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lettre; I recommend you the five letters will therefore state here what we think to here included, Je vous recommande les cinq be consecrated by usage and the authority lettres ci-incluses, You will receive this of good writers. letter free of postage, Vous recevrez cette Avoir l'air, to have the appearance, to lettre franche de port; Vous recevrez franc appear, may be used in speaking of anide port la lettre ci-jointe.
mated beings or things. Of Adjectives performing the parts of (1.) When this expression is applied to Adverbs or Nouns.- When an adjective is animated beings, the adjective which is used to modify the signification of a verb, preceded by the word air expresses either it acts the part of an adverb and does not a moral faculty, a quality, a metaphysical vary; as in, This woman sings out of tune, distinction, or else it designates a form, a Cette femme chante faux ; This rose smells manner of being merely physical. good, Cette rose sent bon.
In the first instance, as the adjective may If an adjective, used as such, acts the always reasonably qualify the word air, it part of a noun, it never varies; as, The should agree with the noun; so we say, She moulting of the agate canary-birds lasts looks frivolous and absent, Elle a l'air léger longer than that of others, La mue des et distrait ; They look haughty, but at the serins agate (de couleur agate) est plus same time they are familiar, Elles ont l'air longue que celle des autres.
hautain, mais l'accueil familier; Do not When there are in a sentence two adjec- have yourself painted in a riding-dress; tives, the first of which is modified by the you look too gentle for it, Ne vous faites second, these two adjectives remain invari- pas peindre en Amazone; vous avex l'air able; as, These tissues are of a dark blue, trop doux ; Parisian women do not appear Ces étoffes sont (d'un) bleu-foncé; His hair awkward and embarrassed in their manners, is of a light chesnut colour, Il a les cheveux Les Parisiennes n'ont pas l'air gauche et (d'un) châtain-clair.
embarrassé. But if the two adjectives, placed one after In the second instance, as a physical quaanother, are both used to qualify the same lity cannot be applied to the word air, the noun, they must then agree with that noun; adjective which follows that noun should as, The hair of_that child was chesnut, agree with the animated being spoken of; brown, and fine, Les cheveux de cet enfant as in, This lady seems to be well made, étaient châtains, bruns et fins.
Cette dame a l'air bien faite ; She looks Of the Compound Adjectives “ New-born, pleased with what has just been said to her; Dead-drunk, &c.—When in a compound Elle a l'air contente de ce qu'on vient de lui adjective, the first is used adverbially, it dire. remains invariable, and the second only (2.) When avoir l'air is applied to things, changes; as in, New-born animals want there is no difficulty; for the adjective cantheir mother only for a few months, Les not qualify the noun air, as inanimate animaux nouveau-nés n'ont besoin, de leurs beings can only have physical qualiticamères que pendant quelques mois.
tions; then we should say, This house looks Nouveau is used here instead of the ad- as if it were strongly built, Cette maison a verb nouvellement, newly.
l'air solidement bûtie ; This soup appears It should be observed that nouveau can- to be very good, Cette soupe a l'air très not be used adverbially before an adjective bonne. relating to a feminine noun; thus, we In this latter case, the sentences are ellipcannot say, Une fille nouveau-nee, but tical; the verb to be is understood. Some Une fille nouvellement neé, for A new-born grammarians pretend that the ellipsis is not girl.
allowed in such cases; but usage has conBut if the first adjective is not used ad- secrated it, as well as many of our best verbially, and serves as well as the second writers: and the sentence, Cette soupe a to qualify the noun already expressed, they l'air bonne, is more generally used and more both vary; as in, Have you seen the newly- elegant than Cette soupe a l'air d'être married couple ? Avez-vous vu les nou- bonne. veaux-mariés ?
Of the agreement of Adjectives used in Of the Gender of Adjectives used with the Superlative Degree. – An adjective, the word “Air, Appearance.'
.”—As it is when used in the superlative degree, has sometimes difficult to ascertain the gender lost nothing of its nature of a qualificative, of the adjective which is used to qualify since it expresses still a quality in a very or the word "air, we will try to give some ex- in the highest degree; it therefore follows planation on the subject.
the general rule; but it is sometimes the Grammarians differ on this difficulty; we case that a superlative refers to a noun
which is not expressed; the sentence is mark of two swords crossed, as represented then elliptical, and the mind supplying the in the annexed engraving. noun understood, the adjective agrees with it; as in, Winter is the dullest of seasons, L'hiver est (la saison) la plus triste des saisons.
Remark.--Adjectives in the comparative or superlative degree in French, are most generally placed after the noun.
The English porcelain, manufactured at Of Adjectives as qualifying Nouns of the celebrated Chelsea works, is marked with Persons or Things only. There are adjec- an anchor, thus tives which can only qualify nouns of persons; such as, éconoine, saying; inconsolable, inconsolable; patriote, patriotic; despote, despotic, &c.; and others which can only be applied to things; as, despotique, despotic; économique, economical; pardon
The porcelain manufactured at Derby is nable, excusable; patriotique, patriotic, &c. marked with the cypher Adjectives which are derived from the verbs, such as, pardonnable, inconsolable, which come from pardonner, consoler, are applied to persons or things, inasmuch as these verbs have for their direct object a noun of person or thing: therefore, as we do not say 19th Aug. 1753, until the fall of royalty in
The old Sèvres porcelain, fabricated from in French, Pardonner une personne, we cannot use the expression, Une personne 1793, is marked with the cypher pardonnable; but as we say, Pardonner une chose, we can say, Une chose pardonnable. For the same reason, we cannot apply the adjective inconsolable to things, for persons and not things are to be consoled.
But although this rule is applicable in During the Republic, from 1793 until the most cases, there are a few exceptions which end of 1800, the mark over the Sèvres porusage renders legitimate, as the following: celain was simply the initials F. R. Un roi obéi, a king who is obeyed; Une From 1800 to 1804 the articles were chose convenue, a thing agreed upon; Un marked with the characters état désespéré a hopeless situation; although M. Nle (Manufacture Nationale). we cannot say, Obéir un roi, but à un roi ; Sèvres Convenir une chose, but d'une chose; Désespérer une chose, but d'une chose. There are other exceptions which the pupil will words Manufacture Impériale, Sèvres, were
During the Empire, 1804 to 1814, the easily ascertain as be advances in a know-stamped upon the porcelain. ledge of French.
From the Restoration to the Revolution of (To be continued.)
1830, the articles bore the royal cypher, the double L or double c.
TRADE MARKS UPON PORCELAIN.
It has been the practice at all the great, porcelain manufacturies to stamp upon the bottom, or some other convenient part not exposed to view, of each article fabricated,
From 1830 to 1834, the symbol of equality, a peculiar distinctive mark, by which thé a double equilateral triangle was used : and place of its manufacture shall be always ca- from 1834 to the revolution in 1848, the pable of being ascertained. It will not be articles bore the cypher of Louis Philippe. without interest here to indicate some of the By these indications the amateur will be principal of these marks.
enabled to determine the epoch of the manuThe Dresden porcelain, manufactured at facture of such articles as may fall under his the royal manufactory of Meissen, bears the notice.
spot so often as to make it a bare oircular path." NOTES AND QUERIES FOR
The appearance of a female is the signal for a NATURALISTS.
general battle among the gallant lords of the
fen, who are said to be superior in number to the NOTES.
softer sex. The whole of this splendid head-dress, with the brilliant hue of the skin, dies away at the termination of the love season, and the plumage of the bird is so altered, that even naturalists seek in vain for him amidst the kindred tribes of sandpipers that throng our shores in autumn and winter. The female, the Reeve, is destitute of all this finery, and is a plain, simple bird, never altering in “personal charms.” The splendid tuft of the male differs so much in different individuals, that out of a hundred specimens, scarcely two are alike; they are black, white, and brown, but generally striated with these colours upon a white ground. The amativeness of the bird, however, often proves its ruin. The fowler, concealed in the reeds, has erected a long net, propped up in an inclined position, under which he places his "stales” or stuffed birds. The Ruffs, and sometimes even the Reeves, rush under this net, which is immediately let down upon them; and thus numbers are captured. It was formerly the custom to fatten them with hempseed, boiled wheat and milk, with the addition of a little sugar, and it was said to be a
matter of some judgment to ascertain when they The RUFF AND REEVE (Macheles pugnax).
reached the utmost point of fatness, for if this
carbonaceous diet was continued too long, the This bird, which belongs to the tribe of sandpipers, is known in the male as the Ruff, and in bird, after a certain point, would sicken and pine.
The head was then cut off with scissors, and when the female as Reeve. This distinguishing name is given to the male bird on account of the pecu: birds which reach the metropolitan markets now,
sent to market they fetched a high price. The liarity of his head gear at this season. Like all other sparks who " go a-courting,” he is arrayed however, are mostly procured with the gun, as in his very best suit of a Sunday, or, more pro- have diminished the number of these birds, which
the drainage of the fens, and increased cultivation, perly, summer clothes. Round his neck he wears a ruff , somewhat similar in shape to that worn by formerly not only visited those tracts, but there
their young without danger of molestathe virgin queen of England, Elizabeth, of vast
tion. size compared with his own bulk, and altogether
A DONKEY'S REVENGE. a very singular addendum to his ordinary clothing. In addition to this, a space round the eyes, which A strange occurrence took place a few days ago is void of feathers, becomes at this period of a at Gardanne (Bouches-du-Rhone). A farmer had bright red colour, and covered with small been in the habit of ill-treating a donkey, and on tubercles. And when to this imposing mien you the day in question had beaten the poor animal add the pugnacity of his disposition, he is allo- more brutishly than usual. Thə proverbial pagether as gallant a lover as the days of chivalry tience of the long-eared animal appears to have could ever boast. Linnæus, who was one of the been at length exhausted; and, taking advantage happiest nomenclatists the world has seen, fixed of the moment when the man had just taken off the synonyme of this bird as Tringa pugnax, the the harness, the donkey rushed forward, knocked pugnacious sandpiper, a most felicitous expression, him down, and then began tearing him in the as in the season of courtship the battles that most dreadful manner with its teeth, striking occur amongst the males, for the possession of him also with its fore feet. The man cried out the females, are of a formidable character. The for assistance; but before aid could arrive he male is said to take his stand on a dry bank near was so dreadfully mangled that he died in a few some small pond, “running round a particular | hours.
THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS.
ANSWERS TO QUERIES. The Regent's Park Zoological Gardens have THE ART OF BIBD-STUFFING (p. 227).- Beginbeen enriched by the arrival of two important
ners should never attempt to stuffany bird smaller additions; a fine specimen of the gigantic Sala
than a blackbird; the larger the bird the easier mander of Japan (Sieboldia maxima), and a pair it is to stuff. First put a small quantity of cotton of the celebrated shoe-billed stork (Balæniceps wool down the throat in order to prevent any rex), from the White Nile.- Athenæum, March
moisture escaping from the stomach ; this is 17th, 1860.
highly important, and must never be omitted; THE PLAGUE OF FLIES.
then break the bones of the wings close to the Though delivered by the progress of the siege body; divide the feathers from the breast-bone to from Russian sorties, we are exposed to the attacks the vent; divide the skin in like manner. Great of other enemies, as unceasingly troublesome, if care must be taken not to puncture the abdomen ; not as dangerous. Every nook and cranny is in- raise the skin with the point of a pen-knife until fested by flies in millions, which give one no rest you can take hold of it with your finger and by day, and little by night. Within the last week thumb; hold the skin tight and press on the body the thing has almost assumed the dimensions of a with the knife as the skin parts from it, putting plague. Like the Harpies, they literally " dispute the knife farther under until you reach the thigh; the viands, such as they are, on which we regale; break the thigh-bone close to the top joint, and a morsel in its passage to the mouth being gene- push it gently up until you can take hold of the rally settled upon by two or more of the insects, flesh; now take the bone that is attached to the which require to be vigorously shaken before they Jeg and pull it gently out, turning the skin of the will let go their hold. To remove them from a leg inside out; cut the flesh off close to the knee glass of any liquid before tasting it, it is necessary and skin as far down to the back as you can. Do to introduce three fingers and draw them from the the same with the other side of the bird ; vessel, on the principle of " dragging," as prac- wet escapes from the flesh, dry it up with fresh tised by the Humane Society. The only way to be bran. With a small pair of scissors, put the skin at rest is to sit in a thorough draught, which, on both sides out of your way as much as possible; when surrounded by papers, is a somewhat trouble- push the body up (the tail of the bird being held; some position. On entering a hut after a few in your hand); cut through as close to the tail as moments' absence, they rise in a dense cloud, with possible (this is done inside the skin); then take deafening buzz, from every object. Irritable suf- the bird by the back-bone and gently push the ferers pursue them desperately with towels, laying skin down by the thumb-nail till you come to the about on every side; others try to carry on a more wings; take as much flesh from the wing joints scientific warfare, by burning old newspapers after as you can, and go on skinning till you reach the elosing every aperture; but it is useless-in five ears; take hold of them close to the skull and minutes the place is full with a new and more pull them out. Take the eyes out, and be careful hungry swarm. The only respite is at night, when not to burst them, holding the skin with one the invaders retire to rest on the ceiling in enor- thumb and finger while you pull the eye out of mous black patches; but even then a candle the skin with the other; after taking the eyes out, brought in rouses them to all the playfulness of put as much cotton in the cockets as will fill them noon. Seriously, they are an unexpected and most nicely. Skin down to the beak very gently, cut troublesome visitation, and are especially irritat- the neck away from the skull, and also a piece of ing to the poor sick fellows in the hospital mar- the skull to take the brains out; anoint the skin quees, whom they prevent from getting any rest with arsenicated soap, put a little tow round the the live-long day, and keep in a constant state of thigh bones to form the thigh, and gently turn nervous restlessness. For the next three months the skin back again; if care has been taken, the we must be content to suffer all they can inflict, loss of the body will make but little difference in unless the rains of September rid us of them.- the size of the bird. Get three wires, one as long Crimea, 1855.
again as the bird, the other two twice the length THE QUICKEST RATE OF LOCOMOTION, of the legs, file them sharp at one end, bend the After the electric spark, liglit, sound, and blunt end of the long wire, put some tow on the cannon balls, the flight of a swallow is ascertained bend and squeeze it tight to fasten it, then twist to be the quickest rate of locomotion. One of the tow until it is about the size of the body, do it these birds has been let off at Ghent, and made as tight as possible. Have some tow cut up small, its way to its nest at Antwerp in twelve minutes get a strong wire, rough one point, and turn the and a half, going at the rate of five kilometres other into a bow to hold in your hand; take hold per minute, i.e., 41 miles.
of some of the tow with the rough end, and push
it up the neck; this requires but a small portion irritating it, caused it to cover the extraneous subof tow; put some in the chest and a little all over stance with a pearly deposit. Little figures made the inside of the skin. Put the body wire up the of metal, are frequently introduced, which, covered neck, and bring it out through the skull at the with the deposit, are valued by the Chinese as top of the head; draw the body into the skin and charms." be careful not to stretch the neck; then put the ABOUT BEES (p. 227).-It has been the custom, other wires throngh the centre of the foot up the from time immemorial, to rub the inside of the legs, being careful not to break the skin; put hive with salt and clover, or some sweet-scented enough wire inside the skin to push into the body herb, previously to putting a swarm of bees into to fasten the legs; cut off a pieee of the wire that the hive. This practice, which is thought to be has gone through the head, put it through the serviceable to the bees, is disadvantageous to them; tail into the body (under the tail, of course; open for it gives them unnecessary labour, as they will the eyelids, and put in the eyes (patience is re- be compelled to remove every particle of foreign quired in young beginners to do this); mount the matter from the hive, before they begin to work. bird on a perch fastened to a small board, bend Equally reprehensible is the vile practice of makthe legs so that it will seem to stand in a proper ing an astounding noise with fire-pans, kettles, position, be careful not to loosen the leg wires &c., when the bees are swarming. It may have from the body, bring the feathers nicely together originated in some ancient superstition, or it may between the legs, bend the neck, and put the head have been the signal to call aid from the fields, to in the shape you think proper, then run a pin or assist in the hiving. If harmless, it is unnecessay; a piece of wire through the butt of the wing and and everything that tends to encumber the manageinto the body, to keep it in its proper place. ment of bees should be avoided.-- Timbs's Popular Should the bird be out of shape in places, raise Errors. the skin gently with a needle, put the feathers as WHAT IS A REPTILE (p. 227).-The term reptile straight as you can, put a pin in the breast, back, comes originally from the Greek to and under each wing near to the top of the thigh, Latin, reptilis, and in a general sense is applied fasten the end of the cotton to one of the pins, to any animal that moves on its belly. or by means and gently wind it round the bird from one pin to of short legs, as snakes, lizards, tortoises, &c. But, the other ; put up the bird when you see that it is scientifically speaking, the term reptiles, or reptilia right. You had better let the specimen dry of itself, is confined to the designation of those cold-blooded then bake it; keep it free from dust, and it will vertebrated animals that breathe by means of dry in a fortnight. Spread the tail in a natural lungs principally - are destitute of hair and position, and when it is dry, unwind the cotton; feathers, and do not suckle their young. Such cut the pins close to the butt of the wing and the animals form the subject of that branch of Zoolo
take out the others, and the bird is finished. logical science termed herpetology In the arFORMATION OF PEARLS (p. 227).—There is now, rangement of Cuvier, reptiles form the third class we believe, no question that the account given of vertibrated animals, and are divided into four by the authority referred to by our querist, of the orders; in that of Linnæus, they constitute an formation of pearls, is the correct one. order of the class amphibia creatures that can Number of the Journal of the Society of Arts, live either on land or on the water.-H. G. A. published in 1853, it was stated that “An oyster,
QUERIES. or rather à mussel, of the species known to na
Salamanders.--I see by the papers, that a large turalists as the mya-margaritefera, in which the
kind of salamander has lately arrived at the artificial pearls are found by the Chinese, had been | Zoological Gardens. Can you give your readers recently sent to this conntry. These pearls are some account of it and of salamanders generally? only obtained near Shing-poo, and until lately It has been said that these creatures can live in fire.
Is it so ?-GEORGE. very little was known of the manner in which they
The Egyptian Stork.-A new kind of stork, were found; and the account first published by with a very large head, which is more curious Sir Joseph Banks was generally questioned. The than beautiful, has just become an inmate of the Hermes, steamer, however, on a late visit to that Regent's Park Gardens. Will somebody give a place, was able to obtain several live ones in which, history of this remarkable bird, and so gratify
B.? on being opened, several pearls, as many as Horse versus Lion.-Can any readers of the eighteen or twenty, was found in the course of “ Family Friend” furnish me with an authentic formation. The one scnt only contains simple instance of a horse successfully resisting the
attack of a lion ? I think I have somewhere read pearis adhering to the shell. It appears they of an encounter between the two animals, in which were formed by introducing some pieces of wood or the first was victorious, but cannot recollect baked earth into the animal while alive, which I where.--INQUIRER.