« AnteriorContinuar »
the whole of it, as has been already of Syria ;” and in the language of Scripstated, under perfect care,
ture, “ The Tower of Lebanon, that looks “And understand distinctly, that no towards Damascus,"—is in all probability excuse will be taken except for the pro- the Baal-gad mentioned in the eleventh duction of the whole contents of the said chapter of Joshua, seventeenth verse, as -unless the whole contents of the said we cannot refer the name to any other box are produced; and send them here locality answering to the description immediately, and with haste. And be given. ware of any neglect in this matter! lest The name is of Syriac origin, and sigthe utmost blame fall upon you.
nifies the city of Baal or the Sun, which “ And salutation to you; and this is was worshipped here after the manner or sufficient for the urgency."
the Egyptians, from whom the Syrians About six months after the date of the and Chaldeans derived the idolatrous order from Ali Pasha, the case was re- custom of heliolatry. The Greeks changed turned to me at Alexandria, where it had the name into Heliopolis, which is only a been forwarded by Colonel Rose, with Greek translation of the Syriac name. every article correct, except the brass- The Romans retained it during their work and the compass.
sway, but the original one of Baalbec As soon as we had left the Emir’s resi- was again assumed, and still remains. dence, we repaired to the great temple, As to the period, and by whom the an the buildings connected with it, city and temples of Baalbec were first which stand at the western extremity of founded, we are utterly ignorant. Trathe city, just within the modern walls. dition asserts, that the great and mighty
Baalbec surpasses in grandeur all the king and magician, Solomon, wishing to ruins that I have ever witnessed ; and please Belbeis, Queen of Sheba, who was the great peculiarity of its appearance is, an heliolater, impressed into his service that it combines three distinct eras of all the devils and genii he could, and architecture.
that by their aid the first era of architecThe purity of the atmosphere, and dry- ture, consisting of the stupendous walls ness of the climate, have done much to and platforms to be seen on the west preserve these remains of Heliopolis for side of the basement of the great temple, many ages; but in 1847 the viceroy was erected. Some of the stones are of directed that the ruins should be de- such enormous dimensions, that we can stroyed for the sake of the fine stones, scarcely be astonished at the superstition which were to be employed for erecting a connected with the tradition, when we cavalry barracks and forage magazine. reflect how ignorant the people are of the Travellers will now be deprived of the simplest principles of mechanics. They pleasure we experienced in contemplating argue not, neither do they practise ; how its luxurious decorations; for it is scarcely then can we expect them to be civilized ? possible to imagine or behold anything The Arabs assert that Solomon, having more rich in detail, and splendid in con- amassed great wealth, had the vaulted ception, than the ornamentation of the subterranean passages constructed to interior of the great temple, especially secrete his treasures, and that the buildthe doorway.
ings above were only erected to conceal Without the ancient peribolus there his design. was a ditch, which, together with the The first historic record of the building low wall flanked by square towers at of the temples of Baalbec, is that given irregular intervals, that encompasses the by John of Antioch, surnamed Malala, remaining portion of the city, would na- who attributes the building to “ Ælius turally lead us to suppose that it was Antoninus Pius, who built a great temple well fortified.
to Jupiter at Heliopolis, near Libanus, in Baalbec, or Balbec—-called by the Phænicia, which was one of the wonders Greeks Heliopolis, or “The City of the of the world." Sun;" by the Arabians, “the Wonder Some of the coins of the Roman empe
rors confirm the statement of ancient the ancient medals farther than our space authors, that Baalbec or Heliopolis was permits, and we, therefore, refer them to colonized by the Romans : thus we find the beautiful collection in the British that in the time of Julius Cæsar it was a Museum. Roman colony, and in the time of Au- Abulfeda and Ibn Chaukel ascribe the gustus it is mentioned as a garrison origin of Baalbec to the Sabæans and town, which received part of the veterans Aadites. Abulfaragius says that “Conof the fifth and eighth legions. Many stantine built a temple here, and that he other coins have the impress of the tem- olishe a custom of the place that was ples at Heliopolis
on them, such as those highly disgraceful and demoralizing, and of Julia Domna, Caracalla, and Septimus closed the pagan temples.". Severus; on the reverse of one of which The present temple, which was conis a temple, somewhat like that of Baal- verted into a church by Theodosius, was bec, with the columns in front of it, and built by Antoninus Pius in 154, A.D., and COL. HEL. I. O. M. H.---Colonia Helio. beyond that we have little to assist us in politana Jovi Optimo Maximo Heliopo- its historical, legendary, or antiquarian litano, as the legend. Another medal of associations. It was reported to the em. the same emperor has only six columns peror Heraclius as being strongly fortiSed in front; and the reverses of some medals and capable of sustaining a long siege; of Caracalla, Philip the Elder and his and after becoming the mart of the pil. wife Otacilia, bear the same legend and lage of Syria, it was sacked and partially design. One medal of Philip the Elder destroyed, and the greater part of the has a temple with a flight of steps lead- inhabitants put to the sword, 748, A.D. ing to an area, in which is represented a by the caliph of Damascus; after which similar temple to the one at Baalbec, it underwent various vicissitudes, and was with the legend around it of, COL. JUL. pillaged in 1400 by Timour the Tartar. AUG. FEL. HEL.-Colonia Julia Augusta Since this it has been in the power and Felix Heliopolitana.
under the government of the Metawelis.
In 1759 a terrible earthquake, which
overthrew many of the parts of the great 6
temple, and loosened the stone of the soffit of the gate, so as to cause it to fall about eight or nine inches, worked great
destruction, and overthrew several of the sing 4
large columns of this splendid structure, which nevertheless remained nearly entire, in consequence of the excellent
manner they were held together with
Dear reader, pardon my enthusiasm if
you have never beheld Baalbec; and if PLAN OF THE REMAINS OF ANTIQUITIES AT
you have, and possess any soul for poetry,
and the charms that surround us in 1. Chief entrance of the Grand Temple. Eastern countries heightened by art, 2. Square towers. 3. An hexagonal court.
spare me thy criticism, for memory 4. Quadrangle, formerly surrounded by arcades. dwells, without tiring, upon the contem5. Foundation of an ancient edifice.
plation of the sweets that Nature dis6. Remains of a colonnade. 7. Great Temple, nearly perfect.
plays with a lavish hand, amid the wild 8. Saracen building.
and desolate ruins we are describing. 9. Circular Temple.
We lingered long amid its neglected 10. The town of Baalbec.
and lonely halls and mouldering towers, Those of our readers who delight in that have withstood the blast, the tem. numismatics, may possibly desire to trace pest, and the earthquake, and have only the origin or connexion of Baalbec with lately fallen under man's devastating
power; its deserted vaults, gloomy with the old watchwords that stirred the historical associations, lonely frowning hearts of men subjected to a cold utilitaarches, and hillocks strewn with gems of rian logic-never was the lofty home Grecian sculpture, now mouldering into influence of refined and cultivated women insignificance. Architraves, capitals, cor more needed than now. nices, friezes, and columns, thrown into The overweening respect for public and confusion by Nature's convulsions, are professional, and even industrial life, is mingled with the briar, which twining what creates in great measure the inand diving into the mass of neglected art, creased need for that higher influence. scatters the dew-drops from its branches Commerce is undoubtedly the most powerto bespangle Nature's verdant mantle ful civilizer and peacemaker among nabelow; reminding us of the bounty and tions, but it is amusing to hear commerwisdom of Him that provided the dew to cial men speak as if they individually water these regions in the absence of deserved their country's gratitude as rain.
benefactors to society. Some professions Fain would I dwell longer amid thy have noble objects, and all are necessary, ruined walls, mossed o’er with gold, while public men hold a power over the for
fate of their country that may well stir a “Thoa hoary pile ! majestic still,
manly ambition; but still we cannot disMemento of departed fame;
guise the fact that even public life too While roving o'er the moss-clad hill, often, and professions always, are emI ponder on thine ancient name;
braced as a means of living. And as the Here Grandeur, Beauty, Valour sleep, That here so oft have shone supreme;
motives of the man, so must we judge While Glory, Honour, Fancy, weep,
him individually. The motives are quite That vanish d is the golden dream."
reasonable, but he can aspire to no patri. But space compels me to quit thy halls otic praise; and while he is forced so to for a brief time, and to bid my reader, toil, some of the highest interests of for the present, adieu.
society may be suffering. Few, for in
stance, but the wildest democrats will MAMMON CHECKED BY WOMANLY pretend that the United States do not
suffer from the absence of a class who INFLUENCE.
have leisure and refinement, whose tastes THE world for men, and home for wo- and pursuits might affect the moral and men, has been the time-honoured theory intellectual tone of society. And if of life among us, and beautiful does that country thus suffers because moneytheory still seem to us and most valuable, making is the all but universal pursuit of even when hard necessity forces it open her sons, what would it be if her daughto be set aside in practice. It is valuable ters also were generally subjected to the to men as keeping alive the better and same influence? It is a matter of comsofter part of their nature by the acknow- mon remark how superior American woledged claim of the weak upon the strong. men are generally to the men; and who It is valuable to women as giving them can tell how far the marked deference to leisure to fit themselves for their true women has preserved those rude repubavocation as educators of the young, and licans from a lower state of social morals ? the guardians of all that is refined and What the influence of an aristocracy pure in social morals. It is valuable to upon public opinion, upon tastes and manthe general interests of society for all ners, and all those things in life and feel. these reasons, and because it helps to ing that are connected with them, such in counteract the materializing tendencies great measure is the true influence of of an age whose inost crying want is that women, affecting the whole current of of stronger spiritual aspirations. With active life without mingling in it. declining faith — fierce competition for gold-indifference to abstract truth (im.
TAE way to gain a good reputation is to endeaplied in the sordid views of knowledge), Ivour to be what you desire to appear.—Socrutes.
A TRADITION OF HUNGARY.
It was the delicious season of May: the
glowing rays of the setting sun, the
through the trees, the song of the night-
After continuing his route for a short the ancient building on horseback, and distance, he suddenly perceived before the Baron on perceiving him laughed him, in gloomy majesty, the old towers with a sinister expression, and calling a of the convent to which his message was servant ordered him to inform Emelka designed. On arriving at the gate, he his daughter that her presence was re- gave a signal indicated by the Baron, quired.
and immediately afterwards, & porter The maiden entered the apartment of made his appearance. her stern father, beautiful as a star smil- “From whence do you come ?” he deing amidst dark clouds. He took her manded of the Squire. hand, and conducted her to the tower “I am charged with a letter to the gallery.
Prior, from the Baron of Lewenstein,” “Do you see,” he exclaimed, “yonder replied Gyula. cavalier, who is galloping towards the “ Then follow me,” returned the monk, forest ? »
leading the way through a dark and “Yes,” answered Emelka, shuddering narrow passage to a small staircase, with a secret foreboding, “he is Gyula, which they mounted. The Brother your Squire, father!”
knocked softly at the door, and after a “Well," returned the Baron coldly, voice had replied from within in a low you will never behold him again."
murmur, the Squire was told to enter, The maiden tottered, as if struck by a and the porter returned to his lodge. sudden blow. Her eyes closed, and a In a richly sculptured chair was seated deadly paleness overspread her features. the Superior, pale and immovable, more The Baron was obliged to sustain her, or like an antique statue than a living she would have fallen, and calling the being. Casting a rapid glance on the attendants, his daughter was conveyed messenger, a slight movement agitated to her chamber more dead than alive. his features, and he passed his hand over
Meanwhile, Gyula continued his way his brow, as if he was endeavouring to towards the convent of the Templars of recall some image or event to his mePosteny, without the least suspicion of mory. Quickly recovering himself, howthe fate designed for him. He had a ever, he took the letter presented to him letter to deliver to the Prior, and con- by Gyula, and read it with a look of gratulated himself on the confidence such dark meaning, that the Squire felt reposed in him by the Baron, who had some misgiving. selected him for this honour. He pas- “What is your name?” he demanded, sionately loved Emelka, and, secure in at length. her attachment, it may easily be con- “Gyula Ferheggi.” ceived that his thoughts, as he rode “Who were your parents ? onwards, were of the most agreeable “Geisa Ferheggi and Susa Lorandi. character.
Both are now dead.” Towards evening, he entered a forest “And that ring on your finger? adjoining the convent, to which he had
“ Belonged to my mother, and was her been directed, and, according to his in- last present.” structions, he remained there until night. A slight flush suffused the pallid coun
tenance of the monk. He pointed to a anxiety, I summoned resolution, and deseat, and then addressed the messenger : termined to obtain a decision. Accord.
“This letter is addressed to my prede- ingly, mounting on horseback, I proceeded cessor, who died suddenly a few days to the castle she inhabited, with the since, and the Baron of Lewenstein has intention of speaking to the Baron, her not been informed of the circumstance. sire, a proud and sordid noble, and avowThe instructions are to this effect :- Put ing my love for his daughter. to death the bearer of this note, who, "Ah !” exclaimed the servant to me notwithstanding his humble fortunes, as I entered, ‘ you have arrived just in has dared to raise his hopes to an union time to share in the festivities that are with my daughter. Let him die, but taking place here. My young mistress secretly, so that I may never behold him is affianced !' again.'
“I had great difficulty in controlling “ Does love," exclaimed Gyula, “de- my emotions; my beart was nearly pend only upon wealth ?”
bursting with grief and disappointment. “Peace," answered the Superior.- I gave the man a ring, the same you According to the will of those higher now wear on your finger, and desiring than myself, I ought to obey the orders him to deliver it to his mistress, I quitted of the Baron. But this command shall hastily the castle, and became a Templar. not be executed. Swear to me that you She was married, and I was doomed to will never reveal this matter to any solitude and celibacy by the vows I had one."
taken. One day, a Knight craved the “I swear,” replied Gyula, pressing the hospitality of our convent, and while rehand of the old man with ardour. lating the different events that had lately
“You must” resumed the latter, passed under his observation, and for “ leave this night. Here is a letter I which I felt but little interest, he haphad intended to have sent by a brother pened to mention your mother. He of this monastery, to the commandant of described the brilliancy of the wedding our order in Croatia, but you shall be the ceremony, and said that the maiden, messenger. Read it, and remember the although surrounded by every luxury name you must assume, for, when it is that could dazzle a young imagination, presented you will be received into the was sad : from which circumstance, it brotherhood of that district. Conduct was generally believed she had a secret yourself, when admitted, with prudence love for another, and that, in uniting and patience, the rest you may leave to herself to the successful suitor, she was a Providence. If all the world should victim to the imperious will of her father. abandon you, have recourse to me.” These words vibrated on my heart, but it
“But why, my father,” exclaimed was too late. I never saw her afterGyula,“ have I merited this interest ?” wards. I was sent into the East, and
“ You have recalled to my heart times sought death everywhere, but the stroke and scenes long passed away, and these which would have ended my afflictions impressions have affected me, for a reason was withheld for a wise purpose. It is I will disclose to you. Until now, I only a few days since that I returned to have been the only living depository of this monastery, and I do not regret this secret. You are indebted, young having escaped the chains of the Saracen, Squire, to your mother for two lives. I since it has made me the preserver of loved her with all the ardour of youth, your life. But time presses : hasten and this passion, although somewhat away, and if at some future day you feel subdued by age and care, still exists, and yourself the prey of anguish, think of me, will end only with my life. While she and the sufferings I have endured.” was yet young, I saw her often in her The young man embraced the monk father's house, but I had a rival in my gratefully, unable, from excess of emosuit, and he was your father. At length, tion, to express otherwise his thanks, and unable to endure the fearful suspense and then left the apartment. Quickly pur