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called Market Row.” This shows how difficult the Roberts's 'Excerpta e Rotulis Finium,' i. 128). identification would have been had it depended The only daughters of Hugh de Lacy to wbom I upon oral inquiries addressed to residents in Kings- have found contemporary references are the wives land. I have already adverted to the curious fact of Alan of Galloway and Miles MacCostelloe. that the two directories for one and the same year But even if Maud de Lacy were accepted, the notice the place by different names, the London descent of Queen Victoria from Catbal Crobbderg directory having called it Kingsland Row from would not be proved, for Hugh de Lacy, Earl of the beginning; still more curiously, each absolutely Ulster, and his brother Walter were sons of Hugh ignores an alternative name. No doubt, as Mr. de Lacy the elder by his first wife, and not by Basham observed, and as I have previously sug- the daughter of the King of Connaught. This is gested, the appellation Market Row arose out of shown by Earl Hugh's own grants to the Abbey the commercial character of the place; all the houses of St. Thomas, Dublin, "pro salute anime mee, et from No. 1 to No. 11 (No. 1 consisting of four domini patris mei Hugonis de Lasci, et matris mee houses, and No. 7 of two, differentiated by letters) Roeis de Monemune, cujus corpus in predicta appear in the 1860 suburban directory with ecclesia requiescit" ("Register of St. Thomas, tradesmon for their occupants, when there is a Dublin,' pp. 7 and 13, Rolls Series). Moreover, blank until we come to the last shop at the eastern Hugh de Lacy the elder probably did not marry corner, No. 23, now occupied by Mrs. Goldsmith, the daughter of the King of Connaught till 1180 leading us to suppose that the intermediate houses or 1181, and bis eldest son Walter was certainly were in private occupation. Mr. Basham told me of full age when be did homage to Richard for his that the Row was never & public thoroughfare, Irish lands at Northampton in March, 1194 ('Hisa bar having originally been placed at the Kings- toire de Guillaume le Maréchal') ; nor is it proland Green end to exclude carriages, which might bable that the second son, Hugb, was but a lad otherwise bave passed through in order to evade of seventeen when he fought under Joba de toll; at a rather late period the bar was removed Courci in 1199, or a young man of three-andand succeeded by a series of posts. His animad- twenty when he was made Earl of Ulster in May, versions upon the former rural aspect of the neigh- 1205, and appointed to be the chief adviser of the bourhood coincided with my boyish impressions of Justiciar Meiler FitzHenry. I should notice also fifty years ago, and he showed me two lithograpbic that the second wife of the elder Hugh de Lacy views of Kingsland Gate as it appeared in 1820 was probably a daughter of Roderic O'Connor, and and 1860 respectively. The earlier of these trans- pot of Cathal Crobbderg. Under any circumports us to a country roadside ; but as I question stances, therefore, the supposed descent of Queen their fidelity, especially that of the 1860 view, Victoria is untenable. which contains à palpable anachronism, I pass All the points raised by F. G., T. W., and MR. them by. It cannot, however, bo doubted that the John RADCLIFFE are easily settled by reference place bore much resemblance to a country village to the articles on Walter de Burgh, the Lacys, and when Lamb chose lodgings there. If there were John de Monmouth in the Dictionary of National houses on the northern side of Dalston Lane, his Biography' with the authorities therein quoted. abode must have faced their backs, so that there
C. L. KINGSFORD. could have been little inviting to the eye in T. W. states that he has never seen it stated front. But a map of so late a date as 1847 shows that Hugh de Lacy the elder married Robais de a very open stretch in rear, in the direction of Monmouth. He will find it in the ‘Dictionary of Shacklewell. An examination of the maps in the National Biography,' and also that she was the Crace Collection, if I could obtain a sight of them, mother of two bod8, Walter, Lord of Meath, and would enable me to judge more precisely of the Hugh, Earl of Ulster, and two daughters, who environment. Anyhow, if Lamb wanted seclusion married Richard de Beaufo and William FitzAlan. and quiet in inexpensive lodgings, he selected the
The same authority states that by Rose, daughter right spot in Kingsland Row. F. ADAMS. 80, Saltoun Road, Brixton, S.W.
of Roderick O'Conor, he had one son William, killed 1253, s.p., and one daughter Matilda, who
married Geoffrey de Marisco. DE BURGAS, EARLS OF ULSTER (8th S. v. 229, Again, the Dictionary of National Biography' 391).–Mr. T. A. Archer has stated sufficiently in mentions that Geoffrey de Marisco had nine sons, the Dictionary of National Biography' (vii. 329) but does not say by which of his wives, Eva de the reasons for discrediting the story that Walter Bermingham or Matilda de Lacy, so that it is unde Burgh was husband of Maud de Lacy, daughter certain "whether any descendants of the marriage of Hugh de Lacy, Earl of Ulster. The story first of the De Lacys with the daughter of the King of appears in a fifteenth century manuscript, and, as Connaught exist or not. Can any of your readers T, W. remarks, Walter's father, Richard de Burgh, give information on this point ? was certainly married to Egidia, daughter of Several of Geoffrey de Marisco's sons married, Walter de Lacy, before April 21, 1225 (see and one daughter, Joan, married Theobald Fitz
Walter, and was ancestress of the Dukes of Or- 1549), which custom appears to have been pracmond.
tised for many years after that date, perhaps till T. W. also states that Bolderon of Monmouth 1723, the year in which the Rev. John Lewis (the probable father of Robais above mentioned) published his History of Thanet'? The learned married a daughter of “Strongbow." The 'Dic-orientalist, Joba Gregory, Prebendary of Sarum tionary of National Biograpby' makes her Strong- (collated Nov. 28, 1643), thus writes :bow's sister.
“Remaining yet (1646) unto us of this, is that which I believe the pedigree making Geoffrey de we more commonly call the Chrisome (ab unctione, as the Marisco grandfather of Geoffrey FitzPiers, Earl of Manuel, &c.), wberewith the women use to shrowd the
Child, if dying within the month. Otherwise it is to be Essex (through a supposed fifth son Piers) is ex. brought to the Church at the day of Purification." ploded. I should be glad to know the name of
On referring to Gurgany's life of Gregory, I find bis father.
that the latter was born at Amersham. He was T. W. is mistaken in thinking Walter de Barg instructed in Oriental learning by John Dod, the married Aveline, daughter of John FitzGeoffrey. Paritan, and became in 1638 chaplain to Bishop She was his granddaughter, daughter of John Fitz
J. H. W. John FitzGeoffrey (vide Burke's "Extinct Peerages,' p. 209, edit. 1883).
“ MENDING” OR ENDING” (8th S. v. 486).MR. RADCLIFFE states that Rich. de Burg, sen., It may be interesting to add to the examples given married Una or Agnes, daughter of Hugh O'Conor, of the little jingle” about ending or mending son of Cahill Croibdearg, King of Connaught, and the following, from the · Eikon Basilike ':grand-piece of Roderick above mentioned.
“I had the charity to interpret that most part of my Borke's 'Peerage' says he married Hodierna, subjects fought against my supposed errors, riot my perdaughter of Robert de Gernon and granddaughter son; and intended to mend me, not to end me. of Cabill Croibdearg. T. W. and the 'Dictionary
J. T. Y. of National Biography' state that his wife was Rev. HENRY STEBBING, D.D. (8th S. v. 424).Egidia, daughter of Walter de Lacy, second Lord According to the obituary notice in the City Press, of Meath. Had be three wives ; and, if so, which Sept. 26, 1883, bis mother was " a member of the was the mother of his son Walter, Earl of Ulster ? Suffok family of Rede" (not Read). There is a
J. G. portrait of him in the Illustrated London News, CURIOUS CUSTOM AT CAURCHING OF WOMEN
Oct. 6, 1883, where he is described as “ first editor (860 S. v. 385).—The Rev. John Hunte, curate of
of the Athenæum." And in the Athenæum, Herne, Kent, in a letter dated August 10, 1621, Sept. 29, 1883, is a long obituary notice of him, mentions ancient custom beyond the memory mention that there is a fine portrait of him, en.
with a list of his principal works. I may also of man," then observed in his parish. After mentioning the amount of tithe due to the vicar he graved by S. W. Reynolds, after T. W. Harland, gives the “church fees":
and also a large lithograph by C. Baugniet.
AMBROSE HEAL. "It. For a cbrystning at the mother's churchioge, if the childe then be living, half an ell of linen cloth; and
Dr. Stebbing was a versatilo writer, and it is a penny if the child be departed; 14 only at the mother's recorded of him that he was ready to accept any comeing to give thanks. But the antient duty for commission from a publisher, wbether to compose chrystning was a cryeome (or the face cloth that covered the child at its baptisme), if it lived; but, if the child heard him refer to his connexion with the Athe
a volume of sermons or a cookery book. I have died, the minister was to have ij, for the baptizing, and was to loose the face cloth (for that was to wind the child naeum in its early days; he is stated to have been in).”—Memorials of Herne,' pp. 58, 59.
joint editor with J. S. Buckingham in 1828, and
KNOWLER, be told me that he wrote the “leaders” which There is a somewhat similar observance alluded appeared in the four volumes of 1828-9—there to by Dickens, the great collector of lower middle-are none in 1830—also the review of Hampden's class customs :
'Evidences' (p. 2, 1828). This is merely the
tittle-tattle of an old bookseller. P. N. R. "[The marriage] was completely done, however, and when we were going out of church, Wemmick took the For a short but sympathetic memoir see' Annual cover off the font, and put bis white gloves in it, and Register, 1883, p. 171. St. James's, Hampstead, put the cover on again. Mrs. Wemmick, moro heedful had a burial-ground in very bad condition. The of the future, put her wbite gloves in her pocket, and assumed her green."— Great Expectations,'ch, lv.
chapel was an afterthought (see 'Interment in
Towos Report,' 1843, p. 98). For notice of Dr.
trait, see Illustrated London News, April 29, 1854,
He is said to have taken a view of Was not this a survival of the custom of return the war which was not considered orthodox in ing the chrisom to the priest (vide Rubric of those days. EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A.
EaG SERVICE (gib $. v. 429). — There can be burial in Audley, South Audley, or Grosvenor hardly a doubt as to the nature of this. It is no Chapel, on December 18, 1757, of Colley Cibber, "ancient custom” of any kind whatever, but Esq. (aged eighty-seven years), of Berkeley Square, merely one of tho pumerous modern devices for is duly recorded (p. 343) in the burial register and obtaining funds for any object, whether in money sexton's book of the parish of St. George, Hanover or kind. I am loth to appear to speak barshly, Square, co. Middlesex. DANIEL HIPWELL. but their principle is wrong from beginning to end. Broadly speaking, it is that of giving in one shape PICNIC (8th S. v. 189, 218, 412). -The following or other à quid pro quo, which leads to action extract from Smith's Dictionary of Greek and clean contrary to the Scriptural command to do Roman Antiquities' may prove illustrative of the good and lend hoping for nothing again. Of course extreme antiquity of this custom :this is less prominent with flower services and “Epavol were clubs or societies established for
egg services "'; but how many donors give for charitable or convivial purposes, or for both. They were notoriety, with no thought of the object! With very common at Athens, and suited the temper of the bazaars, &c., it is undisguised. When I lived at people, who were both social and generous. The term Kenwyn and watched the building of Truro Cathe- épavos, in the sense of a convivial party, is of ancient
date (Homer, 'od.,'i, 226). It resembled our picnics, or dral, I was hardly ever more grieved than at the great the German 'pikeniks, and was also called ocītvov áno bazaar got up for the purpose. I nearly attempted oavpiĝos, or anò ovußodwv, where every guest brought a public remonstrance, but was dissuaded.
his own dish, or (to save trouble) one was deputed to C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. cater for the rest, and was afterwards repaid by contriLongford, Coventry.
butions,” &c. Quite recently a service like that reported in the The initials C. R. K. are appended, indicating Church Times of April 20 took place at Naburn, Charles Rann Kennedy, M.A., late Fellow of near York. The offerings were afterwards sent tó Trinity College, Cambridge. a charitable institution in the city; and it was
John PICKFORD, M.A.
Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. hoped that the children who brought them learned a lesson as to the duty of giving and experienced It may amuse some of your readers to learn that the pleasure involved in it. St. SWITHIN. the Hindustani invariably calls a picnic a págli
khána, or madman's dinner, just as he names a DISESTABLISHMENT (8th S. v. 407).—The doc- fancy ball a págli - nautch, or madman's dance. trine would hardly have suited the Convenanters. He means no disrespect. The view that he takes The Poultry gentlemen probably drew their in- of such proceedings is that the sahib is wont spiration from a very congenial source. For on
“desipere in locis.
H. S. Boys. Oct. 30, 1789, that very "righteous"
person, Mirabeau, said in the National Assembly, “ Every MACBRIDE (8th S. v. 468).- A letter was printed nation is the sole and true proprietor of the pro- in the Ballymoney Free Press, Feb. 6, 1868, which perty of its clergy." Certainly, he modified this gave an account of three generations of this family, general principle, by allowing that the mainten- but only mentioned two sons of Robert Macbride. ance of public worship was a first charge upon the There was, however, also a daughter, Mary Anne, property ; but the decree of Nov. 2, which em- who died unmarried. Of the sons, David, M.D., bodied his resolution, stated the same assumption, married Mrs. Darcus Cummin, widow, and died that Church property was at the disposal of the without issue, 1778. His widow died 1790. The dation.” Hence came the assignats, and much other son, Jóho, Admiral of the Blue, was twice financial trouble. (See Jervis's 'Gallican Church married, with issue by his first wife one daughter, and the Revolution,' pp. 38, 53.)
Charlotte Anne; and by his second wife, one son, EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. Job David, D.C.L., and one daughter, Mary Hastings.
Apne Dorotby, who died unmarried, April 13, LINES IN A CEMETERY (8th S. v. 306, 412).-MR. 1855. John David Macbride left an only child, Hussey can bardly think that any general answer Frances, who died unmarried, 1878. A. T. M. can be given to bis query on the authorshipof country epitaphs. Of course the author might be the clerk of London was from early ages used as a prison,
TOWER OF LONDON (86h S. v. 468).—The Tower of the parson ; or some other local poet or poetaster; especially for state delinquents, and in many of the or the friends of the deceased; or “the corpse himself. But as a general rule it is safe to say on their walls. The only persons confined in the
cells the memorials of suffering are still presented that the friends either composed them or procured Tower during the present century were Sir Francis their composition. C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. Longford, Coventry.
Burdett, Bart., by order of the House of Commons,
on April 6, 1810 ; Watson, Preston, Hooper, and THE DEATH AND BURIAL OF COLLEY CIBBER Keens, by warrant of the Privy Council, on charges (76b S. i. 307, 413, 513; ii. 35, 94, 152).—The of high treason ; and, April 28, Arthur Thistle
wood, for the like offence; and lastly, on March 3, p. 603 (Paris, 1840), from which it appears that 1820, Thistlewood, Ings, Harrison, Davidson, in subsequent editions of bis books Paré proposed Wilson, Brunt, Tidd, and Monument, by warrant in some cases to keep the eye in place by a thin of the Secretary of State, for high treason. wire passing behind the ear. As a non-professional These persons were the Cato Street conspirators. man, I venture to suggest that most persons would Very good accounts of both occurrences appear in rather wear a shade than put up with the inconAll the Year Round, under the heading of 'Old venience of Paré's artificial eye.
Is there any Stories Retold,' first series, xvii. 230 and xvi. 415 record of the actual use of artificial eyes of this respectively, EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. kind ?
R. B. P. 71, Brecknock Road.
BEANS (8th S. Hepworth Dixon's 'Her Majesty's Tower' states of Pythagoras to bis disciples, to abstain from
v. 409, 494). — The advice that the Cato Street party, in 1820, were “the beans, was probably, like our Lord's warning to last of our state prisoners from the Tower.”
beware of the leaven of the Scribes and Pharisees, EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M. A.
a parabolic injunction to keep clear of politics, It may be that a man accused of “participating voting being conducted by beans put into an urn. in some rebellion in Canada (doubtless that of the
ISAAC TAYLOR. Sons of Liberty, 1837)" was confined in the Tower of London ; but I have always understood—though are used in the funeral banquets of the Parentalia,"
See Pliny, 'Natural History,' xviii. 30, “Beans I write quite as much for information as on the or the feast held at Rome in honour of departed chance of being corrected that the last man sent
JOHN E. SUGARS. to the Tower was Sir Francis Burdett, father of Lady Burdett-Coutts.
H. DE B. H.
ST. EDMUND HALL, OXFORD (8th S. v. 447). — “THIRTY DAYS HATH SEPTEMBER” (862 S. iii. I never heard of the All Saints' dedication in my 245, 475 ; iv. 77 ; v. 337, 373, 458). — It may be day, 1863–66. I think we supposed that as the of interest to note that at the well-known school hall
, so the chapel ; both taking their name from of the Society of Friends at Ackworth the pupils
Edmund Rich, Archbishop of Canterbury, Nowere taught the number of days in each month vember 16 being his feast day. The arms assigned thus :
to him, after his death, are used by the hall, and Days twenty-eigbt in second month appear;
appear on the chapel : Or, a cross flory gules And one day more is added each leap year :
between three choughs sable. The fourth, eleventh, ninth, and sixth months run
GEORGE ANGUS. To thirty days; the rest have thirty-one.
St. Andrews, N.B. This, I am informed by an old pupil of the school, Dr. Ingram, in his 'Memorials,' has at “St. was many years ago ; and in Tables of Weights, Edmund's Hall,” p. 9: “The first stone of the Measures, &c., compiled for the use of that in- chapel was laid April 19, 1680, and it was constitution, fourteenth edition, 1885, these lines are secrated under the name of St. Edmund by Bishop given, from which it would appear they are still Fell, April 7, 1682.”
ED. MARSHALL. taught there.
W. W. DAVIES. Glenmore, Lisburn, co. Antrim.
According to Wood's ' History of the Colleges
and Halls of Oxford' (edited by John Gutch, BREAKING ON THE WHEEL (816 S. ii. 367, 489 ; 1786-90), it was called by this name because it iii
. 98; iv. 412). — I shall be obliged to 0. if he will belonged originally to a man named Edmund. kindly furnish me with an account of this mode of He says (p. 660):punishment, as the book mentioned by him at the last reference is not to be had here.
« The next Hall......to be mentioned is Edmund Hall,
opposite to Queen's College, in the Parish of St. Peter's
D. D. GILDER. in the East. The reason of whose name all writers have Fort, Bombay.
hitherto attributed to St. Edmund, who was Arobbishop ARTIFICIAL EYES (8th S. v. 187, 236, 379). –
of Canterbury in the reign of Henry III., as if he, wbile
a student in Oxford, had made it from a messuage to be The artificial eyes proposed by Ambroise Paré a place of learning, or that he had read to his scholars were thin curved plates of gold, painted and ena- therein ; but all, whosoever they have been, that have melled to match the sound eye. Glass eyes seem spoken concerning that matter have erred; for from to have been of more recent origin, and I should ordinary tenement, and that it was possesst by one Ed.
record it appears, that it was anciently no more than an like to know by whom they were invented. Paré's mund, an inliabitant or Burgher of Oxford, in the snggestion first appeared in his 'Méthode Curative beginning of Henry III., and after his death by his son des Playes de la Teste Humaine,' fol. 226 (Paris, Ralph." 1561), where he gives four illustrations showing Ralph, it appears, sold it to Sir Brian de Bermingthe back and front of a right and left eye. Some ham, who parted
with it to Thomas de Malmsbury. further particulars are given in Malgaigne's He, in turn, about six years later "gave it to the *Euvres complètes d'Ambroise Paré," vol. ii. Canons of Osney, an. 1269 ” for a mark a year as
long as he lived, and 88. yeatly to “Elizabetb, the married, secondly, Lady Betty, daughter of Lord daughter of Adam de Oclee."
Berkeley, a handsome, clever woman, very much The Canons of Osney greatly improved it, but his junior, the life-long friend and correspondent Wood was unable to find out when they turned it of Swift, who, on her father's being appointed into a bouse of learning.
Governor of Ireland, had accompanied him to In the Rent Roll of 1317 it is named “Aula Dublin as his private secretary and probably chap.....Edmundi,” in 1324 “Aula S. Edmundi,” &c., lain.
O. A. WHITE. and “even till about the middle of Edward III. it is written
DICKENS'S FUNERAL (8th S. v. 386).-B. W. 8. Aula S. Edmundi, as 'tis also in certain evidences; but in speaks of a leading article in the Times, which Dean all the rest from that time to the reign of Henry VIII. Stanley said appeared on Monday, June 9, 1870, and thus, Domus Vicarii de Cowley, viz., Aula Edmundi, &c., B. W. S. corrects the dates thus: “In point of seldom or never yielding under forty shillings per fact, Dickens died on Thursday, June 9, and the an. to the Canons of Osney."
article appeared on Monday, the 10th.” He adds
“ Accuracy is never a small matter," and here is PARENTS OF BALDWIN II. (86 S. v. 229, 411). proof of it--for a Monday to be one day's date There seems some difference of opinion as to the later than the preceding Thursday. parentage of Baldwin II., King of Jerusalem.
W. POLLARD. Your correspondents T. W. and the Rev. C. F. S.
Hertford. WARREN have apparently been misled by a pedi My recollection tallied with your correspondent's, gree in Anderson's 'Royal Genealogies.' L'Art and a reference to the Annual Register" (cxii. 62) de Vérifier les Dates,' which is my authority for has proved our memories to be right; for it is asserting that Baldwin was the second son Hugb, stated that, — Count of Rethe!, by Melesinde, bis wife, goes fully
“A vault bad been prepared in St. Mary's Chapel, into the subject. Eustace, Count of Boulogne, by Rochester Cathedral, for the interment of the deceased, Ida, daughter of Godfrey de Bouillon, bad three and a vault was rapidly constructed. A number of men sons, viz., (1) Godfrey, King of Jerusalem ; (2) were engaged in filling up the vault with earth, and reEustace, Count of Boulogne, father of Matilda, storing the pavement, while the bell was tolling for the
funeral," Queen of England ; (3) Baldwin I., King of Jerusalem. These appear to have been his only
EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A.
Hastings. issue. Voigtel gives him another son William and a daughter Ida, who is said to have been the wife Humanum est errare. B. W, S., while he deof " Baldwin, Count of Berg." In his table of plores the fact that “the value of Dean Stanley's the Christian Kings of Jerusalem, Voigtel describes narratives should be so much lessened by his Baldwin II. correctly as "son of Hugh, Count of habitual inaccuracy as to details,” himself errs Rethel,” but at the same time draws a line of when he tells us that “in point of fact, Dickens descent from Ida, the supposed daughter of died on Thursday, June 9, and the article [in the Eustace of Boulogne, and wife of “ Baldwin, Count Times] appeared on Monday, the 10th.” He of Berg.". 'L'Art 'de Vérifier les Dates' says means, apparently, Monday, 13th. Baldwin II. was surnamed” De Bourg.
CHAS. JAS. FÈRET. C. H.
“ CANARY BIRD”: JOHN AND NICHOLAS UDAL SIR JOAN GERMAINE (8th S. v. 329, 412).-(8th S. i. 109, 198, 339 ; ii. 378, 433 ; iii. 395, Horace Walpole tells this story, and the anony- 472),, Allow me to thank St. Swithin, though mous compiler of Walpoliana,' printed for Ř. late (I have been absent for some months in the Phillips, St. Paul's Churchyard, no date, repeats colonies), for his reply at the last reference. The
Fijian appetite is quite satisfied, as he has “Sir John Germain was a Dutch adventurer who tioned with the John Udall or Uvedale, the author
enabled me to identify the John Udal he mencame over here in the reign of Cbarles II. He had an intrigue with a countess (the
Duchess of Norfolk] who of the first Hebrew grammar printed in English was divorced and married him. This man was 80 (Leyden, 1593), the primary object of my first note. ignorant that being told that Sir Matthew Decker wrote St. Matthew's Gospel, he firmly believed it. I doubted to St. Switein's reply relative to a communication
I was surprised to see the editorial note appended this tale very much till I asked a lady of quality,
Editor bad received concerning Nicholas Udal, added that Sir John Germain was in consequence so who is, I presume, the same person as Nicholas much persuaded of Sir Matthew Decker's piety, that by Udall 'or Uvedale, the author of the first English his will be left 2001. to Sir Matthew, to be by him dis- comedy (* Ralph Roister Doister'), the only copy tributed among the Dutch paupers in London,"
of which now known (except, of course, Mr. Sir Jobn Germain was said to be the natural son Arber's well-known reprint) is in the Eton College of William of Orange by the beautiful wife of a Library, minus the title-page, if I remember Dutch trooper, whose good looks he inherited. He rightly.