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diet. We shall find, as we proceed further forms its important functions, we will glance in considering the subject of the structure at some of the organs in man and the lower of the digestive organs in man, that there animals, which are necessary to the prois nothing to encourage the notion that curing and preparation of the food before it man lives best on vegetable food alone. The is passed into the stomach for digestion. fact is, man is adapted for very wide limits Among the organs which are supplementary with regard to food, and there is much evi- to the stomach, and employed in the act of dence to prove that a due admixture of diet, procuring food, are those of prehension. procured from both animals and plants, is In man this function is performed by the
hand and arm more especially; but amongst the lower animals we find various substitutes for this very distinguishing feature of man's economy. Amongst the lowest creatures, as the animalculea, we find the mouth is surrounded with delicate moving hairs, called cilia, by means of which currents are produced in the water, and the food thus brought to the mouth of the animalcule. In the polype-bearing animals we find the mouth surrounded by tentacles Fig. 3, varying in number, size, and structure; the purpose of which is not only to assist in moving the animal, but to enable it to lay hold of its
Fig. 5. [Stomach of the sheep.-a, first cavity of stomach or paunch, very large; b, second cavity, lying to the right of c, the gullet, and much smaller than
the first; f, the third cavity, containing longitu V
dinal folds of mucous membrane; c, the fourth cavity, intermediate in size between the first, and second, and third; g, the canal which conducts from the third cavity, for the passage of the food
after it has undergone the process of animation; [A vertical longitudinal section of the common h, the pylorus: d, the duodenum.] lobster (Astacus marinus.) - a mandibles and palpi, 6 the stomach, cc intestinal prolongation prey and carry it into its stomach. In the of the same, d the outlet, e the heart fghi, a higher orders of polypes, these tentacles are system of great blood-vessels distributed to the covered with cilia, which give greatly inposterior portion of the animal, k l m great blood- creased power to these organs as agents
of vessels distributed to the sternal or anterior prehension. In the jelly-fishes we also find aspect of the body, n n n lobes of the liver.]
tenacles, which are used for grasping the best adapted for the development of his prey of the animal. In the shell fishes frame, and the healthy performance of all (mollusca) we likewise meet with appendthe functions of his body.
ages round the mouth of the animal, by Before we examine the minute structure which food is grasped previous to its being of the stomach, by means of which it per- I introduced into the stomach, and these
organs attain their fullest development in
A SCENE AT VENICE. the cephalopodous class, which includes the
On emerging from these dark passages, nautilus, argonaut, and cuttle-fish; here we observed, floating silently down the the tentacles
are powerful and complicated grand canal, a barge over which a hundred organs, enabling their possessors to secure coloured lamps were suspended. We had for food animals higher in organization than not time to express our surprise before its themselves. In the articulate animals, as occupants began to sing. the worms, insects, crabs, lobsters, and in another moment we were in a gondola, spiders, the hard external skeleton of the and followed the bright, mysterious object animal' assumes various forms, to facilitate before us. The beautiful chorus ceased, the taking of prey, and the conveying it to and all was silent again. On our nearer the mouth. The segments of the skeleton, approach, we saw, gliding on each side of forming the jaws, are furnished with addi- the singers, a royal gondola, ornamented tional organs for this purpose ; and, in the with blue velvet drapery surmounted by a nippers of the crabs and lobsters, we have a gilded crown. Each boat was rowed by four remarkable example of the adaptation of gondoliers. In one sat the two Archdukes the fore-feet to the need of the animal for of Austria, in another the two Duchesses. holding powerful prey.
Two or three gondolas with attendants were From the Invertebrate we pass to the behind. A few followed, like ourselves, from Vertebrate animals : and here we meet with curiosity. No light appeared from any the Fish using its mouth for this purpose. window, no face looked from the fair marble The mouth of the fish is supplied with balconies, no voice cried God bless them, as teeth, but they are not used in the same the small procession slowly glided onwards. way as the teeth of man, but as organs of How different was this to the hearty welprehension. It is by means of the teeth come given to British princes when visiting that the fish holds his prey when it is seized, the great towns of our free country. The previous to swallowing. In the carnivo- royal party now stop under the arch of the rous reptiles we find the same arrangc- Rialto, and hear another song. A few perment; and the dreaded teeth of the Croco- sons gather on the quay to listen, and give dile are not organs of mastication, but of a faint applause. Sometimes but one soli. prehension. In the Birds, the tooth of the tary individual claps his hands. The sound fish and the crocodile is' modified into a echoes dismally through the silent streets. beak or bill, the object of which is to pick A closely covered gondola occasionally darts up food, previous to its being conveyed into from some hidden water-lane, skims swiftly the gizzard. Amongst some of the birds, past us, and is lost again in the dark night. especially the tribe to which the parrot | The bright lamps and beautiful singing do belongs, the foot and claws are used as as- not tempt the proud Venetian to look from sistants to the bill in performing this office. his gloomy canopy. The songs are spirited, In the Mammalia we find very curious partly dramatic. In one performance two adaptations of particular structures to this men tie handkerchiefs over their heads, and function. In most instances the teeth and imitate the conversation of very loquacious jaws are the only instruments. In the car-old women. After remaining some minutes nivora, however, the legs and paws of both under the Rialto, the gondoliers begin to fore and hind-feet are used in seizing and ply their cars, and quietly the whole comsecuring prey.
In the monkies we find pany float up the canal, under the shadow the nearest approach to the human hand, now of one palace, now of another. Very wanting however, in that wonderful com- gently we all glide along: The chorus, pleteness which is given by the opposable breaking forth at intervals into fresh har. thumb: they use also the fore and bind, monies, dies suddenly away, and then we feet alike for the purpose of seizing and hear nothing but the tiny ripple which the conveying food to their mouth. In some water always sings to the boat. animals, an elongation of the upper lip serves the purposes of prehension, as in the giraffe, and in many of the deer tribe. THE RESIDENCE OF BENJAMIN FRANKAn elongation of the nose is frequently LIN, CRAVEN STREET, STRAND. likewise used for prehension amongst the
There are certain buildings in London pachyderms; and we cannot fail to observe which, although they have neither any pethat the tapir is a transition from the hog culiar beauty of architecture or picturesque to the elephant.
appearance, have a considerable amount of (To be continued.)
interest to every intelligent person. We
have still existing in Westminster, the iden- | avoiding every description of stimulating tical house which was for some time occu- drink, notwithstanding he did not refuse to pied by Milton, when Latin secretary to become responsible for the ale scores of his Oliver Cromwell; this was also occupied by fellow-workmen at the public house next Hazlitt, who placed on its wall a tablet to the archway, which adjoins the premises. associate it with “The Prince of Poets.” During a portion of the time he worked Its garden, in which is a tree said to have here, Franklin, thinking that the exercise been planted by Milton, afterwards came I would be beneficial, left his work at cominto the possession of
posing, and took to Jeremy Bentham, of
the hand-press. A famous memory. This
corner on the first object, so far as its
floor of Messrs. Cox general appearance is
and Wyman's printconcerned, might be
ing-house, is pointed passed by without no
out by some of the tice; but who, know
old men there eming its associations,
ployed, as the spot on could fail to look upon
which Franklin purit without feelings of
sued his labours; and intense interest. The
it is related that house in which Chat
when he afterwards terton died his sad
visited England, with and untimely death,
a great reputation in Brook-street, Hol
which extended born, has but little
throughout Europe, external attraction, and yet, who that has
office, and addressrightly estimated this
ing himself to a bright genins, can
pressman here at pass this plain dwell
work, said, ""My ing, without many
friend, it is now some thoughts which are
years since I worked difficult to describe.
at that press ; let us, The dwelling-places
notwithstanding, take in which Sir Isaac
a pot together. Newton and other
While working at worthies spent a large
Messrs. Cox's, Frankportion of their use
lin lodged with a poor ful lives, are still in
widow, in the narrow existence, and few of
street which leads them have a greater
from the archway on interest than that
the west side of Linnow engraved, which
coln's Inn Fields. is connected with a
Although diligentenbrilliant portion of
quiry has been made, the career of the
we have failed to find famed American phiFRANKLIN'S RESIDENCE.
any distinct proof losopher.
which of the houses When Benjamin Franklin first visited it was in which he lodged. Respecting the London, he went to work as a journeyman, subject of the engraving, there is no unin a printing-office in the neighbourhood of certainty; here, when he came in an St. John's Square, Clerkenwell; we have, honourable position from his native land, however, failed to trace anything in con- which he had by his energy and ability, nection with him in that place. He after- been such an important means of liberating, wards found employment in the printing hetransactedimportant business and received establishment of the Messrs. Cox, (now Cox visits from the most distinguished and reand Wyman) in Great Queen Street, Lin- markable personages of the time. It would coln's-Inn Fields; here he pursued for be a useful plan to mark houses such as about twelve months, a life of steady in- those referred to, with a brief record of the dustry, living on the most simple food, and l associations connected with them.
THE sun has risen in all that gorgeous splendour that alone is witnessed in the East; the mountaineer has been at his toil full long; the goats are cropping the scanty herbage on the mountain terraces; there is a calmness spread o'er all the scene that is before
Lifts up her purple wing, and in the vales
The gentle wind, a sweet and passionate wooer,
Kisses the blushing leaf and stirs up life.” EASTERN RAMBLES AND The impatient horse, with expanded nosREMINISCENCES.
tril, tosses his head, and restless champs
his bit, eager to leave the crowded town. RAMBLE THE SEVENTH. The baggage mules are laden now with BEYROUT-DEPARTURE FOR THE NAHR
tents and provisions, in spite of the kickEL-KELB - THE VIA ANTONINIANA —
ing of the one, and dancing about of the ROCK SCULPTURES—THE DOG RIVER- other; the guide has filled all the pipes, THE ROMAN AQUEDUCT – MOUNTAIN procured plenty of small change
for the SCENERY -DJESSR-EL-KHADJER-AINEL-LEBAN-RETURN TO BEYROUT.
road, attired himself in true Bedouin "Amidst the grove that crowns yon tufted hill,
style, to protect his face and neck from Which were it not for many a mountain nigh, the sun's rays, and now stands ready for Rising in lofty ranks, and loftier still,
the order to start. A crowd of small Might well itself be deem'd of dignity, The convent's white walls glisten fair on high: boys surround the party, anxious to get Here dwells the Caloyer, nor rude is he, a few paras for some little attention as Nor niggard of his cheer ; the passer-by Is welcome still: nor heedless will he fee
you mount your steed. From hence, if he delight kind Nature's sheen
At length the whole party have made to see."-Byrov.
all their arrangements, the guide is
mounted, and the mules and muleteers flowering shrubs, with rainbow tints, are threading their way through the clothe its banks; and the odorous air of crowds of men, women, and animals that the gardens, bending with fruit, is dif. obstruct the narrow streets of Beyrout. fused over the whole.
The towering We have had our coffee; the pipes are poplars and silver-leaved olive-trees wave in full force, and amid clouds of smoke their boughs overhead, and cool the air ; and dust, barking of dogs, shouting, the gorgeous butterflies, and swift-darting and the confused murmur of a multi- dragon-flies, restless ply their wings, as tude of men,
women, and children, they flytter from flower to flower ; from nearly every clime, and of nearly Nature's choir warbles around us, and every hue, we emerge from the town of delights us with its music. Each minute Beyrout. The first portion of the road changes the scene—too varied and highly is most delightful, as we advance along coloured for even fancy to paint. At narrow lanes of prickly pears bendiug length a plashing' sound salutes our ears over our heads, while the rich and varied
—then a large black rock is seen, from foliage of the gardens on either side, and whence the river flows; but the dancing the rough, bright, and dusty road form and careering bubbles betoken that its curstrong contrasts.
rent, though smooth, is by no means lazy. At length the narrow lanes are threaded, The spot was too lovely to leave withand the road presents a more open pro- out a remembrance, and therefore many spect, with the noble Lebanon forming sketches were taken, and notes withal, the background of the landscape; while ere we withdrew from this sylvan rethe placid Nahr-el-Leban, or River of treat. Milk, crossed by its seven-arched bridge Again we dash along the sandy shore, of Roman construction, and the khan at to the annoyance and astonishment of its extremity, assist to fill in the fore- the sober Moslems, who nevertheless ground; and some camels, with their return our salams and salutations, and attendants, resting under the thickly- pausing, gaze on the wild Franks that leaved trees on our left, with some women ride through brier or water, and leap the washing clothes near the margin of the walls or cactus-hedges, regardless of life river, complete the view.
or limb. The bridge is gained, and we pause at The road is worse: we must ride with the old khan, to gaze at the waters of gentler pace, for we have reached the the Nahr-el-Leban, as they flow towards foot of the rocky promontory called El the sea with provoking calmness; for it Rás Nahr-el-Kelb, or the head of the is only when swollen by rains, and fed by Dog River; and, as the ascent is unthe mountain streams, that it foams and pleasant and uneasy, we must restrain rashes onward like a river of milk. On our steeds, and patiently climb the rugged its banks, the reeds of which the pens of path and wind along the Via Antoni. the Orientals are made grow in great niana. luxuriance, and overhanging its margin, Below us, on the southern side of the cause more reflections in its mirrored promontory, is a square basin, hewn in waves below, than the sentences which the solid rock, close to the sea, which is are written by the calami themselves. admitted for the purpose of making salt
From here we pass through a succession by evaporation. Formerly, there was not of mulberry plantations, enclosed with any passage along this part of the coast, the prickly-pear hedges, until we reach and therefore the Emperor Aurelias conthe easternmost point of the plain of structed one, by cutting away the rock Beyrout, when turning abruptly to the in some parts, and filling it up in others, north, a ride of about half an hour brings so as to reduce it to a level. This we ns to the Cat River, or Nahr-el-Psân, learn from an inscription cut on the side which issues from a rock about two miles of the rock. from its mouth, the ride thereto being The Nahr-el-Kelb, which is the Lycus most delightful. A thousand plants and l of the Greeks, issues from a chasm be