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the animal has a coat, or skin, or covering, The Sea-Urchins are, like the Cross-fish, resembling that of the hedgehog. In the furnished with delicate retractile suckers, annexed figure (Fig. 40), the prickles are and move by the joint action of these suckshown in their natural condition on the ers and of the spines. If any of my young
friends, during their sojourn at the sea-side this summer, would pick up two or three Sea-Urchins, just when they have been left on the beach by the retiring tide, and would place them in a milk-pan, or other shallow vessel filled with sea-water, they will form a better idea of their mode of progression than from any description. The annexed figure (Fig. 41), represents the dental
Fig. 10. right-hand side; on the other they are removed, so as to exhibit the structure and appearances of the part underneath.
The hard calcareous covering, or shell,” as it is often, but incorrectly termed, is well deserving of minute and careful 'examination. We find Sea Urchins of very different sizes. How is the “shell" enlarged, to meet the acquirements of the
Fig. 41, growing animal. It is composed of a mul- apparatus, more popularly called “ Aristitude of pieces, accurately fitted to each totle's Lantern." So far among the Echinoother; a living membrane supplies the dermata we have met nothing of the kind; shelly secretion, and deposits it round the it is not found in all genera of Sea-Urchins, edges of every separate piece; each piece but appears suddenly developed, and as maintains, therefore, its relative proportion suddenly withdrawn. Yet it is in its to all the rest, and while the bulk of the arrangements most admirable and unique. entire mass is augmented, the characteristic The five sharp pointed teeth at the lower outline of every part is preserved.
part, break up the shell-fish on which the It may not prove uninteresting to advert Sea-Urchin feeds. That they may not be to some other points of structure.
worn away by such severe duty, they are at “In a moderate-sized Urchin I reckoned," the points hard as enamel, and of a softer says Forbes, “sixty-two rows of pores in and fibrous structure above; and, like the each of the ten avenues; now, as there are teeth of the gnawing animals, are always three pairs of pores in each row, their num-growing. The triangular pyramidal pieces ber, multiplied by six and again by ten, above are smooth on the outer surface, but would give the great number of 3720 pores; on the other two sides they are finely but as each sucker occupies a pair of pores, grooved, as if with a file. It is obvious, the number of suckers would be half that therefore, that there are ten surfaces for the amount, or 1860. This structure in the grinding down of the food, and that these egg-urchin is not less complicated in other are so arranged that they work in pairs. parts. There are about 300 plates of one There is also a very complete arrangement kind, and nearly as many of another, all of muscles, to bring into full operation this dovetailing together with the greatest effective piece of machinery, which has here nicety and regularity, bearing on their sur- been only in part described. faces above 4000 spines, each spine perfect In both the Star-fishes and Sea-Urchins in itself, and of a complicated structure, the blood is aërated by the free admission of and having a free movement on its socket. sea-water, into the interior of the body. Truly the skill of the great Architect of At one period of the year the Sea-Urchin, Nature is not less displayed in the con- if cut across, exhibits only a delicate tubustruction of a sea-urchin than in the build- lar membrane going twice round the inteing up of a world !”
rior, and forming, in fact, both stomach and intestine. But at a later period, or towards which is here figured (Fig. 42) is someautumn, much of the vacant space is found times pleased to pull in his tentacula, and filled with large masses of ova or eggs. assume a perfect oval figure; and again, These were much prized by the ancients, when the whim seizes him, he can contract who dressed them in various ways, and they towards the middle to such a degree, that are eaten in many parts of the world at the he reminds one of an hour-glass. present day. Such of my young readers as These animals come but rarely under our have read Byron's narrative of the loss of notice, and can only be regarded by us as the Wager in 1740, may be reminded of his objects of philosophical interest. But in description of the young Indian woman, other parts of the world they are sought for taking a basket in her mouth, jumping out with great avidity, and even constitute an of the boat, diving to the bottom, and bring-important branch of commerce, under the ing it up filled with sea-eggs, for by that name of Trepang, or Beche-de-mer. They name Sea-Urchins in egg are referred. are sold to the Chinese, along with sharks'
Leaving now the Echinida, we come to fins, and edible birds'-nests. Captain Flinanother family, the Eolothuride, in which ders fell in with a fleet of Malay proas the body, instead of being rough or prickly, engaged in this traffic, at the English Comis soft like that of a snail. The Holothuria pany's Islands, north coast of New Holland, has suckers like the Star-fish or the Sea- near the Gulf of Carpentaria (1803); aná Urchin; but it can also move by the con- was informed that sixty proas, belonging to traction and expansion of its body in the the Rajah of Boni, and carrying one thousame manner as a worm. The English sand men, had left Macassar, with the term “Sea-Cucumber,” gives some idea of north-west monsoon, two months before, the appearance; and it will be still better on an expedition to that coast, for the purunderstood by a reference to Fig. 42, which pose of collecting the trepang. The process
of curing is a simple one. The trepang is split down one side, boiled, pressed with stones; then stretched open with slips of bamboo, dried in the sun, and afterwards in
smoke; it is then fit to be put away in bags. Beach
We come now to the last family of the Star-fishes, the Sipunculida or spoon worms. They are the outliers of the Radiate king
dom, and have abandoned the costume and Fig. 42.
external appearance of their relatives, and represents the largest species yet discovered put on that of worms, true subjects of the in the British seas. (Cucumaria frondosa.) The strangest thing about these animals is the manner in which they part with the most important organs, casting them away as things of no account. Sir John Dalzell states, from his own observation, that after this had been done so thoroughly that the body remained like an empty sac, in a few months all the lost parts were reproduced. This is the more remarkable, as the anatomical structure is remarkably complex. Sir John informs us that a Ho
wer lothuria has produced five thousand ova ir the course of a single night.
When parts so important as the tentacula, the mouth, the oesophagus, and the intestine are wilfully discarded by the Holothuria, we can scarcely expect it will remain true to its proper form of body. Could our vagabonds, whose descriptions fill the Hue and Cry, acquire from this humble marine animal the power of changing, like him,
Fig. 43. their form and dimensions, they would have Articulated kingdom. But even here an a better chance of escape. The very species l examination! of internal structure shows
where the real affinity exists. They are not | When they hook a but (holibut) they imfurnished with suckers; and they move as mediately give the poor star-fish its liberty, worms do, by the expansion and contrac- and commit it to its native element; but if tion of different segments of the body. their fishery is unsuccessful, it is left to Some are found under stone; some burrow perish, and may eventually, enrich the in sand; and some select as their mansion cabinet of some industrious collector.” an empty univalve shell. Such is the practice of the species here represented,
(To be continued.) (Fig. 43, Sipunculus Bernhardus), resembling in this respect the Hermit crabs. Its colour is white; the animal can extend itself
TEN THOUSAND WONDERFUL to a length of three inches, can retract the
THINGS. entire proboscis at pleasure, and change at will the proportions of the body itself.
QUEEN ELIZABETH'S We should hardly expect that animals so lowly in their organization, so harmless to The use of a volume like this is to preman in their habits, as the Echinodermata, sent the matters of past times, and gather would be made the objects either super- from them such particulars as may be enstitious fears or practices. Yet when Dr. couragement to hope for future progress, by Drummond, the talented author of First comparing the social and other progress Steps to Botany, was drying some specimens which has been made during certain porof the common Star-fishes or Five-fingers, tions of our national history; and besides in a little garden at Bangor, (Co. Down,) this, to store up the representations and he heard some children on the other side of descriptions of such objects as may be the hedge say,
“ What's the gentleman worthy of imitation in consequence of their doing with the bad man's hands; is he fitness for certain purposes at the present ganging to eat the bad man's hands, do ye day, or useful as examples of beautiful and
artistic design and execution.
The old London shops shown in the adjoining engraving are pictured by the artist after the most careful research and investigation, and it is therefore probable that the view of old times in a city street is as accurate as if photography, or those skilled in “perspectives," had been then forthcoming to take the prospect.
The sketch shows one of those contrasts to which we have alluded. Compare the quaint and rugged shops of James the First's reign with those which now line the chief streets-elegant in architectural designs and brilliant with the decoration of plate-glass, metal work, and light in the cvening-time with gas, dazzling almost as
much as in the day. Fig. 44.
The first shops of the London traders think?" It appears that the name thuy are were formed in some portion of the usual known by there, is that of the Devil's- residence, the statute and other fairs being, fingers, and the Devil's-hands, and that however, chiefly depended on for the sale of children have a superstitious dread of touch their manufactures. In course of time ing them.
business became more localised, and parThere is another species, distinguished by ticular trades—as is in some measure the the great regularity of its outline-the Butt- case at present—began to occupy particular horn, (Asterias aurantica, Fig. 44,) and districts. These traders, more anxious for pretty generally distributed round our display than others, put goods for sale in coasts. Of this Mr. Bean of Scarborough front of their houses; these, in some incommunicates to Professor Forbes the fol- stances, became fixed erections; then, as lowing singular superstition. “Our fisher- a means of protection against the weather, men call this species a Butthorn. The first the stalls were covered, and after became taken is carefully made a prisoner, and substantial structures. In spite of regulaplaced on a seat at the stern of the boat. tions which were made in those ancient
LONDON SHOPS OF QUEEN ELIZABETH'S DAYS. times, the houses were marched towards and as short a time ago as the reign of Queen connected with the shops. The very same Anne, a large number of the shops in the process may be seen going on now in the principal streets in the City were unglazed, Caledonian-road, Islington; in the New- and in the prints of that time the projectroad, the City-road, and other unfinished ing signs are shown swinging above every thoroughfares: in some instances people place of business. Few matters show the set out a table for the sale of a few goods; onward progress of the country more clearly then a little wooden fabric covered with than the contrast of the shops in the reign tarpauling is put up; and afterwards the of Queen Elizabeth and those of Queen intervening plot of ground, which had once Victoria's days. been a garden, is covered with a shop,
CASCADE DES PELERINES. which, as the neighbourhood improves, becomes more elegant in its appearance. There is a waterfall in Chamouni which
The streets of the metropolis must, in the no traveller should omit going to see, called “good old times," have been singularly the Cascade des Pélerines. It is one of the uncomfortable : no pavement, except here most curious and beautiful scenes in Switand there a few rough boulder stones; in zerland. A torrent issues from the Glacier rainy weather things were almost impassa- des Pélerines, high up the mountain, above ble—the water poured from the pents and the Glacier du Bossons, and descends, by a other projections, and remained in large succession of leaps, in a deep gorge, from puddles—a rainy day in those days must precipice to precipice, almost in one conhave caused a total suspension of business ; tinual cataract; but 'it is all the while for what could tempt a lady abroad under merely gathering force, and preparing for such circumstances? From time to time its last magnificent deep plunge and recoil specimens of the old pavement of London, of beauty. Springing in one round conwhich has been buried by the accumulation densed column out of the gorge, over a per. of more recent soil, &c., are brought to pendicular cliff, it strikes, at its fall, with view, and it is evident that carriages could its whole body of water, into a sort of verwith difficulty be dragged along; sedan- tical rock basin, which one would suppose chairs were not introduced, and the use of its prodigious velocity and weight would umbrellas in England not thought of. Even split into a thousand pieces ; but the
whole cataract, thus arrested, at once | liness, to go winding its life-giving course suddenly rebounds in a parabolic arch, at afterwards as still waters in green pastures. least sixty feet, into the air; and then, The force of the recoil from the plunge of having made this splendid airy curvature, so large a body of water, at such a height, falls with great noise and beauty into the is so great, that large stones, thrown into natural channel below. It is beyond mea- the stream above the fall, may be heard sure beautiful. It is like the fall of divine amidst the din striking into the basin, and grace into chosen hearts, that send it forth then are instantly seen careering in the again for the world's refreshment, in some- arch of flashing waters. The same is the thing like such a shower and spray of love- case with bushes and pieces of wood, which