) The date (month and year) of the edition, printed on the late charts below the border in a central position; (2) the date of the latest correction to the chart plate, printed in the lower left-hand corner below the border; (3) the date of issue, stamped below the border and just to the left of the subtitle.

Charts show all necessary corrections as to lights, beacons, buoys, and dangers, which have been received to the date of issue, being hand corrected since the latest date printed in the lower left-hand

All small but important corrections occurring subsequent to the date of issue of the chart are published in Notice to Mariners, and should be applied by hand to the chart immediately after the receipt of the notices.

The date of the edition of the chart remains unchanged until an extensive correction is made on the plate from which the chart is printed. The date is then changed and the issue is known as a new edition.

When a correction, not of sufficient importance to require a new edition, is made to a chart plate, the year, month, and day are noted in the lower left-hand corner.

All the notes on a chart should be read carefully, as in some cases they relate to the aids to navigation or to dangers that can not be clearly charted.

The charts are various in character, according to the objects which they are designed to subserve. The most important distinctions are the following:

1. Sailing charts, mostly on a scale of approximately 1200090, which exhibit the approaches to a large extent of coast, give the offshore soundings and enable the navigator to identify his position as he approaches from the open sea.

2. General charts of the coast, on scales of tooboo and 200000) intended especially for coastwise navigation.

3. Coast charts, on a scale of godoo, by means of which the navi. gator is enabled to avail himself of the channels for entering the larger bays and harbors.

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4. Harbor charts, on larger scales, intended to meet the needs of local navigation.

Note.—General charts of the Philippine Islands are on scales 18010od, gooboo, and zooooo; coast charts are on scales tooboo and 200000

Coast Pilots, relating to surveyed waters of the United States, Porto Rico, Alaska, and the Philippine Islands, contain full nautical descriptions of the coast, harbors, dangers, and directions for coasting and entering harbors. Similar information relating to Hawaii is published in Coast Pilot Notes.

Coast Pilots are corrected for important information received to the date of issue, which is stamped on the correction sheets accompanying the volume. From time to time, as the material accumulates, supplements are issued, containing the more important corrections since the publication of the volume. The supplements are printed on one side of the paper only, so that they may be cut and pasted in the appropriate places in the volume. Supplements and other corrections for any volume can be furnished, free of charge, an application to the Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, D. C., provided the volume itself has not been superseded by a subsequent edition.

TIDE TABLES.—The Coast and Geodetic Survey Tide Tables are issued annually in advance of the year for which they are made and contain the predicted time and height of the tides for each day in the year at the principal ports of the world, including the United States and its possessions. A table of tidal differences is given by means of which the des at more than 3,000 intermediate ports may be obtained. Separate reprints from the Tide Tables, United States and foreign ports, are issued for the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United States and its dependencies.

CURRENT TABLES, which have heretofore been issued as a part of the Tide Tables, are now published separately as Current Tables, Atlantic coast of the United States, and Current Tables of the Pacific coast of the United States.

AGENCIES for the sale of the Charts, Coast Pilots, and Tide Tables of the Coast and Geodetic Survey are established in many ports of the United States and in some foreign ports. They can also be purchased in the office of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, D. C.,

or any of the field stations. If ordered by mail, prepayment is obligatory. Remittances should be made by postal money order or express order, payable to the “ Coast and Geodetic Survey.” Postage stamps, checks, and drafts can not be accepted. The sending of money in an unregistered letter is unsafe. Only catalogue numbers of charts need be mentioned. The catalogue of charts and other publications of the Survey can be obtained free of charge on application at any of the sale agencies or to the Coast and Geodetic Survey Office, Washington, D. C.

OTHER PUBLICATIONS.—Lists of Lights, Buoys, and other Daymarks of the United States, its insular possessions (Philippine Islands excepted), and the Great Lakes, are published by the Bureau of Lighthouses and may be purchased from its sale agences or from the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. Notice to Mariners, relating to the same waters, is published weekly by the Bureau of Lighthouses and Coast and Geodetic Survey. These publications

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