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occupies no sewer than four verses. In the passages, however, wherein those incidents are related, or those instructions given, which had been anticipated by Matthew or by Mark, there is sometimes, not always, a perfect coincidence with these evangelists in the expression, as well as in the sense : sometimes, however, the coincidence in translations is more complete than in the original. I have observed that there are degrees, even in the simplicity of the sacred writers; for though all the evangelists are eminent for this quality, there are some characteristic differences between one and another, which will not escape the notice of a reader of discernment. Matthew and John have more simplicity than Mark; and Luke has, perhaps, the least of all. What has been observed of the greater variety of his style, and of his more frequent use of complex sentences, may serve as evidence of this. And even as to the third species of simplicity formerly mentioned,* simplicity of design, he seems to approach nearer the manner of other historians, in giving what may be called his own verdict in the narrative part of his work. I remember at least one instance of this. In speaking of the Pharisees, he calls them qudoyuqor, lovers of money, ch. 16: 14. The distinction with regard to Judas, which it was proper

in them all to observe, as there were two of the name among the apostles, is expressed by Luke, ch. 6:16, with more animation, ös nai šyéveto apodótns, who proved a traitor, than by Matthew, ch. 10:4, who says, ó vai napadovs aútov, or by Mark, ch. 3: 19, whose expression is, ös xai napédoxev avrov; both which phrases, strictly interpreted, imply no more than who delivered him up. The attempt made by the Pharisees to extort from our Lord what might prove matter of accusation against him, is expressed by Luke, cb. 11: 53, in language more animated than is used by any of the rest, ήρξαντο δεινώς ενέχειν, και αποστοματίζειν αυτον περί πλειόνων, began vehemently to press him with questions on many points. On another occasion, speaking of the same people, he says, ch. 6: 11. Autoi di innoinsav avoias, But they were filled with madness. In the moral instructions given by our Lord, and recorded by this evangelist, especially in the parables, none can be happier in uniting an affecting sweetness of manner with genuine simplicity. Of this union better instances cannot be imagined, than those of the humane Samaritan, and of the penitent prodigal.

14. To conclude, though we have no reason to consider Luke as, upon the whole, more observant of the order of time than the other evangelists, he has been at more pains than any of them to ascertain the dates of some of the most memorable events, on which, in a great measure, depends the date of all the rest. In some places, however, without regard to order, he gives a number of detached precepts and instructive lessons, one after another, which probably have not been spoken on the same occasion, but are introduced as they occur to the writer's memory, that nothing of moment might be omitted. In regard to the latter part of the life, and to the death of this evangelist, antiquity has not furnished us with any accounts which can be relied on.

* Diss. III. sect. 18, etc.




I. FORASMUCH as many have undertaken to compose a

narrative of those things which have been accomplished amongst 2 us, as they who were froin the beginning eye-witnesses, and af3 terwards ministers of the word, delivered them to us ; I have

also determined, having exactly traced every thing from the first,

to write a particular account to thee, most excellent Theophi4 lus; that thou mayest know the certainty of those matters

wherein thou hast been instructed.


1 Chr. 24, 10.

Ex. 30: 7. Lov. 16: 17.

5 IN the days of Herod, king of Judea, there was a priest

named Zacharias, of the course of Abijah ; and his wife, named 6 Elizabeth, was of the daughters of Aaron. They were both

righteous before God, blameless observers of all the Lord's 7 commandments and ordinances. And they had no child, be

cause Elizabeth was barren, and they were both advanced in

years. 8 Now when he came to officiate as priest in the order of his 9 course, it fell to him by lot, according to the custom of the 10 priesthood, to offer incense in the sanctuary. And while the

incense was burning, the whole congregation were praying with11 out. Then there appeared to biin a messenger of the Lord, 12 standing on the right side of the altar of incense. And Zacha13 rias was discomposed at the sight, and in great terror. But

the angel said to him: Fear not, Zacharias ; for thy prayer is

heard, and Elizabeth thy wife shall bear thee a son, whom 14 thou shalt name Jobn.* He shall be to thee matter of joy

and transport; and many shall rejoice because of his birth. 15 For he shall be great before the Lord: and he shall not drink

wine, nor any fermented liquor ; but he shall be filled with 16 the Holy Spirit, even from his mother's womb. And many

* The Lord's favor.

Matt. 11: 14.

of the sons of Israel be shall bring back to the Lord their God. Mal. 4; 6: 17 Moreover, he shall go before them in the spirit and power of

Elijah, to reconcile fathers to their children, and, by the wisdom

of the righteous, to render the disobedient a people well dispos18 ed for the Lord. And Zacharias said to the angel : Whereby

shall I know this; for I am an old man and my wife is advanc19 ed in years? The angel answering, said unto him: I am Ga

briel,* who attend in the presence of God, and am sent to tell 20 thee this joyful news. But know that thou shalt be dumb, and

shall not recover thy speech, until the day when these things happen; because thou hast not believed my words, which shall

be fulfilled in due time. 21 Meantime the people waited for Zacharias, and wondered 22 that he staid so long in the sanctuary: But when he came out,

he could not speak to them; and they perceived that he had

seen a vision in the sanctuary ; for he made them understand 23 him by signs, and remained speechless. And when bis days of 24 officiating were expired, he returned home. Soon after, Eliza

beth bis wile conceived, and lived in retirement five months, 25 and said: The Lord hath done this for me, purposing now to

deliver me from the reproach I lay under among men. 26 NOW in the sixth month God sent Gabriel his messenger 27 to Nazareth, a city of Galilee, to a virgin betrothed to a man

called Joseph, of the house of David ; and the virgin's name 28 was Mary. When the angel entered, he said to her: Hail, fa

vorite of heaven! the Lord be with thee, thou happiest of wo29 men! At his appearance and words she was perplexed, and 30 revolved in her mind what this salutation could mean. And

the angel said to her: Fear not, Mary, for thou hast found fa31 vor with God. And behold, thou shalt conceive and bear a Isa.7: 14. 32 son, whom thou shalt name Jesus.t He shall be great, and ch. 2; 21,

shall be called the Son of the Highest. And the Lord God 33 will give him the throne of David bis father. And he shall

reign over the house of Jacob forever: bis reign shall never end. 34 Then said Mary to the angel : How shall this be, since I have 35 no intercourse with man? The angel answering said unto her:

The Holy Spirit will descend upon thee, and the power of the

Highest will overshadow thee; therefore the holy progeny shall 36 be called the Son of God. And lo, thy cousin Elizabeth also 37 hath conceived a son in her old age ; and she who is also called

barren, is now in her sixth month: for nothing is impossible

with God. And Mary said: Behold the handmaid of the 38 Lord! Be it unto me according to thy word. And the angel

Dan. 7: 14.


* God's power.

| Saviour.

39 In those days Mary set out and travelled expeditiously into 40 the hill-country, to a city of Judah ; where having entered the 41 house of Zacharias, she saluted Elizabeth. As soon as Eliza

beth heard Mary's salutation, the babe leaped in her womb;

and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit, and cried with a 42 loud voice: Thou art the most blessed of women, and blessed 43 is the fruit of thy womb. But how have I deserved this hon44 or, to be visited by the mother of my Lord ? for know, that as

soon as the sound of thy salutation reached mine ears, the babe 45 leaped in my womb for joy. And happy is she who believed,

that the things which the Lord had promised her shall be per

formed. 46. Then Mary said: My soul magnifieth the Lord, and my 48 spirit rejoiceth in God my Saviour ; because he hath not dis

dained the low condition of his handmaid, for henceforth all 49 posterity will pronounce me happy. For the Almighty, whose 50 name is venerable, hath done wonders for ine. His mercy, on

them who fear bim, extendeth to generations of generations. 51 He displayeth the strength of his arm, and dispelleth the vain

52 imaginations of the proud. He pulleth down potentates from Eze. 21; 26. 53 their thrones, and exalteth the lowly. The needy he loadeth

54 with benefits; but the rich he spoileth of every thing. He Gen. 17; 19. 55 porteth Israel his servant, (as he promised to our fathers), ever

inclined to mercy towards Abraham and his race. 56 And Mary, after staying with Elizabeth about three months,

returned home.

Ps. 33: 10.

Sam. 2: 6.
Ps. 34; 10.
Isa. 41:8.

He sup

22: 18.


57 WHEN the time for Elizabeth's delivery was come, she 58 brought forth a son: and her neighbors and relations, who

heard that the Lord had shown her great kindness, congratu59 lated with her. And on the eighth day, when they came to

the child's circumcision, they would have him called by his 60 father's name, Zacharias. And his mother interposed, saying : 61 No; but he shall be called John. They said unto her : There 62 is none of thy kindred of that name. They therefore asked 93 his father by signs, how he would have him called. He, hav

ing demanded a table-book, wrote thereon : His name is John, 64 which surprised them all. And his mouth was opened directly, 65 and his tongue loosed. And he spake, praising God. Now

all the neighborhood were struck with awe; and the fame of

these things spread throughout all the hill-country of Judea. 66 And all who heard these things, pondering them in their hearts,

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