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be observed: Ist, That év ts naheyyevedia (in which there is an ambiguity, as was remarked in Diss. XII. Part i. sect. 22), is rendered as though it belonged to the preceding clause axolovinoavtes uou, whereas the scope of the passage requires that it be construed with the clause which follows it. 2dly, That the word nahegyeveoía is, in this place, better translated renovation.' We are accustomed to apply the term regeneration solely to the conversion of individuals; whereas its relation here is to the general state of things. As they were wont to denominate the creation yéveois, a remarkable restoration, or renovation, of the face of things, was very suitably termed raheyyevedia. The return of the Israelites to their own land, after the Babylonish captivity, is so named by Josephus, the Jewish historian. What was said on verse 23, holds equally in regard to the promise we have here. The principal completion will be at the general resurrection, when there will be, in the most important sense, a renovation or regeneration of heaven and earth, when all things shall become new ; yet, in a subordinate sense, it inay be said to have been accomplished when God came to visit, in judgment, that guilty land; when the old dispensation was utterly abolished, and succeeded by the Christian dispensation, into which the Gentiles, from every quarter, as well as Jews, were called and admitted.


1. This chapter, in the original, begins, 'Ouola yáo. The yap shows manifestly that what follows was spoken in illustration of the sentence with which the preceding chapter concludes, and which, therefore, ought not to have been disjoined from this parable. The Vul. has no particle answering to yao. In that version the chapter begins thus : “ Simile est regnum cælorum.” But this does not seem to have sprung from a different reading, as there is no diversity here in the Gr. MSS. nor, for aught I can learn, in ancient translations. I rather think that the omission has happened after the division into chapters, and has arisen from a notion of the impropriety of beginning a chapter with the causal particle. It adds to the probability of this, that several old La. MSS. have the conjunction as well as the Gr.

2. “ The administration.” Diss. V. Part i. sect 7.

6. “Unemployed,” ágyous, wanting in the Cam. and two other MSS. not in the Vul. Sax. and Cop. versions.

7. “And ye shall receive what is reasonable,” xai ó {av » dixarov Anyzote. This clause is wanting in the Cam. and two other MSS. and there is nothing answering to it in the Vul. and Sax. versions.

13. “ Friend,” étuige. Diss. XII. Part. i. sect. 11.

15. “May not I do what I will with mine own?” our iteori μοι ποιήσαι ο θελω εν τοις έμοις, Vul. « Non licet mihi quod volo facere ?" Here there is no translation of the words įv rois šuois, though of manifest importance to the sense. There is the same defect in the Sax. and Arm. versions, but not in any Gr. MS. that has yet appeared, nor in any other translation,

22. “Undergo an immersion like that which I must undergo,' το βάπτισμα και εγω βαπτίζομαι, βαπτισθήναι. Ε. Τ. «Το be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with.” The priinitive signification of Banrioua is immersion,' of Bantišeiv'to immerse, • plunge,' or 'overwhelm. The noun ought never to be rendered baptism, nor the verb to baptize, but when employed in relation to a religious ceremony. The verb βαπτίζειν sometimes, and βάπτειν, which is synonymous, often occurs in the Sep. and Apocryphal writings, and is always rendered in the common version by one or other of these words, 'to dip, to wash,'' to plunge.' When the original expression, therefore, is rendered in familiar language, there appears nothing harsh or extraordinary in the metaphor. Phrases like these, to be overwhelmed with grief, to be immersed in affliction, will be found common in most languages.

It is proper here further to observe, that the whole of this clause, and that corresponding to it in the subsequent verse, are in this Gospel wanting in the Vul. and several MSS. As they are found, however, in the far greater number both of ancient versions and of MSS., and perfectly coincide with the scope of the passage, I did not think there was weight enough in wbat might be urged on the opposite side, to warrant the omission of them; neither indeed does Wet. But Gro. and Mill are of the contrary opinion.

23. “I cannot give, unless to those," oux čoriv šuov douvai, al' ois. E. T. “Is not mine to give; but it shall be given to them.” The conjunction ilia, when, as in this place, it is not followed by a verb, but by a noun or pronoun, is generally to be understood as of the same import with ei uri, nisi, unless, except ;' otherwise the verb must be supplied, as is done here in the common version. But as such an ellipsis is uncommon, recourse ought not to be had to it without necessity of the interpretation I have given of the conjunction andú, we have an example Mr. 9: 8, compared with Mt. 17: 8. Vul. “ Non est meum dare vobis.” See Mr. 10: 40. N.

36. "Servanı,diáxovos. E. T. - Minister.” ) In the proper

27. “Slave," doūlos. E. T. “ Servant.” S and priinitive sense of dióxovos, it is a serrant who attends his master, waits on bin at table, and is always near his person to obey bis orders, which was accounted a more creditable kind of service. By the word dovlog is not only meant a servant in general, (whatever kind of work he be employed in), but also a slave. It is solely from the scope and connexion that we must judge when it should be rendered in the one way, and when in the other. In the passage before us, the view in both verses is to signify, that the true dignity of the Christian will arise more from the service he does to others, than the power he possesses over them. We are to judge, therefore, of the value of the words, from the import of those they are contrasted with : and as desiring to be great is a more moderate ambirion than desiring to be chief, we naturally conclude, that as the word opposed to the former should be expressive of some of the inferior stations in life, that opposed to the latter must be expressive of the lowest. When this sufficiently suits the ordinary signification of the words, there can bardly remain any doubt. As this is manifestly the case here, I did not know any words in our language by which I could better express a difference in degree, so clearly intended, than the words servant and slave. The word minister is now appropriated to the servants, not of private masters, but of the public. It is from the distinctions in private life, well known at the time, that our Lord's illustrations are borrowed.

31. - Charged them to be silent,” επετίμησεν αυτοίς ίνα σιωanjowoiv. E. T. “Rebuked them, because they should hold their

The historian surely did not mean to blame the poor men for their importunity. Our Lord, on the contrary, commends such importunity, sometimes expressly in words, and always by making the application successful. But to render iva because, appears quite unexampled. It answers commonly to the La. ut,' sometimes to 'ita ut,' but never, as far as I remember to quia.' It is rendered 'ut' in this passage in all the La. versions. The import of įva ascertains the sense of inutiáo, which is frequently translated to charge,' even in the common version. In proof of this several places might be produced; but I shall only refer the reader to she parallel passage in Mr. 10: 48, where iretiuñv avrò nodoi va owanon is translated, “ Many charged bim that he should bold his peace; and to Mr. 9: 25. N.



4. “ Now all this was done, that the words of the prophet might be fulfilled,” τούτο δε όλον γέγονεν, ίνα πληρωθή το ρηθέν dia tou ngogntov. Our Lord's perfect knowledge of all that the prophets had predicted concerning him, gives a propriety to this manner of rendering these words, when every thing is done by his direction, which it could not have in any other circumstances.

5. “The daughter of Zion,” that is, Jerusalem,” so named from Mount Zion, which was in the city, and on which was erected a fortress for its defence. This poetical manner of personifying the cities and countries to which they addressed themselves, was familiar to the prophets.

2 From the other evangelists it would appear, that our Lord rode only on the colt: from this passage, we should be apt to think that both had been used. But it is not unusual with the sacred authors, when either the nature of the thing spoken of, or the attendant circumstances, are sufficient for precluding mistakes, to employ the plural number for the singular.

7. “Covering them with their mantles,” iné'onxav énáva auto ta iuária avrov. The Sy. interpreter, either from a different reading in the copies he used, or (which is more likely) from a desire to express the sense more clearly, has rendered it “they laid their mantles on the colt."

9. “Blessed be he that cometh,” vhoy nuevos ó {pxóuevos. E. T. “Blessed is he that cometh.” But acclamations of this kind are always of the nature of prayers, or ardent wishes; like the Fr. “ vive le roi,” or our “God save the king.” Nay, the words connected are entirely of this character. “Hosanna to the son of David,” is equivalent to 'God preserve the son of David;' and consequently what follows is the same as · Prosperous be the reign of him that cometh in the name of the Lord.'

2 “In the highest heaven." L. 2: 14. N.

12. “The temple," zo ispov. Let it be observed, that the word here is not vaús. By the latter was meant properly the house,' including only the vestibule, the holy place or sanctuary, and the most holy: whereas, the former comprehended all the courts. It was in the outer courts that this sort of traffic was exercised. For want of peculiar names in European languages, these two are confounded in most modern translations. To the vaós, or temple, strictly so called, none of those people had access, not even our Lord himself, because not of the posterity of Aaron. L. 1: 9. N. It may be thought strange that the Pharisees, whose sect then predominated, and who much affected to patronize external decorum in religion, should have permitted so gross a violation of decency. But let it be remembered, that the merchandise was transacted in the court of the Gentiles; a place allotted for the devotions of the proselytes of the gate, those who, having renounced idolatry, worshipped the true God, but did not subject themselves to circumcision and the ceremonial law. To the religious service of such, the narrow-souled Pharisees paid no regard. The place they did not account holy. It is even not improbable, that, in order to put an indignity on those half-conformists, they had introduced and promoted this flagrant abuse. The zeal of our Lord, which breathed nothing of the pharisaical malignity, tended as much to unite and conciliate, as theirs tended to


divide and alienate. Nor was there any thing in the leaven of the Pharisees which he more uniformly opposed, than that assuming spirit, the surest badge of the sectary, which would confine the favor of the universal Parent to those of his own sect, denomination or country. See ch. 8: 11, 12. L. 4: 23, etc. 10: 29, etc.

13. 66 A house. Mr. 11: 17.

2 “Of robbers," anotāv. E. T. “Of theives.” Diss. XI. Part ji. sect. 6.

25. “Whence had John authority to baptize?” to Bantioua Iwdvvov 116 0 ev nv; E.T. “ The baptism of John, whence was it?" But a man's baptism means, with us, solely his partaking of that ordinance; whereas this question relates, not to John's receiving baptism, but to his right to enjoin and confer baptism. The question, as it stands in the common version, conveys to the unlearned reader a sense totally different from the author's. It sounds as though it had been put, · Was John baptized by an angel, sent from heaven on purpose, or by an ordinary man? In all such cases, if one would neither be unintelligible, nor express a false meaning, one must not attempt to trace the words of the original. Diss. XII. Part i. sect. 14. 31. “The first,” npôros. In the old Itc. it was

u novissiThe Cop. Arm. Sax. and Ara. read in the same manner. In the Cam. and two other Gr. MSS. it is o čoyatos. This is one of those readings which it would require more than ordinary external evidence to authorize.

32. “ In the way of sanctity,” įv odo dixologÚvns. E. T. “In the way of righteousness." This is one proof among many of the various significations given to the word dixalooúvn in the N. T. There can be no doubt that this is spoken principally in allusion to the austerities of John's manner of living in the desert, in respect of food, raiment and lodging. The word sanctity, in our language, though not quite so common, suits the meaning here better than righteousness.

33. “ Went abroad," andnungev. E.T. “Went into a far country." This is an exact translation of what is said of the prodigal, L. 15: 13, dnedhunoev zis xogav maxpáv, but not of what is said here. The word ånednungsv implies barely that it was a foreign country he went to; nothing is added to inform us whether it was far or near.

35. “ Drove away with stones another,” öv od ?higopólnoav. E. T. “ Stoned another." But λιθοβολεϊν does not always denote to kill by stoning, as the Eng. word stoned seems to imply. That it does not signify so in this place, is evident from the distinction made in the treatment given όν δε απέκτειναν. .

36. “More respectable,” Taclovas táv nparwr. E.T.“ More than the first :” delovas means more, either in number or in value.

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