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such a method of disposing of our fair with wistful and alternate glances the beauties would not answer.

savoury meal, and three musicians that A fine, handsome young fellow, with were singing close at hand. more money than generally falls to the The epithalamium was a doleful kind lot of Arabs, sought a wife, according to of a ditty, notwithstanding it contained the custom of the land, and fell in love some most desperate love sentences, such with the lady's ankles, because he was as“ By Allah! I am consumed with love!" not permitted to see her face! The day -“Thy black eyes have made me mad!" arrived; the bridal procession, headed by -“Beloved of my heart, honey is on a buffoon mounted on a horse, who, your lips, your glances have intoxicated dressed in an absurd manner, performed me!” And the musical instruments were the most approved and extravagant an- noisy and harsh, as all of them are, which tics; the drums were beaten with more is the more extraordinary, as the Syrians than common zeal; the swordsmen en- are remarkably fond of music, and even gaged in the mock fight kept the bride when employed in the fields, or carrying broiling in the sun longer than usual; the goods, rowing, and sawing, they regulate dancing-men, musicians, and assemblage their motions by songs and chaunts, and of relations shouted, sang, and played always pay great attention to any Eurowith great vigour. In the centre, the pean performances, or musical instrubride, entirely covered with a red shawl, ments. Their system of music is peculiar walked between two other females, under --the tones being divided into thirds, a canopy of silk supported by four poles; which renders the style confined, plainwhile a woman, walking backwards, con- tive, and simple. stantly fanned her; crowds of men and Having presented our wedding gifts children followed and surrounded the of loaves of sugar, coffee, and tobacco, we procession to the house. In the evening, seated ourselves on the ground, and witthe bonfires blazed; the cressets cast a nessed the dancing and feasting, not cheerful light around; the Ziraleet and omitting to partake of some of the roasted music sounded shrilly and merrily; but sheep, with the pistachio stuffing, one alone was sad, that should have been Now all this feasting and display does happy, the happiest of all-the bride- not cost the bridegroom much ; indeed it groom-for his bride was old and ugly, is the usual method of providing a stock and had but one eye! Such cases as this to commence life with: for the more are by no means uncommon, and must, friends he has, the more loaves of sugar at any rate, be expected; and the man's and bags of coffee and tobacco he gets; only chance of getting rid of his bargain, and his only expenses, or nearly so, are is to divorce her.

for the musicians, buffoons, fruit, and The spot chosen for the nuptial fes- meat. tivities, was on a sloping ground, near to To horse, to borse! the feast has ended, Beyrout. The old walls of the town, the sloping mounds and sandy plain are bearing proofs of British cannonading, being deserted, and and the range of Lebanon, formed the

“Now greenwoods blush red, and the night-star's back-ground, and some houses with people encroaching; standing on the top to witness the gay

Slow climbs the dark shadow up the eastern

hills; Tents were erected, under whose

The gray-winged twilight by stealth is enshade the female friends were collected; croaching, a group of mountaineers were standing Farewell, ye wild songsters, ye lambkins and

rills.” near to witness the antics of two hired buffoons, while another group of more intimate friends fired a volley several in derision, how it happened that men of wit were

A WEALTHY person asked the philosopher Sadi, times; near to where we reclined and so frequently seen at the doors of the rich, and drank our coffee, a sheep, stuffed with that the rich were never seen at the doors of men pistachios, was roasted whole; and be- of wit ? “ It is,” replied Sadi, “because m'en of fore us three crabbed men sat, and watched not know the value of wit.”

wit know the value of riches; but rich men do

scene.

*

*

THE STORY OF HALLAM, THE

would surpass his tutor, and ultimately rise WEAVER'S BOY.

to be a great man; and the youth promised

that, if such came to pass, he would not NEARLY a century and a half ago, great forget in his prosperity the instruction of distress prevailed in a certain district in the pedlar, and his kindness towards him. England, where there were but a few houses, peopled by labourers in the humblest condition of life ; and, as the land was unproduc- Eighteen years have elapsed, and the pretive, and marshes, hemmed in by moun- diction has been fulfilled; the lad abantains, were to be seen far and wide, the doned his trade of weaver, turned schoolearth did not bring forth sufficient to supply master, and married his landlady - the the wants of the people, so that many of tailor's widow. He has passed through many them were obliged to leave the home of phases in his journey through life; and, their childhood, and settle elsewhere. A notwithstanding the privations and hardpoor lad, who had only received sufficient ships he encountered, has risen to a coneducation to enable him to read, was re- siderable eminence as a scholar, has been moved from school to assist his father in his appointed Professor of Mathematics, and employment of stuff-weaving. The love of elected a Fellow of the Royal Society: knowledge—the ardent desire of becoming The few houses that were scattered upon a scholar-had taken possession of the youth, the borders of the wild and desolate district who devoted all his leisure moments, and where Hallam's father formerly lived, have even a portion of the time which his father increased in number and size; the marshes required of him, to reading and writing. have been drained, the land tilled, the The father, instead of encouraging his son's mountains quarried, and the whole aspect fondness for study, forbade him to open a changed from. desolation to the busy hum book, behaved with great harshness, and at of commercial activity. Jacquard-looms length drove him from the house, telling have been erected, mills and factories built, him to go and seek his fortune where and and long lines of streets ; so that, from being how he chose. Weary, and uncertain where a village at first, it has grown into a city. to go, he threw himself upon the heath, to He seeks out the aged pedlar, who still in-. reflect upon the course he must take; and, structs the young, and labours for his having refreshed himself at an adjoining bread; the old man has almost forgotten his brook, walked to the neighbouring village, pupil, but tears of joy suffuse his eyes, as and took up his abode in the house of a the remembrance of other days is recalled. tailor's widow, with whose son he had been At eve the two stroll towards the brow of previously acquainted. He contrived to sup- the hill, Hallam supporting his aged tutor, port himself by industry and frugality, and to and as they approach a mill on the roadadd to his stock of knowledge by careful ob- side, they halt, for the pedlar is wearied and servation and reading. Soon after his ar- wishes to rest himself. rival, a pedlar, who combined fortune-teller " This spot,” said Hallam, " is where I and astrologer with his own trade, came reclined when my father drove me from his to lodge in the same house; and becoming house ; but how changed the prospect! The intimate with IIallam-for such was the mountain's side is now peopled ; and where boy's name-instructed him in the various the heath and furze grew amid marshy branches of knowledge that he was ac- land, the golden-eared corn bends to the quainted with, while pursuing his own breeze. Observe yon waggon as it moves trade of pedlar and itinerant merchant. along the road; 'tis mine-aye, and all the

The time for the departure of the pedlar factories beyond! So you must now leave arrived, and previous to setting off on his off toiling, and share them with me; for to journey, he lent Hallam Cocker's Arith- your instruction I owe all.” metic, which had bound up with it a treatise “ To mine?” replied the pedlar. on Algebra, and a work upon Physics and “ Yes, 'twas through the knowledge obSomatology. These he studied so tho- tained from you that I have risen to my roughly that, when the pedlar returned, he present position. Your prediction ever bewas astonished to find his quondam pupil fore me, and with the desire of reaching the had almost eclipsed his tutor, and forthwith highest pinnacle of fame and honour, I proceeded to draw his horoscope, as he worked incessantly; success crowned my termed it, in order to discover the probable efforts; and now, surrounded with wealth career of this wonderful lad.

and honours, I must not forget the pedlarHaving concluded his observations, the astrologer, and his gift-book of— NATURAL pedlar predicted that in two years Hallam | PHILOSOPHY.”

[graphic][merged small]

NOTES AND QUERIES FOR notice how busily they are engaged in picking up
NATURALISTS.

the animal substances which the efflux or reflux
carries to the sea. At times they descend to the

crest of the rising wave; and then they skim the NOTES.

surface of the water, or dive, with closed wings, SEA GULLS.

immediately to re-appear, holding a fish in the In our last volume (p. 351), a correspondent

beak. furnished a brief account of the different species

On Novaia Zemlia's ice-girt shores, on the sum. of these birds which visit our shores; we now

mit of isolated pinnacles, and suffering the pregive a cut which exhibits their general con

sence of no other bird, broods the great Grey formation, with some further particulars of their Gull (Larus Glaucus), which the Dutch whalers, habits:

either through respect or the want of it, have "The family of the Gulls (Laride), to which the christened the 'Burgomaster.' This haughty gulls, terus, petrels, and albatrosses belong, is bird, which is twenty-eight inches in length, and widely extended over the globe. All birds of this measures five feet with outstretched wings, seems genus are endowed with great power of flight, and to feel himself lord of the creation, and no other are distinguished by the easy grace of their move- bird dares to dispute with it the daintiest morsels, ments, as they float through the air with a scarcely when it settles on a dead whale. perceptible motion of the wings. Their form is

“Yet it yields to superior strength when it comes handsome and well-proportioned; some bearing a

across the Black and White Gull (Larus Marinus). likeness to the swallow, others to the pigeon. This bird deprives the Burgomaster of his prey, Nearly all undergo remarkable changes of plu- attacks ailing birds, drags the Auk’s eggs into its mage at various ages, and some even change the nest and sucks them, and also collects, on the colour of their dress annually, the feathers grow. strand, the hopping sea insecte and molluscs. ing darker at the period of incubation, This

“In the Predatory Gulls (Lestris Parisiticus: change of colour, according to some naturalists, L. catarrhactes), the weight of the body is so takes place without moulting, for the head- small, in comparison with the mass of plumage, feathers, originally whity-brown, gradually change that they are but poor divers. Unable to fish for to dark brown or black. Unhappily, the conduct themselves, they are compelled to plunder their of these birds does not harmonize with their fair weaker relatives. Hardly do they see that a exterior, for they are all remarkable for piratical three-toed, or silver gull has made a good haal propensities and insatiable voracity.

than they immediately give chase, and compel it "The cry of the gull is very peculiar, a medley to disgorge the just swallowed fish. This they of laughing and crying; and when it is mingled contrive to catch very carefully ere it reaches the with the hoarse murmur of the waves on some

water." desolate island, it seems to suit the character of THE SAIL-FLUKE AND THE GULLS. the scene.

This is a curious fish, described in the second "It is delightful to watch the manæuvres of the supplement of the first edition of Yarrell's "His. gulls at the mouths of the larger rivers, and tory of British Fishes" just published. It is

found on the coasts of the Orkney group, from

THE DOG-APE. whence the following curious account of fishing A fine specimen of the ape, familiarly called by proxy is sent :-“The great supply is obtained cynocephales, or dog-headed, has been presented in the following manner. In the winter and to the Zoological Gardens of Marseilles by a early spring a pair of black-headed gulls take skipper. The animal is said to be prodigiously possession of the bay, drive away the interlopers, strong, and equally savage; he made desperate and may be seen at day-break every morning beat- efforts to seize some of the sailors, to whom ing from side to side, on the wing, and never both he had a dislike, and a very strong chain was in one place, except in the act of crossing as they necessary to restrain him--they were even obliged pass. The sail-fluke skims the ridge of the wave to saw off some of his canine teet. His appeartowards the shore, with its tail raised over its ance is very odd; the head being exceedingly back, and when the wave recedes is left on the long, the muzzle occupying two-thirds of the sand, into which it burrows so suddenly and com- whole; the eyelids flesh-coloured; the limbs pletely that though I have watched its approach, elongated and slender; and the tail the same only once have I succeeded in finding its burrow. dimensions (? length) as the body. He is beThe gull, however, has a surer eye, and, casting ginning to behave himself respectably now, but like a hawk, pounces on the fluke, from which at first he was extremely fierce and sulky.with one stroke of the bill it extracts the liver. Morning Star, June 15, 1860. If not disturbed, the gull no sooner gorges that

THE FEROCITY OF THE OWL. luscious morsel, than it commences dragging the fish to some outlying rock, where he and his con

A singular, and, we believe, previously un. sort may discuss it at leisure. By robbing the heard-of occurrence, took place a few evenings black-backs I have had the house supplied daily since. A young man, the son of a respectable with this excellent fish, in weather during which farmer, in returning home across a field at no fishing-boat could put to sea. Close to the Twyning, was violently seized on the back part of beach of South Bay, a stone wall has been raised his neck by an owl, which had suddenly alighted to shelter the crops from the sea spray. Behind

on his back, its approach being unperceived, and this we posted a smart lad, who kept his eye on

it was with some difficulty that the winged assailthe soaring gulls. The moment one of the birds

ant could be kept at bay. Shortly afterwards a made his well-known swoop, the boy rushed to working man of the neighbourhood, who was the sea strand shouting with all his might. He passing near the spot, was also attacked by the was usually in time to scare the gull away, and

same or another owl, which flew in his face, and secure the fluke, but in almost every case with the severely bit him just under one of his eyes. In liver torn out. If the gull by chance succeeded each case blood was drawn by the beak of the in carrying off his prey to the rock, he and his aggressor, and two or three days elapsed before the partner set up a triumphant cackling, as if pain caused thereby wholly subsided. It was subderiding the disappointed lad."

sequently ascertained that there was a nest of

young owls in a tree near the place, and there is Live TROUT, CAUGHT IN A WATER TANK.

no doubt that one or both of the parent birds The water in the large tank in Edinburgh Castle made these remarkable assaults. Worcester having been run off for the purpose of executing Journal. some repairs, one of the workmen engaged in removing the silt from the bottom, caught a live

ANSWERS TO QUERIES. trout, six inches long; this trout must have come through the pipe from the reservoir at the

ACTIVITY OF BIRDS (p. 154).-Dr. Macgillivray Pentland Hills, and as the tank has not been records the observations made by a friend on a cleaned since its erection, seven years ago, the pair of blue titmice when rearing their young. fish has most probably passed several years in the parent birds began their labour of love at solitary confinement.--Newspaper, 1860.

half-past three o'clock in the morning, and did not

leave off till after eight o'clock in the evening, THE SWORDFISH.

after being almost incessantly engaged for nearly A proof of the extraordinary power of the sword- seventeen hours. Mr. Weir counted their various fish may be seen in the Arab, engaged in the returns to the nest, and found them to be 475. Up African trade, and now undergoing repairs at to four o'clock, as a breakfast, they were fed twelve Bristol. The fish appears to have driven its sword times; between five and six, forty times, flying to through a double sheathing of copper, a plank 21 and from a plantation more than 150 yards from

nches thick, and deep into one of the ship's their nest; between nine and ten o'clock they fed Cimbers, when the weapon broke short off.—1860. them forty-six times, and they continued at their that of animals having eight serpent-like limbs. If

work till the time specified, sometimes bringing of the most familiar examples of the class. It in a single large caterpillar, and at other times is the cuttle-fish, found on all the British shores. two or three small ones.

These creatures are the “polypi” of Homer and POWER OF THE Human EYE OVER WILD ANI- Aristotle : they are solitary animals, frequenting XALS (p. 154). --Several travellers have recorded rocky shores, and are very active and voracious; the fact that few, if any, of the wild creatures can the females oviposit on the sea-weeds, or in the endure the steady gaze of man, if he exhibit cavities of empty shells. In the markets of Smyrna no signs of fear. Among others, Sir Francis and Naples, and the bazaars of India, they are reHead, who in his “ Journey Across the Pampas gularly exposed for sale. Although common (at says:--"The fear which all wild animals in America St. Jago) in pools of water left by the retiring have of man is very singularly seen in the Pampas. tide, they are not very easily caught. By means I often rode towards the ostriches and gamas of their long arms and suckers, they can drag crouching under the opposite side of my horse's their bodies into very small crevices, and when neck; but I always found, that although they thus fixed it requires great force to remove them. would allow any loose horse to approach them, At other times they dart, tail first, with the rapithey, even when young, ran from me, though little dity of an arrow, from one side of the pool to the of my figure was visible; and when one saw them other, at the same time discolouring the water enjoy themselves in such full liberty, it was, at with a dark chestnut-brown ink. They also esfirst, not pleasing to observe, that one's appearance cape detection by varying their tints, according to was everywhere asignal to them that they should fly the nature of the ground over which they pass. from their enemy. Yet it is by this fear that man In the dark they are slightly phosphorescent. hath dominions over the beasts of the fields : and SILKWORMS (p. 154.) - The silkworm origithere is no animal in South America that does not

nated in the southern part of the Chinese empire, acknowledge this instinctive feeling. As a sin- where written documents are said to exist, provo gular proof of the above, and of the difference being that these insects were raised there 2,700 tween the wild beasts of America and of the Old years before the Christian era. From thence they World, I will venture to relate a circumstance passed into Persia, India, and various parts of which a man sincerely assured me had happened Asia, and subsequently to the Isle of Cos. In the to him in South America. He was trying to shoot sixth century, they appeared to have arrived at some wild ducks; and, in order to approach them Constantinople, where the Emperor Justinian unperceived, he put the corner of his poncho made them an object of utility, and they were (which is a sort of long, narrow blanket) over his

successively cultivated in Greece, Asia, Spain, head, and, crawling along the ground upon his Italy, and France. hands and knees, the poncho not only covered his body, but trailed along the ground behind him.

QUERIES. As he was thus creeping by a large bush of reeds,

Age of Animals.--Some time ago you answered he heard a loud, sudden noise, between a bark and a query of mine respecting the age of geese. I a roar; he felt something heavy strike his feet, am now desirous of knowing something about the and, instantly jumping up, he saw, to his astonish

duration of life in animals generally. - RUSTICOS. ment, a large lion actually standing on his

Tame Otters.- Are these creatures capable of being tamed?

I have heard that they are, but do poncho; and perhaps the animal was equally as- not remember to have read of an instance of one tonished to find him in the immediate presence becoming confiding and familiar with man,of so athletic a man. The man told me he was

RUSTICUS. unwilling to fire, as his gun was loaded with very The Nutcracker.-There is a bird called by this small shọt, and he therefore remained motion

name which is, I believe, rare in this country. I

saw a stuffed specimen, which had been shot by a less, the lion standing on his poncho for many friend a short time since, and feel desirous of seconds! At last the creature turned his head, knowing a few particulars of its natural history, and walking very slowly away about ten yards, Can you furnish me with the required information? he stopped and turned again. The man still

-ANNIE. maintained his ground; upon which the lion ta

Singing Fish. We have lately had a talking

seal, which was improperly called a fish; but I am citly acknowledged his supremacy, and walked off. informed by a sailor that there is a greater wonder

OCTOPUS (p. 154.)-This term, or as it is more than thisma fish in reality, which has a natural properly written octopod, comes from the Greek song! Is this the case? --ANNIE, okto eight, aud pous foot, and is applied to a class

Woodwele.- In the ballad of Robin Hood I read

“The Woodwele sung, and would not cease, Henry B. turns to page 172 of the present volume,

Sitting upon the spray." he will see a comical-looking object, which is one What bird is this?-HENRY B.

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