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It is the common brittle star (Ophiocoma rous apertures, through which hundreds of rosula), and well deserves its English suckers can be extended, and perform the name. When your dredge has been emptied, functions both of feet and of hands, for you see a mass of snaky looking arms they serve as means for locomotion, and
instruments for securing their prey.
Sars, a Norwegian naturalist, has made us acquainted with some interesting facts regarding the production of the young of one species, and the changes which they undergo. The annexed figure (Fig. 39) is a copy of one by him, representing the
Fig. 38. twining about, and even while you look some of them separate from the rest.
2991 do Struck at so strange a sight, you lift up one for closer examination ; in a moment, all the arms are flung off, and the central 'disk
Fig. 39. alone remains in your hand. The only way lower surface of the body of the “Eyed to prevent this disruption, is to have a Cribella," as it is called by English natuvessel of fresh water on board, and throw ralists. The eye is situated at the ex. into it such specimens as you wish to pre-tremity of each ray, and is protected from serve in their full integrity. They die injury by a ring of spines. The eggs, after instantaneously; a momentary dip into passing from the ovary, do not escape at boiling water, and exposure to a good fire, once into the sea, but the arms which are or a brisk current of air, will preserve them exhibited in the figure close upon them, and sufficiently to enable you to pack them up, thus retain them in a kind of artificial and convey them in safety homeward. pouch. So long as the mother keeps them
The common brittle star is really a pretty in this way, she may be said to convert a and a curious object... You can scarcely find portion of her body for the time being into a two that are quite alike; they differ in size, receptacle, analogous to the marsupial pouch in the spinousness of their arms, and in the of the kangaroo, or opossum. During all variety of bright colours, blue, orange, yel that time she is voluntarily deprived of any low, pink, and red, that they exhibit. means of obtaining nourishment, and is Their distribution seems to be greatly in- compelled to continue with the segments fluenced by the nature of the sea-boltom. of her body in a very contracted state. This Your dredge at one “haul” may bring up she has been observed to do for eleven suca score or two, all of this species. In cessive days; a striking and remarkable another half-hour, when you have changed example of maternal care, in a creature of your situation, not one of them is to be a very humble grade of organization. found; but others, destitute of the spiny The young, when liberated, swim freely investment, supply their place.
about, undergo a series of transformations Passing on now to a third family (Aste- which are fully described and figured, and riada), we have what are regarded as the at the end of a month assume the appeartrue star-fishes (Fig. 23). The five arms ance of radiate animals. Of the precise here are not mere appendages to the central changes in other species, we are at present disk, but each of them contains within it- uninformed. It is possible that some reader self a part of the digestive system, diverging of the Family Friend may yet be the first to from the stomach which is in the central give the information of which we are at portion of the body. Deep grooves, or present destitute, and thus contribute his avenues, run along the lower surface of quota to the stock of scientific knowledge. each ray, and these are pierced by nume
(To be continued.)
THE BEGGAR CHILD. SMILE on, thou child of poverty,
Methinks I hear thee say, 'Tis heaven alone that maketh me
Glad as a summer's day.
And in a world like this;
Where'er its presence is.
And few and mean thy toys; And yet thy spirit never pants,
For earth's well-purchased joys.
Thou dreamest not that earth-born care,
May cloud thy sunny brow;
So bright, so golden now.
Thou singest blithe as they;
I love to see thee gay.
May change thy spirit's shrine;
Around thy heart may twine.
'Ere thou pale grief hath met; 'Ere the world on thee hath scornful smiled,
Thy sun of life may set.
Possessions greater far,
Beneath the light of star,
I love to see thee gay;
JOHN GEORGE THOMSON.
And a home in a coffined cell;
And the dead they slumber weli.
When the church clock striketh three; I leave him a kiss-so, promise me, dear,
You'll tell him it came from me!
THE JOY OF SUMMER.
BY ROWLAND BROWN.
hymn. I hear the sweet zephyrs invisibly pass, Through the rich-scented clover and daisy.strewn
grass, And the sweet sound they whisper melodiously
seems Like the voices of fairies we hear in our dreams, And the waters that gleam from resplendent cas
cades, And waké with their laughter the cool forest
shades, Leap forth with loud shouts to the radiant light, Like a child whose whole being is swayed with
delight. And in glory the boughs of the beautiful trees, Seem dancing to music of bird and of breeze; And the flowers that lift up their sweet forms
from the sod, Seem to speak to the soul like the still voice of God. O, not now, then, the heart should with grief be
oppress'd, When earth with such tokens of pleasure is blest; But with sky, bird, and breeze, should our spirits
impart Unto God, earth's first treasure, the LOVE OF
And distant storms do roll,
To animate the soul;
Our short-lived griefs and pains.
A. e. M. J-LL.
Ah, well! See, dreamingly falls the rain,
And wilderingly howls the wind;
I am leaving these behind.
You will smile again by-and-bye;
E. W. HUDDLESTON.
time we were using the old aerial telegraph THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF
on one line at least, viz., between Liverpool TELEGRAPHS.
and Holyhead! (Concluded from page 154.)
The first electric telegraph worked in
England was on wires laid down between The next electric telegraph in order of the Euston Square and Camden Town stadate is that of Mr. Francis Ronalds, who in tions: and late in the evening of the 25th 1816 constructed one by which he was of July, 1837, in a dingy little room near enabled to send signals with considerable the booking office at Euston Square, by the rapidity through a distance of eight miles light of a faring dip candle, which simply of insulated wire.
made the darkness" visible, sat Professor In 1823, Mr. Ronalds wrote to the Lords Wheatstone with a beating pulse and a of the Admiralty, requesting an inspection heart full of hope. In an equally small of his electric telegraph, strongly recom- room at the Camden Town station, where mending its adoption for government pur- the wires terminated, sat the co-patentee, poses; but, alas! the experiments of the Mr. Cooke, together with Mr. now Sir philosopher were offered all in vain to that Charles Fox and Mr. Stephenson. highly respectable body of intelligent men,
These gentlemen listened with intense and with its usual procrastination and anxiety to the first word spelt by that tremsupineness the English government could bling tongue of steel which will only cease not be induced even to try an electric to discourse with the extinction of man telegraph. “ Lord Melville was obliging himself. Mr. Cooke in his turn touched enough,” says Mr. Ronalds, “in reply to the keys, and returned the answer, "Never my application to him, to request Mr. Hay did I feel such a tumultuous sensation beto see me on the subject of my discovery; fore,” said Professor Wheatstone,
as when but before the nature of it had been known, all alone in the still room I heard the nee. except to the late Lord Henniker, Dr. Rees, dles click; and as I spelt the words I felt Mr. Brande, and a few friends, I received all the magnitude of the invention, now an intimation from Mr. Brande, to the effect proved to be practical beyond cavil or dis
that telegraphs of any kind were then pute.” The telegraph thenceforward, so wholly unnecessary, and that no other than far as its mechanism was concerned, went the one then in use would be adopted.' I on without a check; and the modifications felt very little disappointment,” he conti- of this instrument, which is still in use, nues,
“and not a shadow of resentment on have only been made for the purpose of the occasion, because every one knows that rendering it more economical in its contelegraphs have long been great bores at the struction and working : two wires at present Admiralty. Should they again become being employed, and in some cases only necessary, however, perhaps electricity and one. electricians may be indulged by his lordship After the successful working of the mile and Mr. Barrow with an opportunity of and a quarter line, the directors of the proving what they are capable of in that London and Birmingham Railway proposed way.'
In 1827, Harrison Grey Dyer, an to lay it down to the latter town, if the American, constructed a telegraph at the Birmingham and Liverpool directors would race-course on Long Island, and supported continue it on their line; but they objected, his wires by glass insulators fixed on trees and the telegraph received notice to quit or poles. From that period to 1837, we the ground it already occupied. Of course have no less than eleven different tele- its sudden disappearance would have graphs, and in 1837 six different arrange- branded it as a failure in most men's ments, exclusive of the one patented by minds, and in all probability the telegraph Messrs. Cooke and Wheatstone in the June would have been put back many years, had of the same year. The deflective telegraph not Mr. Brunel, to his honor, determined to was introduced into Russia in 1822 by adopt it on the Great Western. It was acSchilling; at Gottingen, by Gauss and cordingly carried at first as far as West Weber, in 1830; and intó Munich in 1837 Drayton, i.e. thirteen miles : and afterby Steenhul. In 1844 the registering tele- wards to Slough, a distance of eighteen graph of Professor Morse, employing the miles. The wires were not at this early electro-magnet, was introduced between date suspended upon posts, but insulated Baltimore and' Washington. In America and encased in an iron tube which was so far back as 1852 there were no less than placed beneath the ground. fifteen thousand miles of wire erected and The telegraph hitherto had been strictly
constant use in that country, at which confined to railway business, and in fur
therance of this object, Brunel proposed to system of Great Britain; or that beneath continue it to Bristol" as soon as the line the narrow pavement of the alley lies its was opened. Here again the folly and spinal cord, composed of two hundred and blindness of railway proprietors threw ob- twenty-four fibres, which transmits intellistacles in the way, which, however, led to gence as imperceptibly as the medulla oban unlooked-for application of its powers to longata does beneath the skin ? Emerging public purposes; for it is well to bear in from this narrow channel the efferent? mind that in England telegraphs are of two wires branch off beneath the different footdescriptions, viz., the commercial and the paths, ramify in certain plexuses within railway. The latter are used for the pur- the metropolis, and then shoot out along pose of sending communications relative to the different lines of railways, until the railway matters, while the commercial are shores of the island would seem to interpose employed for transmission of public or pri- a limit to their further progress. Not so, vate messages at fixed rates or charges. however, as is well known, for beneath the They are mostly built near the railways, seas, beneath the heaving waves, down and in some cases a railway company will many a fathom deep in the still waters, the construct a line and give the use of it to a moving fire takes its darksome way, until it telegraph company, and as an equivalent emerges on some foreign shore, once more the latter lends its aid to expedite their to commence afresh its rapid and useful business. But sometimes the telegraph is career over the wide expanse of the Conlaid down at the expense of the telegraph tinent.” company, and that too at an expenditure The function of this central office is to which is only another instance_of that receive and re-distribute communications, economy, well understood in England, Of the manner in which these ends are acwhich knows how to make sacrifices bor- complished little or nothing can be gained dering almost on prodigality in order to from a glance round the instrument rooms. reap afterwards with usury the fruits of its You see no wires coming in, or emerging advances,
from them : you ask for a solution of the At a general meeting of the proprietors of mystery, and one of the clerks leads you to the Great Western Railway, in Bristol, a the staircase and opens the door of what Mr. Hayward of Manchester, got up and looks like a long wooden shoot placed perdenounced the invention as “a new-fangled pendicularly against the wall. This is the scheme," and managed to pass a resolution great spinal cord of the establishment, conrepudiating the agreement entered into sisting of a vast bundle of wires, insulated with the patentees. Thus, within a few from each other by gutta percha. One set years, we find the telegraph rejected by two of these conveys the gathered up streams of of the most powerful railway companies, intelligence from the remote ends of the the persons who, above all others, ought to Continent and the farthest shores of Brihave welcomed it with acclamation.
tain, conducts them through London by the To keep the wires on the ground Mr. street lines underneath the thronging footCooke proposed to maintain it at his own steps of the multitude, and ascends with its expense, and was permitted by the directors invisible despatches directly to the different to do so, on condition of sending their instruments. Another set is composed of railway signals free of charge, and of ex- the wires that descend into the battery tending the line to Slough. In return he chamber. It is barely possible to realise was allowed to transmit the messages of the the fact, by merely gazing upon this brown public; and here commences the first popular and dusty bundle of threads, that we are by use of the telegraph in England or in any them put into communication with no less other country. By the end of the year than four thousand four hundred and nine 1845, lines, exceeding five hundred miles in miles of telegraph in England alone. extent were in operation in England, work- It must be remembered that, although we ing Messrs. Wheatstone and Cooke's patents, have only spoken of the Electric and Interand in the following year the powerful national Telegraph Company, there are Electric and International Telegraph Com- several other companies in the United pany sprang into existence. "Jammed in Kingdom working different patents: and if between lofty houses at the bottom of a it is a source of wonder to our readers that narrow court in Lothbury, we see before us one company should virtually possess the a stuccoed wall ornamented with an electric monopoly of telegraphic communication in illuminated clock. Who would think that this country, it must not be forgotten that behind this narrow forehead lay the great it was the first to enter the field, that it brain if we may so term it-of the nervous came forward with a large capital, speedily
secured to itself the different lines of rail- some cases, even wait to spell the words way, and bought up, one after another, letter by letter, but jump at the sentence most of the patents that stood any chance of before it is concluded; and they have competing with its own.
learned by practice, as Sir Francis Head From December, 1852, to the same month says in “Stokers and Pokers," to recognise of the following year, no less than three immediately who is telegraphing to them, hundred and fifty thousand five hundred by the peculiar expression of the needles, messages were forwarded or received by the long drawn wires thus forming a kind this company, the receipts of which were of human antennæ by which individual £84,184 168. 4d., thus paying the company peculiarities of touch are projected to an divide at the rate of seven per cent. per infinite distance !
We had the pleasure of visiting the ElecThe telegraph company between London tric and International Telegraph Office the and Liverpool receives, or did receive a few other day, and rejoiced with a great reyears ago, a thousand pounds a year for joicing at the fact that the whole of the doing the business of this railway company. large and important business is carried on The “ Times” pays the same sum per by women, with the exception of that part annum for the transmission of a certain which belongs to the receipt of the mes. amount of daily news, paying in addition sages, and the transmission of the same by for all extra communications of importance. the well known intelligent-faced mes
The rate at which a commercial message sengers. is charged is a penny a mile for the first The history of the introduction of young fifty miles, and a quarter of this charge for women into this office is most instructive any distance under a hundred miles : some and interesting. It appears that about six lines, the South-Eastern for instance, are years ago Mr. Ricardo, M.P., the then even higher than this in their rates of chairman of the company, heard of a young charges.
girl, the daughter of one of the railway There are two kinds of telegraph worked station-masters, who had for three years by the company, viz. the Needle Telegraph, carried on day by day the whole of the which is preferable for all ordinary transac- electrie telegraph business for her father, tions, because it transmits its messages with and that too with great intelligence and the greatest rapidity, and Mörse's Recording correctness. The idea then suggested itself Telegraph. The latter instrument strikes of training and employing women as clerks the spectator more, perhaps, than the nimble for the telegraph company, and on its being working needle apparatus; but its action proposed to the committee, the proposition is equally simple, strips of variable length, was warmly advocated by General Wylde, representing letters, being punched upon a who has proved a most untiring friend to long strip of paper, called the message strip, the cause. Opposition was of course natuwhich is placed between a revolving cylinder rally enough shown by the clerks of the and a toothed spring. Such is the celerity cstablishment, but the experiment was perwith which the notation is transmitted by mitted to proceed, and Mrs. Craig, the this method, that in an experiment per- present intelligent matron, appointed to informed by M. Le Verrier and Dr. Lardner struct in her own room eight pupils on two before Committees of the Institute and the instruments. At first, the instruments in Legislative Assembly at Paris, despatches one room were worked by young men, and were sent one thousand miles at the rate of the instruments in the other by young nearly twenty thousand words an hour. women, and it seemed as though the directors In ordinary practice, however, the speed is were pitting them against each other, estalimited to the rate at which an expert clerk blishing a kind of industrial tournament, to can punch out the holes, which is not above see which description of laborer was wora hundred a minute. Where the object is thiest. With what tact, perseverance, and to forward long documents, such as a success, Mrs. Craig and her pupils worked, speech, a number of persons can be em- may be gathered from the fact that at ployed simultaneously in punching different Founders Court alone upwards of ninety portions of the message, and thus the meg- young women are now in active employsage strips can be supplied as fast as the ment, the whole of the actual working of machine can work.
the instruments having fallen into their The speed with which the attendants hands. The committee are now perfectly upon these instruments read off the signals satisfied that the girls are not only more made by the needles on the needle tele- teachable, more attentive, and quickergraph is really marvellous: they do not; in keyed than the men clerks, formerly em