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There were women also looking on at a distance, amongst a 23:55. whom were Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James Lu. 8: 2. 41 the younger, and of Joses and Salome (these had followed him, and served him, when he was in Galilee), and several others who came with him to Jerusalem.
SECTION X.-THE RESURRECTION.
Lu. 23; 50.
WHEN it was evening (because it was the preparation,* Matt. 27: 57. 43 that is, the eve of the Sabbath),† Joseph of Arimathea, an Jo. 19; 38. honorable senator, who himself also expected the reign of God,
taking courage, repaired to Pilate, and begged the body of 44 Jesus. Pilate, amazed that he was so soon dead, sent for the
centurion, and asked him whether Jesus had been dead any 45 time. And being informed by the centurion, he granted the 46 body to Joseph; who having brought linen, and taken Jesus down, wrapped him in the linen, and laid him in a monument 47 hewn out of the rock, and rolled a stone to the entrance. Now Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of Joses, saw where he was laid. XVI. WHEN the Sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, Mary Matt. 28: 1. the mother of James and Salome, brought spices, that they Jo. 20: 1. 2 might embalm Jesus. And early in the morning, the first day 3 of the week, they came to the monument about sunrise. And
Lu. 24; 1.
they said among themselves: Who will roll away the stone for us from the entrance of the monument? (for it was very 4 large). But when they looked, they saw that the stone had 5 been rolled away. Then entering the monument, they beheld
a youth sitting on the right side, clothed in a white robe, and 6 they were frightened. But he said to them: be not frightened; ye seek Jesus the Nazarene, who was crucified. He is risen: he is not here: behold the place where they laid him. But go, say to his disciples, and to Peter, He is gone before you 8 to Galilee; where ye shall see him, as he told you.' The women then getting out, fled from the monument, seized with trembling and consternation; but said nothing to any one, they were so terrified.
9 Jesus having arisen early the first day of the week, appear- Jo. 20; 14. ed first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven 10 demons. She went and informed those who had attended him, 11 who were in affliction and tears. But when they heard that he was alive, and had been seen by her, they did not believe it. Afterwards he appeared in another form to two of them, Lu. 24; 13.
Lu. 29; 36.
& 10; 46. Acts, 28; 5. Acts, 28; 8.
13 as they travelled on foot into the country. These being returned, acquainted the other disciples; but neither did they believe them.
Lu. 24: 51.
At length he appeared to the eleven as they were eating and reproached them with their incredulity and obstinacy in disbelieving those who had seen him after his resurrection. 15 And he said unto them: Go throughout all the world, proclaim 16 the good tidings to the whole creation. He who shall believe
tend the believers. In my name they shall expel demons. Acts, 16: 18. 18 They shall speak languages unknown to them before. They
Acts, 2; 4.
shall handle serpents with safety. And if they drink poison, it shall not hurt them. They shall cure the sick by laying their hands upon them.
and be baptized, shall be saved; but he who will not believe, 17 shall be condemned. And these miraculous powers shall at
NOW, after the Lord had spoken to them, he was taken up 20 into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of God. As for them, they went out and proclaimed the tidings every-where the Lord co-operating with them, and confirming their doctrine by the miracles wherewith it was accompanied.
ON ST. MARK'S GOSPEL.
For the title, see the Note on the Title of the preceding Gospel.
1. "The beginning of the Gospel." Some consider den here as the nominative of the verb ¿yéveto, ver. 4, and include the quotations from the Prophets, verses 2 and 3, in a parenthesis. But, abstracting from the awkwardness of so long a suspension of the sense in the very first sentence, the expression ἀρχὴ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου ἐγένετο Ιωάννης Βαπτίζων appears no wise agreeable to the style of the sacred writers: nor will it be found to answer better if we invert the order and say with Markland, Ιωάννης βαπτίζων ἐγένετο ἀρχὴ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου· whereas ἐγένετο Ιωάννης βαπτίζων, 'John came baptizing,' or simply 'John baptized, is quite in their idiom. See ch. 9: 7. L. 9: 35. The first verse, therefore, ought to be understood as a sentence by itself. It was not unusual with authors to prefix to their performance a short sentence, to serve both as a title to the book, and to signify that the beginning immediately follows. See Hos. 1: 1, 2. In this manner also Herodotus introduces his history, ̔Ηρόδοτου ̔Αλικαρνασσῆος ἱστορίης απόδειEs de. This usage probably gave rise to the custom afterwards adopted by transcribers, of putting, at the head of their transcript, incipit, followed by the name of the book or subject, and subjoining at the foot explicit, with the name repeated, as a testimony to the reader that the work was entire. This purpose it was with them the better fitted for answering, as the whole book was commonly written on one large and continued scroll, hence called a volume, and not, as with us, on a number of distinct leaves. So far, however, the custom obtains still, that we always prefex a short title on the page where we begin, and subjoin The End on the page where the work is concluded.
2 "Son of God," vioυ Toυ εou. As brevity is often studied in titles, the article before viov is probably on that account left out. Let it be noted in general, that the omission of the article in Gr. is not, like the insertion of the indefinite article in Eng. a positive expression that the word is to be understood indefinitely. The phrase vios rou Orov, as was hinted before, (Matt. 27: 54.
N.), exactly corresponds to the Eng. Son of God,' which leaves the reader at liberty to understand son definitely or indefinitely, as he thinks proper. The term 'God's Son,' answers the same purpose; but though well adapted to the familiarity of dialogue, it does not always suit the dignity of historical narration. Matt. 14: 33. N.
2. "In the prophets," &v rois пoо¶ntais. Such is the common reading. But it ought not to be dissembled, that six MSS. two of them of considerable note, some ancient versions, amongst which are the Vul. and the Sy. and several ecclesiastical writers, read "in the prophet Isaiah." As the common reading, however, has an immense majority of copies in its favor and some noted translations, such as the Ara. and the Eth.: as it is more conformable to the scope of the place, where two quotations are brought from different prophets, and the nearest is not from Isaiah but from Malachi, I could discover no good reason for departing from the received reading.
2 Angel." Diss. VIII. Part. iii. sect. 9, etc.
3. "In the wilderness," v ry onu. It is called in Mt. 3: 1, "the wilderness of Judea," which is mentioned Judg. 1: 16, and in the title of Psal. xliii. It lay east from Jerusalem, along the Jordan, and the lake Asphaltites, also called the Dead Sea. By wilderness in Scripture, it is plain that we are not always to understand what is commonly denominated so with us, a region either uninhabitable or uninhabited. Often no more was denoted by it than a country fitter for pasture than for agriculture, mountainous, woody, and but thinly inhabited. Thus, Jer. 23: 10. E. T. "The pleasant places of the wilderness are dried up." Sep. Ežnoάvenoav ai vouoi rns ¿onμov. Houbigant, "Pascua deserti aruerunt." Literally, "The pastures of the wilderness are parched." Lightfoot has well observed, that these nuo did not want their towns and villages. What is called (L. 1: 39), tηv ogεcvv, the hillcountry,' where Mary visited her cousin Elizabeth, is included (ver. 80), in rais tonuous, 'the deserts,' where the Baptist continued from his birth till he made himself known to Israel. In the similitude of the lost sheep, what is in Mt. 18: 12. "Will he not leave the ninety-nine upon the mountains ?" ini ta öon, is in L. 15: 4, "Doth not leave the ninety-nine in the desert," v tonu. The man who had the legion is said (Mr. 5: 5) to reside ev tois ooot, and (L. 8: 29) to have been driven by the demon sis ras ¿onμovs. I do not say, however, that the words were equivalent. Every untilled country they called onμos, but every onμos they did not call open. The principal difference between the tonuos and the rest of Judea was, that the one was pasturage and the other arable. In the arable, the property of individuals was separated by hedges, or some other fence; in the pasturage, the ground belonged in com
mon to the inhabitants of the adjoining city or village, and so needed no fences. The word ouos in Scripture admits a threefold application: One is, to what is with us called wilderness, ground equally unfit for tillage and pasture, such as the deserts of Arabia. When used in this sense, it is generally, for distinction's sake, attended with some epithet or description, as howling, terrible, or wherein is no water: it is sometimes used for low pasture lands; sometimes for hilly. In this application it oftenest occurs in the Gospel, where it appears to be nearly of the same import with our word highlands.
4. "Publishing." Diss. VI. Part v.-2" Reformation." Ib. Part iii.
10. "The Spirit descend upon him," to пvečμa naτaßaïvov in autóv. Vul. "Spiritum descendentem et manentem in ipso." So also the Sax. Agreeably to this we find, in four Gr. MSS. of little account, xai uévov inserted, which is all the authority now known.
11. "In whom," v. The Cam. and several other MSS. have v oot. Vul. "in te." So also Sy. Go. Sax. Cop. Arm. 13. "Forty days," nμéoas reσoαpánovτa. The Vul. adds, " et quadraginta noctibus." Three Gr. MSS. have xai vuxtas teooαpαxovia. Conformable to which are also the Ara. Cop. Sax. and Eth. versions.
Diss. V. Part. ii.-2" Reign." Ib.
14. "Good tidings." Part i.
15. “The time is accomplished,” ὅτι πεπλήρωται ὁ καιρὸς. E. T. "The time is fulfilled." The time here spoken of is that which according to the predictions of the prophets, was to intervene between any period assigned by them and the appearance of the Messiah. This had been revealed to Daniel, as consisting of what, in prophetic language, is denominated seventy weeks, that is (every week being seven years) four hundred and ninety years; reckoning from the order issued to rebuild the temple of Jerusalem. However much the Jews misunderstood many of the other prophecies relating to the reign of this extraordinary personage, what concerned both the time and the place of his first appearance seems to have been pretty well apprehended by the bulk of the nation. From the N. T. as well as from the other accounts of that period still extant, it is evident that the expectation of this great deliverer was then general among them. It is a point of some consequence to the cause of Christianity, that both the time and the place of our Lord's birth coincided with the interpretations then commonly given of the prophecies by the Jews themselves, his contemporaries. 19. "Mending," nataprisovras. The Gr. word zaraprišeiv not only signifies to mend' or 'refit,' but also to prepare,'' to make.' Interpreters have generally preferred here the first signifi