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to adhere strictly to the line of duty. Once to deviate from it in the indulgence of appetite, may cause a man infinite trouble to repair, for the strength of his mind is thereby broken, and its discipline relaxed.

In these remarks I would not be understood to condemn appetite, but only the undue indulgence of it. The principles which God has implanted in us are right and necessary, however liable to abuse. It is proper certainly to eat when one is hungry, and to allow every appetite in its proper sphere, within the bounds of reason and of virtue. To minds thus regulated they become sources of pure and satisfactory enjoyment, and useful stimulants to all the best feelings and affections of human nature. And it is manifest that in the world, whatever disorders they may occasion, they are yet, in a remote degree, the causes of all the industry, comfort, and social happiness, which exist.



A STUDY has of late years been introduced among us, which has received the name of phrenology, and has been made the subject of much popular entertainment, and petulant discussion. The truth or falsehood of it is not to be ascertained by such means, but by silent and patient observation of facts through many years. To form a decided and satisfactory opinion of it would require more practical study and observation on the subject than my time and opportunities have permitted. I disagree, however, with those, who, on metaphysical grounds, consider it absurd or necessarily false. The period since its first introduction is, perhaps, too short to ensure the accuracy of all the facts asserted by phrenologists. There may be errors in these. And again, in constructing a system upon these facts, there has been a blending of philosophy, which may be erroneous. Yet, with this double source of error, it is not neces

sary that the subject be rated unworthy of investigation; or the observations of those who have devoted themselves to it, not generally correct. So far as they have confined themselves to the collection of casts, and the accurate comparison of these, they have certainly proceeded upon sound and philosophical principles, and merit that unprejudiced hearing which they have sought too often in vain. As many frivolous objections have been raised from erroneous ideas of mental philosophy, I have thought that a very short a priori consideration of the subject might not be useless.

In Chap. VII. a most important office of the brain has been explained, namely, the maintenance of a constant and uniform feeling of life. But general uniformity is not inconsistent with minor variations in the state of feeling, nor was it there assumed to be so. A threefold division of the brain was there indicated, corresponding with that which has been made by phrenologists. In addition to the views there stated, I would make one farther suggestion, which may also tend to obviate any objections that might be made to that part of my reasoning.

It has already been remarked in treating of Emotion and Passion, how much bodily agitation enters as an ingredient into their phenomena. Each separate emotion, or class of emotions, is connected with some peculiar bodily sensation and expression. Thus in fear the hair stands on

end, and the limbs tremble; by ludicrous ideas. we are constrained to laugh; in anger we frown: plainly demonstrating that each of these different mental states is connected with some state of a different portion of the nervous system; for different nerves are affected by different emotions, and different muscles are employed in their expression, and that involuntarily. Moreover, this being indisputable of the more violent emotions, we will not be denied the conclusion, that more gentle emotions or states of mind may also, probably, be connected with peculiar, though less perceptible, states of different appropriate parts of the nervous system. An inquiry may, therefore, justly arise, whether or not this separation of the functions of different parts of the nervous system, extends, either directly or indirectly, to the brain, whether, in short, different parts of the brain are connected, either directly or sympathetically, with different feelings and emotions of the mind. We cannot deny that it may, without any improbability, be so. Assuming, then, this to be the case, what is the consequence?

The connection of mental emotions with sympathetic bodily sensations gives vividness to these emotions. Thus, for instance, if we take away the bodily feeling of a smile or of laughter, what becomes of the vividness of the mental feeling of the ludicrous? That feeling may still exist, but is necessarily obscure. But, since, according to the

laws of association, the vividness of any mental feeling facilitates the recurrence of that idea, and gives a tendency to it, it follows that such a development of any particular part of the nervous system, as may give greater power and predominance to the bodily sensation accompanying and distinguishing any peculiar mental state, will give also a tendency to the recurrence of that mental state. Hence not only will the brain, by affording, as formerly shown, the continuous feeling of life, furnish a connecting bond of association between all our ideas, but, by the development of its special parts, it may give a prevailing tendency to certain classes of ideas; and consequently the foundation of natural peculiarities and differences of character may be thus explained.

It matters not to our purpose whether certain parts of the brain be affected primarily by the mind, and other parts of the nervous system secondarily through the brain, or, whether these other parts be affected primarily, and the brain only sympathetically and secondarily. Now if the former hypothesis be refused, the second can hardly be so, considering the intimate connection and sympathy which subsists between the brain and nerves. If, then, it be evident from strong external expression, that different parts of the nervous system are appropriated to sympathize with different mental emotions, the conclusion can hardly be evaded, that different parts of the

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