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in his writings, was engaged in a variety of works connected the calendar, arithmetic, mathematics, geography, natural with the monastery. It might be sometimes planting wheat philosophy, mechanics, and also upon Scripture and religion. or threshing corn, or winnowing it, working in the bakehouse. The abbacy was offered to him, but he preferred teaching and attending to the cattle, sweeping the house, and a variety of forming the minds of youth ; and he considered that such those lowly employments occupied part of his time. But great and responsible duties might distract him from the more by-and-bye, seeing what his character and inclination were, important work of teaching and forming the mind. His he was ordained deacon, and at thirty the holy unction was scholars were not few in number. In the great monasteries laid upon him, and he was anointed priest. From that time of St. Peter and St. Paul there were no less than 600 monks, he gave himself entirely up to literary and studious pursuits. and he must have had under his care a very large number of He had a great taste for learning, a great love for study and scholars. He had not merely one subject, but the whole curteaching, and this being well known, as well as his love of riculum of knowledge, such as was known in those days. research, his care of detail, his accuracy of mind, and his What was the character of Bede? Happily his contemporaconscientiousness being thoroughly appreciated by his bishop, ries have sketched it very clearly. He was never idle, but his abbot, and the monks, not only of Wearmouth and always at work. He was always either reading or writing, or Jarrow, but by those who lived in the south in the monastery teaching or praying. As a teacher, what a charm there must at Canterbury, an order was laid upon him by the abbot, have been about his lessons. He had a certain sympathy, a seconded by the command of the King of Northumbria, that feeling of affection which must have drawn his disciples he should devote his time to the compiling or writing of a wonderfully to him. He was quick to understand their history of the Anglo-Saxon Church, an ecclesiastical history difficulties, to sympathise in their struggles, to draw out their of England from the earliest times. This became the great thoughts and feelings, and enjoy with them the labours of and famous work of his life. He commenced it in 703, and study and the acquisition of knowledge. He was, however, he continued writing it for 28 years, and it was not finished strict as a teacher, but his strictness was mingled with brightuntil four years before his death. The materials for it were ness and sweetness, which left the strictness trifling. He was sought for not only by himself, but it was undertaken as a pleasant in his manner to those who were devout and good kind of national work, the Archbishops of Canterbury and students ; but to those who were idle and bad he was terribly York, and the bishops throughout the country supplying to him severe. Connected with Bede was also the whole development all the materials which they possessed. The Pope himself, of the learning Anglo-Saxon time. He paid a visit to York to Gregory III. placed at his disposal a number of Papal documents, assist Archbishop Ecgberht in his work. From the school at greatly assisting him. He tells us himself he never accepted York came afterwards Aldwin, the great teacher in France, any statement until it had been carefully examined, and, as the right hand of the Emperor Charlemagne in spreading far as possible, under the circumstances, he always desired knowledge and learning throughout France. One other corroboration. His work became the standard work of the touching incident of Bede's life was that which immediately whole of England. Alfred the Great translated it from Latin preceded his death, as so beautifully given in a letter from into the Anglo-Saxon tongue; and on Bede's death his fame Cuthbert, one of his disciples who was present, to a fellowwas gathered round his history, and the demand for it was pupil. Two weeks before Easter of 735, the old man was such, it was impossible to supply the required number of seized with an extreme weakness and loss of breath. lle still copies. The copyists in the monasteries were not able to meet preserved, however, his usual pleasantness and gay good the demands; the winters were so long and cold they could humour, and, in spite of prolonged sleeplessness, continued only work in the spring and summer quarters. This great eccle- his lectures to the people about him. “We never read withsiastical history is the only history of that period. Bede has out weeping," wrote the pupil. A few days before Ascensionbeen styled by ancient writers by the fathers of the Church, tide bis sickness grew upon him, but he spent the whole day the Fathers of the Anglo-Saxon people, and by historians his in teaching, only saying cheerfully to his scholars, "Learn praises have been spoken in words which are certainly under with what speed you may; I know not 'how long I may last.” exaggeration, but which lift him to the very summit of the The dawn broke on another sleepless night, and again the old position which it was possible for a man in his day to occupy. I man called his scholars around him, and bade them write. Another characteristic of this work is, that in the Ecclesias- " There is still a chapter wanting,” said the scribe, as the tical History of Bede you find every one of the doctrines to morning drew on, “and it is hard for thee to question thyself which we attach importance, which Catholics hold as part of any longer." “It is easily done" said Bede; “ take thy pén the Catholic faith—that all these doctrines were either boldly and write quickly.” Amid tears and farewells the day wore taken for granted by Bede, so that he states them from time on to eventide. “ There is yet one sentence unwritten, dear as being practised by himself, or they were taken singly and master," said the boy. “ Write it quickly," bade the dying expounded and developed by him in a way that leaves no man. • It is finished now” said the little scribe at last. doubt that the faith of Bede was precisely the same that we “ To speak the truth,” said the master, “all is finished now.” at this present hour hold as the faith given by God to the Placed upon the pavement, his head supported in his scholar's world. It is a perfect testimony to the truth of the Catholic arms, his face turned to the spot where he was wont to pray, faith as we hold it. What is now held by us was held in Bede chanted “ Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and Bede's time, and is written in the pages of his History. to the Holy Ghost,” and gave up the ghost. He died at the Bede's works are very numerous, and reach the number of age of 62, and his life was spent in the work of teaching and 45, of which some 80 are still extant—works on grammar, for the good of souls. He loved nothing better than to teach. history, poetry, rhetoric, memory, scientific works, &c., on What lesson does he teach the students and teachers of this
College ? He was always industrious, and spent his whole from Jupiter, and the Ephesians, bowed down believing in life in imparting knowledge to others. What lesson does he Diana. But God put it into the heart of the great apostle teach in his writings to you who live in this world of business. Paul to go to Ephesus, where he laboured for three long Unless you live in vice, you ought to go to communion and years doing a great work for God, the Holy Spirit blessing receive the Body of our Lord every Sunday, and upon the the Gospel from His heart and lips. Congregations were Feasts of the Apostles. If you are living in sin you are not formed, ministers set over them, and the mighty work was fit. If you are not living in sin you should attend to it. The advanced. Oh! what a Gospel did Paul preach, showing the first business of the active man of business is the salvation of fall of man in Adam, the redemption of man in the Blood of his soul. His life was spent in influencing others with a Christ, the renewal of man by the work of the Holy Spirit; bright joyful spirit, like sunlight on the minds and hearts of how man is justified by faith, and so justified, enjoys peace those who came in contact with him. The secret of that was, with God through Jesus Christ our Lord. Paul roused up he had received from Heaven into his heart a ray of charity the people, not directly preaching against Diana, but indiand heavenly joy, which was reflected upon the hearts of others. rectly, showing the truth as it is in Jesus, and the Word of It was brought down by the habit he had acquired of per- God grew so that people who were possessed of what was petually thanking God at all times, which is a great lesson called the Ephesian mysteries, books of conjuring, magic, and
His last hours were bright. Let us then, wherever superstition, having learned better by the teaching and the we are, whether engaged in business or otherwise, be able to power of the Gospel, brought their books and burnt them. say, with the Venerable Bede, “ Glory be to the Father and That was a result of the blessing of Heaven on the ministry to the Son and to the Holy Ghost.”
of Paul. Having got the congregation into good working
order at the end of three years, he went on his missionary The Rev. R. BUTLER, M.A., Rector of St. Silas's, Ardwick, tour, because his presence was required elsewhere. But his at St. Clement's, Greenheys, Sunday Evening, October 29th.
heart loved not only the Christians in Ephesus, but the work of Jesus there, so after a period he came to a place called
Miletus, not far from Ephesus, and when there he sent to the "I have somewhat against thee, because thou hast left thy first love.”- ministers of the Ephesian churches to come there to him, Rev. II., 4.
that he might encourage them in their work of spreading the
Gospel of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. They were HE letter of our Lord and Saviour Christ Jesus to the delighted to go to see their old pastor once more. What a
Church at Ephesus is before us. Christ sent it by His loving splendid charge did he give to the Ephesians, suited apostle John, and John, faithful to the charge entrusted to for every bishop in England, nay, to every bishop throughout him, had the letter sent, of which copies were made and read the world. They were sorry to part with him, for they in the various churches of Ephesus, and in the neighbourhood, thought they would never see his face again. He loved and throughout the diocese which surrounded the once great them, and they loved him as a good minister of Jesus Christ. city. It is a most remarkable statement : “I have somewhat It is beautiful when that bond of love and affection exists. against thee "—that is, the people, the Christian people of A few years afterwards he sent them a beautiful epistle, Ephesus-_" because thou hast left thy first love." Dear showing his love for the souls and the spiritual and eternal friends, in society here in England, where breaches of promise welfare of the people in the great district. He says, “ Put are made, and bad treatment is experienced, and people leave on the armour of God,” that is, put on the grace of God; their first love, the indignation felt is naturally very strong. Lave it outside and inside ; have it in your breasts, then you Much more then should it be felt when Church and people go out as a soldier of Christ, clad in the whole armour of fall away from Christ, fall into sin and superstition, fall God. That letter or epistle was copied, and copies read, and away from the simplicity which is in Jesus, and from that the people of the various churches were delighted. Time which Christ is pleased to call “ the first love.” May God's went on, and God put it into the heart of Paul to make spirit show its blessing upon us, that I may be faithful to Timothy the first Bishop of Ephesus; and what a blessing you, and that you may see what we have to do with the was he, who in his childhood knew the Scriptures, like those charge from the text. Let us take a short review of God's dear children we are pleased to see in the church this love to Ephesus, and as we go along you will see distinctly evening. He was here, there, and everywhere. He loved the mighty efforts the Almighty made for that people once so Jesus, and the people loved him fondly and affectionately. great and so distinguished. There was great need of God's After this God's love was shown by Paul sending two letters love to be shown to Ephesus, the capital of Asia Minor, in to Timothy-pastoral letters for Timothy's own good, and her day, and called the "City of the Moon.” The people for the good of the mighty diocese over which he was prewere steeped in superstition and idolatry, given up to the siding. Read those two letters, and see how the old man of worship of Diana, and their proud boast was, “great is Diana God encourages the young man of God. So God's love was of the Ephesians." The temple of Diana in Ephesus was one manifested ; and lastly, here we have a letter that Jesus of the seven wonders of the world. Its architecture was Christ gave to John when he was in banishment in Patmosmagnificent, its marble columns and interior splendid, the banished because he was a faithful minister of Christ. Seven worship (so-called) was gorgeous, the ritual excessive, the letters were, as you know, given him, and here we have one priests and priestesses robed in most gorgeous vestments, the before us in which the charge is, “I have somewhat against incense filling the mighty fane of the great temple, and the thee, notwithstanding all the mighty efforts which had been music enchanting. The image was said to have come down made,” still sin and infidelity, and superstition and ritualism came in, and the hearts of the people fell off from God and a short one, and “ Good Queen Bess” ascended the throne; from Jesus—fell off from the first love." The various and we had again liberty of the Bible, liberty of Protestantism, revivals were only for a little while, and to-day Ephesus is and the right of private judgment. It was during that reign only a poor miserable place in comparison with its former that the Spanish Armada sailed to force Popery down the magnificence. The Mahometans are there, and a few Chris-throats of the English people with the aid of thamb screws; tians, but decidedly Mahomet has more disciples there than but, blessed be God, that Armada was destroyed or dispersed, the Lord Jesus. The destruction of the most beautiful city and Elizabeth went to St. Paul's, where she humbled herself occurred when the barbarian hosts swept over the Roman and her crown before the King of Kings, who, she said, had Empire, and the great people of the Ephesians were utterly alone gained the victory. She passed away, and James VI. swept away. Now, my brethren, is not this a warning to us of Scotland and I. of England ascended the throne, a in England ? Great has been God's love to England, to your decided Protestant. He gave England another copy of the own native land
Bible, that is the old copy you have been using from your “ First flower of the earth, first gem of the sea.”
youth. It was during his reign that the notorious Gunpowder In ancient times the Britons roamed the country, naked Plot was discovered, and as next Sunday is the anniversary of savages, with painted bodies, cruel to one another, and steeped it, may every Protestant Church in England resound with in the superstitious faith of the Druids. God brought the thanksgiving to God, who brought that conspiracy to light, Gospel to the shore of Albion. The torch of the Gospel was and saved the Royal family and the estates of the country, lighted, never, we trust, to be extinguished again, in this and gave a glorious victory to our Scriptural Protestantism. land. It was a Protestant torch. It was a Protestant Chris- In due course of time came James II., a Roman Catholic, who tianity. It was blessed by God in this land before ever put seven good Protestant bishops into the tower, because Popery was heard of. Unfortunately as time went on the they would not obey his Popish orders. God brought them Romish power came into the country, though there were out of the tower, and gave them the victory of a verdict of many who decidedly preferred and loved the Gospel of Jesus. “Not Guilty.” James had to fly from the country--the The good King Alfred, one of the greatest Englishmen who Revolution came on, and the Prince of Nassau, William of ever lived, translated into the Saxon tongue the psalms of Orange, ascended the throne with the well-wishes of all David. Copies of the translations were made, and the English liberty-loving men. He came with the flying motto, “ The people rejoiced to read in their native language those beau- Protestant religion and the liberties of the people I will maintiful psalms, which put the birth of Christ the son of David in tain." His memory is blessed, and is referred to as “ The glorious and magnificent language and oriental splendour. glorious, pious, and immortal memory of the good King In course of time John Wycliffe, “the morning star of the William." How God has worked for England! Then came Reformation,” arose “with healing in his wings.” Though Queen Anne, a good Protestant; then the Georges, and among there was a danger of his losing his life through the influence them George III., who wished a copy of the Bible could be of the Pope, he escaped, preached Jesus Christ, made copies found in every cottage in the kingdom. And now we have of the Scriptures, had them circulated, and became one of the on the throne our Sovereign Lady Queen Victoria. God pioneers here of the mighty Reformation of the 16th century. Almighty bless and guide and protect her. Long may she John Wycliffe by the grace of God gave birth to the band of reign. We know well that her heart throbs with the love of men, distinguished and glorious pioneers of our Protestant Protestantism. But a few years ago a statue to the memory Reformation-I mean the Lollards, who believed in Jesus of Luther was erected in Germany, and the Queen sent a Christ and in the Scriptures, and lived up to their belief. telegram to the unveiling ceremony, “Protestant England Simple men they were, but honest, loyal unto death to the sympathises with Protestant Germany." But is it not poscause of the Lord Jesus Christ. Many of them were put to sible God may say to England to-night, “I have somewhat death, but many survived, and became the pioneers of the against thee, because thou hast left thy first love." The Reformation. Henry VIII. was a man whom many of us tant Churches. Men who are traitors and conspirators are
mass in masquerade” has been introduced into our Protesdo not admire for his character, but God made use of him to forcing in the Roman Catholic doctrines, going on with their carry out the Reformation in this country. He would not antics and buffooneries, until God only knows where we shall submit to the Pope of Rome. He said he would not have any land ourselves or where we shall be found. This land has man in England a greater man than himself, and he stood been blessed by Him, and privilege after privilege given to it, firm to his principle. God also put it into his heart to have and yet there is the scandal of the antics and buffooneries of a translation made of the good old English Bible, and a copy absurdities, and young men and women falling into the mesh.
these men, converting communion tables into altars and other put into every parish church, and chained there, to prevent May God grant that the torch of Protestantism will long conthe Roman Catholics stealing it, so that the people might hear tinue to burn with uudiminished steadiness. May the Proread the wonderful word of God. That was a good work, and testant army of ministers and every heart amongst the laity a great light established in England. Henry VIII. was bound in love to God and to His Son Jesus Christ be ready, succeeded by Edward VI., & sweet prince full of the love of if necessary, to fight the battle of Protestantism over again. God and of Jesus. The Lord was pleased to take him away As God had said to the Ephesians, He might say of a small at an early age, and his last prayer was, “O God protect this part of the English people, " I have somewhat against thee, realm of England from Popery.” Then came the evil time little children will grow up to maintain the Protestantism
because thou hast left thy first love." I hope that all these of her that was called “Bloody Queen Mary," because the of the Bible. blood of the Protestants was shed at the stake. The only The rev. gentleman then made a special appeal for the good thing connected with the reign of Mary was that it was Sunday School,
The Puritans, formed into a strong political organization, vented their disappointment by fierce attacks on the royal prerogative, which culininated in the temporary subversion
of the rone and with it, of that church so hateful to them. MANCHESTER, NOVEMBER 4TH, 1882.
The Roman Catholics on the other hand had ceased to be a political party. Stripped of almost all the rights of citizen
ship, they could only hope to regain all they had lost since THE FIFTH OF NOVEMBER.
the death of Mary, by revolution. Such was the state of the
country when a small band of desperate men formed that LEASE to remember the Fifth of November.” Certainly diabolical plot, which has given a name to this day; that it we ought not to forget our national anniversaries.
was frustrated, certainly is now, and we believe was then, It must, however, be a matter of satisfaction to all sensible matter of thankfulness to Protestants and Catholics alike. people that the rowdyism with which the day was associated November 5th, 1688. James, the second of that name, is now a thing of the past. Few, we fancy, in this year of now occupies the throne of his grandfather, James I. Three Our Lord 1882, would think it conducive to the interests of years has he reigned, and during that time he has endangered Christianity in general, and that of Protestantism in parti- every interest dear to a liberty-loving nation. Now on this cular, to commemorate the day, by parading grotesque fifth day of November, a Dutch fleet is anchored at Tor Bay, representations of the Roman Catholic Bishops through the and the Stadtholder is landing his cosmopolitan army. streets, yet this was done in London thirty-two years ago, England is once more invaded, but invaded by her own and was looked upon with complacency by no inconsiderable desire, to free her from the tyranny of her own king. A few section of the community.
months, and James is an exile, living on the bounty of In many towns, particularly in the South and West of the French king, deserted by his courtiers, whose conversion England, the Fifth of November was par excellence, the day had but lately given him so much delight, by his army, by sacred to the rough ; the black mail levied by him during his children, and last of all, and very reluctantly, by that the day was spent in wild orgies, often ending in riot, at church whose communion he had long forsaken, upon whose night. The students of Oxford commemorated“ our two-fola rights he had trampled, whose bishops he had imprisoned. deliverance from Popery" by an annual free-fight with the Eighty years of constitutional struggle had taught the townspeople. Few, not even " the old subscriber” to The nation many valuable lessons, most marked is its advance Rock, we think will regret that the day is no longer made in the art of revolution—it had cut off the head of the father, offensive to a section of our fellow subjects. Yet forgotten the son it simply turned out of the country. it should not be, for threefold now are the associations that
November 5th, 1854. The allied armies of England and cling around it.
France were encamped on the shores of the Euxine. Long November 5th, 1605. James Stuart had then already before daybreak a Muscovite host, forty thousand strong, bad sat two years on the throne of England. That two of the poured out of the gates of Sebastopol. Silently, hidden by three religious parties, which then divided the country, should the dense fog, they advanced upon the English lines, and be disappointed, was inevitable. The Puritans had good had almost surprised the outposts. For six hours our soldiers reasons for believing, that a prince brought up by the kept at bay five times that number of the enemy. Then disciples of John Knox, would view Episcopacy with little came succour, and the Russian battallions, broken and favour. James, though scarcely possessed of all the wisdom dispirited, had once more to seek shelter behind the walls of attributed to him in the preface to our bible, was yet endowed Sebastopol. Thus was the battle of Inkerman lost and won, with a considerable share of that shrewdness which marks his countrymen, and saw clearly that the firmest support to the throne would be a Hierarchy appointed by, and re- Mr. Errington, M.P., with an autograph letter to Her Majesty
The Press Association learns that the Pope has entrusted ceiving its power from the throne.
the Queen In this communication His Holiness simply “No bishops, no king” was his reply to the divines thanks Her Majesty in cordial terms for the interest she has who wished to prove to him the superiority of the Presby- shown in the welfare of Catholics throughout her dominions, terian to the Episcopalian form of Church Government.
and for the religious freedom which they enjoy under her More bitterly disappointed were the Roman Catholics. Could Government. Mr. Errington will, at a personal andience, they doubt that the son of Mary Queen of Scots would present the letter to Her Majesty. The Pope has also forfavour the faithful adherents to that religion, for which they warded presents to the Queen through Mr. Errington, who believed his mother had died ?
will return to Rome before Christmas.
familiar with a foreign language are indebted to him for many LECTURES.
of the sweetest poems of the past, as we find them in his
books. As an illustration in point, the translation of the " AN HOUR WITH AMERICAN POETS"
Spanish poem, “Coplas de Maurique,” is worthy of special On Friday, the 27th ult., Colonel Shaw, the United States notice. I am very fond of this pathetic poem, and hardly
Consul, delivered under this title a most interesting lecture to know where to commence or where to end my selections from the members of the Lower Mosley Street Sunday Schools it. Maurique, as all know, was a poet and a soldier, and died Mutual Improvement Society. We are sorry that want of on the field of battle. This was his greatest work, and also space obliges us to confine our report to a portion of it. his immortal monument :
Our lives are rivers, gliding free,
To that unfathomed, boundless sea, 8 a leading branch of Art, poetry has from the earliest
The silent grave ! ages held a high place in the hearts of men. Among
Tbither all eartbly pomp and boast civilized nations poetry is always an element of greatness;
Roll, to be swallowed up and lost
In one dark wave. and even barbarous peoples have their rude poetic narratives. In the century of national life the United States have been
Tbither the mighty torrents stray,
Thither the brook pursues its way, the birthplace of many sons of song, who have won a lasting
And tinkling rill. tablet on “Fame's eternal camping ground ;” and of some
There all are equal. Side by side of these I propose to offer selected examples for your enter
The poor man and the son of pride
Lie calm and still. tainment this evening. Of Longfellow I need not speak at length, for he is nearly
This world is but the rugged road as well known and as widely read in England as he is among
Which leads us to the bright abode his own countrymen in America. His fame is widespread,
Of peace above;
So let us choose that parrow way, and his poetry moves millions in all the great centres of this
Wbich leads no traveller's foot astray world. His poetry covers a wide range of subjects, and is
From realms above. full of pathos and power, and glows with the pure inspiration
Our cradle is the starting-place, of a noble-hearted man. Longfellow delights in presenting
In life we run the onward race, pictures of life calculated to arouse courage and cultivate hope
And reach the goal; in all who study them. He is a powerful teacher of heroic
Wben, in the mansions of the blest,
Death leaves to its eternal rest and lofty sentiments of honor, benevolence, and truth ; and
The weary soul. he is a master in the art of persuasive reasoning. His work
Did we but use it as we ought, is always carefully rounded, and his matter never fails to
This world would school each wandering thought interest and instruct. Criticism is comparative; but in the
To its bigh state. case of Longfellow I fancy that the best way is to compare
Faith wings the soul beyond the sky,
Up to ibat better world on bigh, him to himself! He needs no heralding, for his place is
For which we wait. fixed in the bright constellation of poets of this century, and the rolling years will not soon utterly obliterate his name and
Yes, the glad messenger of love,
To guide us to our home above, works from the records of Time. If he is not the first poet
The Saviour came; of American literature, he is certainly the best known of all
Born amid mortal cares and fears,
He suffered in this vale of tears the honoured singers of our brief national existence; and for
A death of shame. this reason I place him first on my list to-night. His original
Behold of what delusive worth poems appeal strongly to our emotions in a large majority of
The bubbles we pursue on earth, cases, but, at the same time, the arts of mastery in all the
The shapes we chase, subtle science of poetry have expression in his works. He is
Amid a world of treachery
They vapisb ere death shuts the eye, no novice in the noble art he loves so well; far from it.
And leave no trace, Strong as he is in his own creations, I think his translations are equally conspicuous for their finish and strength. His The following stanzas were found in the poet's pocket after interpretations are masterpieces, as a rule, and furnish beau- his death on the field of battle :tiful examples of how our language can adequately convey to
O world! so few the years we live, us the best thoughts and creations of a foreign tongue.
Would that the life that thou dost give Moreover, the wide range of his translations testify to his
Were life indeed ! finished scholarship and untiring perseverance. In this
Alas! thy soi rows fall so fast,
Our bappiest borr is when at last particular field he has won high honours, and all who are not
The soul is freed.