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THE only history of man in his primeval condition is that contained in the book of Genesis. The records of that book the truthfulness of which modern discoveries tend more and more to confirm, (irrespective of the claim, which its internal evidence justifies, to the pen of inspiration,)-show-us that our primitive forefathers were far removed from that debased condition in which we now find the natives of Australia, or

some of the Papuan islands. They were not savages--nor is a savage state of existence natural to man; it is not that to which he necessarily and at once descended ifter the fall ; it is not that for which the Almighty destined his species ; but, nevertheless, it is a state into which tribes and people have degenerated. At the same time, they are not without the capability of emerging from it, and taking that station in which the fiat of God placed man when he bade him "replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth

the earth.” This dominion over the lower orders of creation, which the real savage cannot be said rightly to exercise, was not abrogated after the fall, but appears rather to have been put into active operation immediately; for we read of the skins of slain animals-probably of those offered up in sacrifice-being made use of for garments, and of Abel, who is expressly stated to have been a keeper of sheep, bringing " of the firstlings of his flock, and of the fat thereof,” as an offering to the Lord. Here we have a proof of the early domestication of the sheep ; and soon after we read of Jabal, that he was “the father of such as dwell in tents, and of such as have cattle.” We have, now, oxen and sheep recorded as being domesticated, doubtless from a sense of their value ; and perhaps, though no mention is made of it, the faithful dog may have been their guardian against the ferocious beasts of prey. The very circumstance of man's suc:


cessful attempt at the subjugation of animals serviceable to his interests, and constituting his riches, to say nothing of his commencing artificer in brass (copper) and iron, and his construction of musical instruments, proves that, in the infancy of the species, he was quick to discern, prompt to execute, skilful in operations, and anxious to extend, the sphere of his actions. Doomed to “the toil and work of his hands, because of the ground which the Lord had cursed," he sat not down in savage sloth and supineness, but, mustering his energies, both of mind and body, began his career of improvement. After the deluge, we read of Noah practising the arts of husbandry, planting vines, and producing wine from the juice of the grape, and we have some reason to believe that he not only possessed flocks of sheep, and herds of cattle, but even camels and asses.

Of Abraham we read that he was rich in flocks and herds, and in silver and gold. He had goats, also, and it is unquestionable that, in his day, the ass and camel were domesticated, for these animals are enumerated among the riches of the Pharaoh, king of Egypt, whom he went to visit during a time of famine,

It is not until a later period that we read of the horse, namely, under the rule of Joseph in Egypt, when “he gave them bread in exchange for horses, and for the flocks, and for the cattle of the herds, and for the asses." But this notice, in conjunction with another in Genesis xlix. 17, “ Dan shall be a serpent in the way, an adder in the path, that biteth the horse's heels, so that his rider shall fall backward,” proves that, in some districts at least, this animal had been subjugated : and we know that, on the departure of the Israelites from Egypt, the monarch pursued them with horsemen and chariots. Horses are subsequently noticed abundantly, as are also mules ; nor need we refer our reader to the numerous passages in which distinct mention is made of them.

With respect to the dog, the first direct allusion to it is in Exodus xi. 7: “But against any of the children of Israel shall not a dog move his tongue;" and we need not say that it was inserted by Moses in the list of unclean animals, with directions concerning the flesh of torn beasts, which was to be thrown to the dogs. Swine were placed in the catalogue of unclean animals by the Mosaic ritual, and

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