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ARTÍCULO 1. Conforme a lo pre- ARTICLE 1. As provided in artivisto en el artículo 85 de la Cons- cle 85 of the Constitution, the titución, habrá para el despacho business of the Government shall de los negocios las respectivas be transacted in the respective deSecretarías de Estado, á cargo de partments by the secretaries of uno ó más Ministros que no pasarán state, who may preside over them, de cuatro.

provided that the number of sec

retaries shall not exceed four. ART. 2. Comuníquese, etc. ART. 2. Let it be communicated,

etc. Cúmplase. Montevideo, julio 11 Approved. Montevideo, July de 1854.

11, 1854. MAGARIÑOS.

MAGARIÑOS.

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El Senado y Cámara de Repre- The Senate and Chamber of Repsentantes de la República, etc., resentatives of the Republic, etc., etc., decretan:

etc., decree: ARTÍCULO 1. Créase un Minis- ARTICLE 1. A department of terio de Estado, que comprenderá state is hereby created which shall los ramos de Justicia, Culto é Ins- have charge of all business relattrucción Pública.

ing to justice, religious worship,

and public instruction. ART. 2. El Poder Ejecutivo ART. 2. The Executive power is queda autorizado para adscribir al hereby authorized to put in charge nuevo Ministerio, aquellos cometi- of the new department any other dos que á su juicio crea de opor- branch of business, if in its judgtunidad para el mejor servicio de ment the public service may be la administración pública.

benefited thereby. ART. 3. Los gastos que ocasione ART. 3. The expenses to be inla subsistencia de este Ministerio, curred for the support of the new se incluirán en la planilla que co- department shall be met by the rresponda en el presupuesto gene- proper item in the general approral de gastos de la Nación. priation bill. ART. 4. Comuníquese, etc.

ART. 4. Let it be communicated,

etc. Téngase por ley de la nación. Approved. Montevideo, JanuMontevideo, enero 22 de 1883. ary 22, 1883. SANTOS.

SANTOS.

III.

III.

Nueva organización de los Ministerios de

Estado, autorizada por el artículo 6o de Ley de Presupuesto General de Gastos de 30 de Enero de 1891.

New organization of the Executive depart

ments under article 6 of the law of general appropriations approved January 30, 1891.

MINISTERIO DE GOBIERNO, DEPARTMENT OF GOVERNMENT, Montevideo, Febrero 6 de 1891. Montevideo, February 6, 1891. El Presidente de la República, The President of the Republic, en acuerdo general de Ministros, after consultation with the memdecreta:

bers of the Cabinet, decrees: ARTÍCULO 1. Las Secretarías de ARTICLE 1. The Executive deEstado de que habla el artículo 85 partments mentioned in article 85

de la Constitución serán cinco y se of the Constitution shall be five in denominarán:

number, to be known by the fol

lowing names: Ministerio de Gobierno.

Department of Government. Ministerio de Fomento.

Department of Fomento. Ministerio de Hacienda.

Department of the Treasury. Ministerio de Relaciones Exte- Department of Foreign Relariores.

tions. Ministerio de Guerra y Marina. Department of War and Navy. ART. 2. Corresponden al Mi- ART. 2. The Departinent of Govnisterio de Gobierno todos los ernment shall have charge of all asuntos relativos á policía, segu- matters relating to the police, pubridad, elecciones, justicia, cárceles, lic safety, elections, justice, jails, beneficencia pública, higiene, co- public charities, public health, municaciones postales y tele- postal and telegraphic communigráficas y administraciones depar- cations, all executive matters of tamentales y Juntas Económicas the Provinces, and of the economAdministrativas.

ic-administrative boards. ART. 3. Corresponden al Mi- ART. 3. The Department of Fonisterio de Fomento todos los mento shall have charge of all asuntos relativos á instrucción y matters relating to education and obras públicas, vías de comunica- public works, ways of communición, inmigración, colonización, cation, immigration, colonization, agricultura é industrias en ge- agriculture, and industry in genneral.

eral. ART. 4. Corresponden al Mi.. ART. 4. The Department of the nisterio de Hacienda todos los Treasury shall have charge of all asuntos relativos al Presupuesto matters relating to the general General de Gastos, percepción de budget of expenses, collection of impuestos é inversión de rentas, taxes, disbursement of public contabilidad, crédito público y moneys, accounts, public credit, arrendamiento y enajenaciones de leases and sales of all classes of toda clase de bienes fiscales. public property.

ART. 5. Corresponden al Mi- ART. 5. The Department of Fornisterio de Relaciones Exteriores eign Relations shall have charge todos los asuntos relativos al of all matters relating to the dipCuerpo Diplomático y Consular lomatic and consular body of the de la República y negociaciones Republic, and negotiations with con los gobiernos extranjeros y foreign governments and with the con la Santa Sede.

Holy See. Le está igualmente encomendado Everything relating to the exertodo lo concerniente al ejercicio cise of the national patronage and del patronato nacional y á la re- the religion of the State shall also ligión del Estado.

belong to it. ART. 6. Corresponden al Minis- ART. 6. The Department of War terio de Guerra y Marina todos and Navy shall have charge of all los asuntos relativos al ejército y matters relating to the army and armada, vigilancia de las costas, navy, the vigilance of the coasts, administración de faros y régimen the supervision of the light-houses, fluvial y marítimo.

and of the fluvial and maritime

system of the Republic. ART. 7. En caso de impedimen- ART. 7. In case a Secretary of to ó excusación de alguno de los State requests to be excused from Ministros de Estado en asunto de- acting in any special matter, or is terminado, el Presidente de la Re- impeded from doing so, the Presipública designará al Ministro que dent of the Republic shall desighaya de subrogar al impedido ó nate another Secretary to act in excusado, autorizando esa reso- his place, and the decree by which lución el Oficial Mayor del Minis- this designation is made shall be terio á que corresponda origina- signed by the chief clerk of the riamente el asunto.

department to which the matter

belongs. ART. 8. Las Secretarías de los ART. 8. The Secretaries of the Ministerios se harán cargo de los Departments herein organized archivos que respectivamente co- shall be the custodians of the rrespondan á los ramos que a cada archives respectfully corresponduno se adscribe por el presente de- ing to them under the provisions creto.

of the present decree. ART. 9. Comuníquese, etc.

ART. 9. Let it be communicated,

etc. ANEXO No. 12.

ANNEX No. 12.

Ley interpretando el artículo 87 Law interpretating article 87 of de la Constitución.

the Constitution.

El Senado y Cámara de Repre- The Senate and Chamber of sentantes de la República, etc., Representatives of the Republic, etc., decretan:

etc., etc., decree: ARTÍCULO 1. Declárase incom- ARTICLE 1. The positions of patible el cargo de Ministro de secretary of state and justice of Estado del Poder Ejecutivo, con the supreme court are hereby deel de miembro del Superior Tri- clared incompatible. bunal de Justicia. ART. 2. Comuníquese, etc.

ART. 2. Let it be communi

cated, etc. Cúmplase. Montevideo, marzo Approved. Montevideo, March 11 de 1869.

11, 1869. BUSTAMENTE.

BUSTAMENTE.

ANEXO No. 13.

ANNEX No. 13.

Ley sobre establecimiento de la Alta Law on the establishment of the

Corte (artículo 95 de la Consti- high court (article 95 of the Contución).

stitution). El Senado y Cámara de Repre- The Senate and Chamber of sentantes de la República, etc., Representatives of the Republic, etc., decretan:

etc., etc., decree: ARTÍCULO 1. La Alta Corte de ARTICLE 1. The members of the Justicia sera nombrada por la high court of justice shall be apAsamblea General, luego de san- pointed by the General Assembly, cionadas las leyes que deba aplicar as soon as the laws to be applied en los casos de su jurisdicción pri- by it to cases falling under its own vativa y aquellas que deban regu- special jurisdiction, and the laws lar sus procedimientos y los de los relating to its proceedings, and Tribunales de Apelaciones y Juz- those of the courts of appeal gados de Primera Instancia. and courts of first instance, are ART. 2. El Poder Ejecutivo ART. 2. The Executive power nombrará una Comisión de cinco shall appoint a commission of five abogados, que proyecten las leyes lawyers, whose duty it shall be to de que habla el artículo anterior draft the laws referred to in the elevando al Poder Legislativo el preceding article, and submit them proyecto ó proyectos que preparen. to the legislative power.

enacted.

ART. 3. La referida Comisión ART. 3. The commission aforese atendrá á lo preceptuado en el said shall be governed by the proartículo 137 de la Constitución. visions of article 137 of the Con

stitution. ART. 4. Comuníquese, etc. ART. 4. Letit be communicated,

etc. Cúmplase. Montevideo, mayo Approved. Montevideo, May 3 de 1881.

3, 1881. SANTOS.

SANTOS.

ANEXO No. 14.

ANNEX No. 14.

Ley explicando el artículo 119 de Law explanatory of article 119 of la Constitución.

the Constitution.

El Senado y Cámara de Repre- The Senate and Chamber of sentantes de la República, etc., Representatives of the Republic, etc., decretan:

etc., etc., decree: ARTÍCULO ÚNICO. Él ser militar

SOLE ARTICLE. Military officers no inhabilita para ser Jefe Político shall not be disqualified by virtue al ciudadano que reuna las cuali- of their military character, from dades que pide el artículo 119 de holding the position of political la Constitución.

chief, if they have the qualifications required by article 119 of the

Constitution. Cúmplase. Montevideo, junio Approved. Montevideo, June 27 de 1854.

27, 1854. MAGARIÑOS.

MAGARIÑOs.

REPUBLIC OF CHILE.

HISTORICAL NOTES.

The constitutional and political history of the Republic of Chile may be divided into three periods. The first extends from 1810, when the representative of the Spanish Crown resigned his position and the "Junta Nacional de Gobierno" was established, to 1814, when the Chileans were defeated at Rancagua by the royalist army; the second, known in Chilean history by the name of Reconquista española, begins with the Spanish victory at Rancagua, October 2, 1814, and ends with the brilliant victories won by the Chileans at Chacabuco on the 12th of February, 1817, and at Maipo on the 5th of April, 1818, at which time the Spanish power in Chile was broken, and the third, beginning in 1818, includes the recognition of Chilean independence by the United States of America in 1822, and all subsequent events.

A point of law has been raised, and raised by Chilean jurists, that Chile had no existence either de facto or de jure, during the eight years constituting the first and second periods above described. In fact it was maintained by a distinguished Chilean, who represented his country before the claims commission established at Washington under the treaty of August 7, 1892, between Chile and the United States of America, that “on the 31st of October and the 18th of November, 1816, the territory later known by the name of the Republic of Chile was a Spanish colony." The majority of the commission consisting of Don DOMINGO GANA, commissioner for Chile, and Mr. ALFRED DE CLAPARÈDE, commissioner appointed by the President of the Swiss Confederation, without taking, however, the position of the agent for • Chile, decided that as the Washington Government did not recognize Chile as an independent nation until 1822, Chile up to that date was nothing to the eyes of the United States of America but a country “de jure under the domination of Spain.”a

FIRST PERIOD.

The revolutionary movement, which in the end secured for Chile its independence from Spain, was started in Santiago in the middle part of 1809, when the information reached there by way of Buenos Aires that Spain had been invaded by the French, that King FERDINAND VII was a prisoner in France, and that the Government of the mother

a This decision was rendered in the case of EUGENE L. Didier et al. v. The Republic of Chile, No. 5 on the docket of that commission. Mr. John Goode, commissioner on the part of the United States, filed a dissenting opinion.

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